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The money and measures of Babylon, Balsara, and the Indies, with the customes, &c. written from Aleppo in Syria , An. 1584. by M. Will. Barret.

The weight, measure, and money currant there, and the customes of merchandize.

A MANA of Babylon is of Aleppo 1 roue 5 ounces and a halfe: and 68 manas and three seventh parts, make a quintall of Aleppo, which is 494 li. 8. ounces of London and 100 manas is a quintall of Babylon, which maketh in Aleppo 146 roues, and of London 722 li. and so much is the sayd quintall: but the marchants accord is by so much the mana, and in the sayd place they bate the tare in all sorts of commodities, according to the order of Aleppo touching the tare.

The measure of Babylon is greater then that of Aleppo 21 in ye 100. For bringing 100 pikes of any measurable ware from Aleppo thither, there is found but 82 pikes in Babylon, so that the 100 pikes of Babylon is of Aleppo 121 pikes, very litle lesse.

The currant mony of Babylon are Saies, which Say is 5 medines, as in Aleppo, and 40 medines being 8. Sales make a duckat currant, and 47 medines passe in value as the duckat of gold of Venice , and the dollars of the best sort are worth 33 medines. The roials of plate are sold by the 100 drams at prise, according as they be in request: but amongst the marchants they bargaine by the 100 metrals, which are 150 drams of Aleppo, which 150 drams are 135 single roials of plate: but in the mint or castle, they take them by the 100 drams, which is 90 roials of plate, and those of the mint give 5 medines lesse in each 100 drams then they are woorth to be sold among the marchants, and make paiment at the terme of 40 dayes in Sayes.

The custome in Babylon, as wel inward as outward, is in this maner: Small wares at 6 per 100, Coral and amber at 5 and a halfe per 100, Venice cloth, English cloth, Kersies, Mockairs, Chamblets, Silks, Velvets, Damasks, Sattins & such like at 5 per 100: & they rate the goods without reason as they lust themselves. The Toafo, Boabo, and other exactions 6 medines per bale, all which they pay presently in ready mony, according to the custome and use of the emperor.

To the Ermin of the mint ye ordinarie use is to give 30 Saies in curtesie, otherwise he would by authoritie of his office come aboord, & for despight make such search in the barke, that he would turne all things topsie turvie.

The weight, measure, and money in the citie of Balsara.

A MANA of Balsara answereth 5 roues 2 ounces & a halfe of Aleppo weight, & 19 manas and one 4 part of Balsara, answereth the quintall of Aleppo, which is 494 roues, 8 ounces English, and 20 manas is the quintall of Balsara, which is 104 Alepine, and of London 514 li. 8. ounces, and so much is the sayd quintall, but the marchants bargaine at so much the mana or wolsene (which is all one) and they abate the tare in every mana, as the sort of spice is, and the order taken therefore in that place.

The measure of Balsara is called a pike, which is just as the measure of Babylon, to say, 100 pikes of Balsara make of Aleppo 121 pikes, ut supra in the rate of Babylon.

The currant mony of Balsara is as foloweth. There is a sort of flusses of copper called Estivi, whereof 12 make a mamedine, which is the value of one medine Aleppine, the said mamedine is of silver, having the Moresco stampe on both sides, and two of these make a danine, which is 2 medines Aleppine.

The said danine is of silver, having the Turkesco stampe on both sides, & 2 and a halfe of these make a Saie, which is in value as the Saie of Aleppo.

The said Saie is of the similitude and stampe of Aleppo, being (as appeares) 60 estives. Also one Say and 20 estives make a larine, which is of Aleppo money 6 medines and a halfe.

The sayd larine is a strange piece of money, not being round as all other currant money in Christianitie, but is a small rod of silver of the greatnesse of the pen of a goose feather, wherewith we use to write, and in length about one eight part thereof, which is wrested, so that the two ends meet at the just halfe part, and in the head thereof is a stampe Turkesco, and these be the best currant money in all the Indias, and 6 of these larines make a duckat, which is 40 medines or eight Saies of Aleppo.

The duckat of gold is woorth there 7 larines, and one danine, which is of Aleppo money 48 medines and a halfe.

The Venetian money is worth larines 88 per 100 meticals, which is 150 drams of Aleppo, ut supra.

The roials of plate are worth 88 larines by the 100 meticals, & albeit among the marchants they sel by the 100 meticals, yet in the mint or castle, they sel by the 100 drams, having there lesse then the worth 5 medines in each hundred drams, and have their paimnent in 40 dayes made them in Saies or larines.

The custome of the said places, aswell inward as outward, are alike of all sorts of goods, to say 6 by the 100, and Toafo, Boabo, & scrivan medines 6 by the bale inward & outward, to say, 3 inward, and as much outward: but who so leaveth his goods in the custome house paieth nothing, where otherwise at the taking thereof away, he should pay 3 med. by the bale, and of the said goods there is no other duty to pay, and this commeth to passe when the customers esteeme the goods too high. For in such a case they may be driven to take so much commoditie as the custome amounteth to, and not to pay them in money, for such is the order from the Grand Signior.

Having paid the custome, it behoveth to have a quit tance or cocket sealed and firmed with the customers hand, in confirmation of the dispatch and clearing, and before departure thence, to cause the sayd customer to cause search to be made, to the end that at the voiages returne there be no cavillation made, as it oftentimes happeneth.

Note that 100 meticals of Balsara weigh 17 ounces and a halfe sottile Venetian, and of Aleppo drams 150, ut supra.

The fraight of the barkes from Ormuz to Balsara, I would say from Balsara to Ormuz , they pay according to the greatnesse thereof. To say, for cariage of 10 cares 180 larines, those of 15 cares 270 larines, those of 20 cares 360 larines, those of 30 cares 540 larines. Note that a cara is 4 quintals of Balsara. They pay also to the pilot of the barke for his owne cariage one care, and to all the rest of the mariners amongst them 3 cares fraight, which is in the whole 4 cares, and paying the abovesayd prises and fraights, they are at no charges of victuals with them, but it is requisite that the same be declared in the charter partie, with the condition that they lade not aboord one rotilo more then the fraight, under paines that finding more in Ormuz , it is forfeit, and besides that to pay the fraight of that which they have laden.

And in this accord it behoveth to deale warilie, and in the presence of the Ermin or some other honest man (whereof there are but few) for they are the worst people in all Arabia . And this diligence must be put in execution, to the end the barks may not be overladen, because they are to passe many sands betwixt Balsara and Ormuz .

The weight, measure, and money currant in the kingdom of Ormuz :

SPICES and drugs they weigh by the bar, and of every sort of goods the weight is different. To say, of some drugs 3 quintals, and 3 erubi or roues, and other some 4 quintals 25 rotiloes, and yet both is called a barre, which barre, as well great as litle, is 20 frasoli, and every frasoll is 10 manas, and every mana 23 chiansi, and every chianso 10 meticals and a halfe. Note that every quintall maketh 4 erubi or roues, and every roue 32 rotiloes, & every rotilo 16 ounces, and every ounce 7 meticals, so that the quintall commeth to be 128 rotiloes, which is Aleppine 26 rotiloes and one third part, which is 132 li. english weight. And contrarywise ye quintal of Aleppo (which is 494 rotiloes 8 ounces english) maketh 477 rotiloes and a halfe of Ormuz , which is 3 quintals 2 roues, 29 rotiloes and a halfe.

Note that there are bars of divers weights, ut supra, of which they bargaine simply, according to the sort of commoditie, but if they bargaine of the great barre, the same is 7 quintals and 24 rotiloes, which is 958 li. 9 ounces of London weight, and of Aleppo 193 rotiloes and a halfe.

Touching the money of Ormuz , they bargaine in marchandize at so many leches by the barre, which lech is 100 Asaries, and maketh larines 100 & a halfe, which maketh pardaos 38, & larines one halfe, at larines 5 by the pardao. One asarie is sadines 10, and every sadine is 100. danarie.

The larine is worth 5 sadines and one fourth part, so that the sadine is worth of Aleppo mony 1 medine and 1 fourth part, & the larine as in Balsara worth of Aleppo mony 6 medines & a half.

The pardao is 5 larines of Balsara.

There is also stamped in Ormuz a seraphine of gold, which is litle and round, and is worth 24 sadines, which maketh 30 medines of Aleppo.

The Venetian mony is worth in Ormuz larines 88 per 100 meticals, & the roials are worth larines 86 lesse one sadine, which is every thousand meticals, 382 asures: but those that will not sel them, use to melt them, and make them so many larines in the king of Ormuz his mint, whereby they cleare 2 per 100, and somewhat more: and this they doe because neither Venetian money nor roials run as currant in Ormuz , per advise.

The measure of Ormuz is of 2 sorts, the one called codo which increaseth upon the measure of Aleppo 3 per 100, for bringing 100 pikes of any measurable wares from Aleppo to Ormuz , it is found in Ormuz to be 103 codes. Also these measures of Ormuz increase upon those of Balsara and Babylon 25 and two third parts per 100: for bringing 100 pikes of any measurable wares from Balsara or Babylon, there is found in Ormuz 125 codes and two third parts.

The other measure is called a vare, which was sent from the king of Portugall to the India, by which they sell things of small value, which measure is of 5 palmes or spans, and is one code and two third parts, so that buying 100 codes of any measurable wares, and returning to measure it by the sayd vare, there are found but 60 vares, contrarywise 100 vares make 166 codes and two third parts.

Note that al such ships as lade horses in Ormuz for Goa or any other place of India, lading 10 horses or upwards, in what places soever the said horses be taken a shore in the India, the marchandize which is to be discharged out of that ship wherein the said horses come, are bound to pay no custome at all, but if they lade one horse lesse then ten, then the goods are bound to pay the whole custome. And this law was made by Don Emanuel king of Portugall, but it is to be diligently foreseene, whither all those horses laden be bound to pay the king his custome: for many times by the king of Portugall his commandement, there is favour shewed to the king of Cochin his brother in armes, so that his horses that come in the same ship, are not to answere custome. As for example: If there were 4 horses laden in one ship, all which were to pay custome to the king, and one other of the king of Cochins which were not to pay any custome, the same causeth all the marchandize of that ship to be subject to pay custome, per advise. But if they lade ten horses upon purpose to pay the king his custome in Goa, and in the voyage any of them should die in that case, if they bring the taile of the dead horse to the custome in Goa, then the marchandize is free from all custome, because they were laden in Ormuz to pay custome in Goa. Moreover, if the horses should die before the midst of the voyage, they pay no custome at all, and if they die in the mids of the voyage, then they pay halfe custome, but if any horse die after the mid voiage, they pay custome no lesse then if they arrive safe. Notwithstanding, the merchandize (whether the said horses die before or in the mid voyage or after the mid voiage) are free from all custome.

The custome of Ormuz is eleven in the 100; to say, 10 for the king, and I for the arming of the foists: but for small wares as glasses, and looking glasses of all sorts, and such like, made for apparell, pay no customer. But cloth of Wooll, Karsies, Mockaires, Chamlets, and all sortes of Silke, Saffron, and such like, pay custome, being esteemed reasonably.

There is also another custome, which they call caida, which is, that one bringing his goods into Ormuz , with purpose to send ye same further into India, the same are bound to pay 3 by the 100, but none other are bound to pay this custome, except the Armenians, Moores, and Jewes : for the Portugals and Venetians pay nothing thereof.

Note yt in Ormuz they abate tare of all sorts of commodities, by an order observed of custome.

The fraight from Ormuz to Chaul, Goa, and Cochin, is as foloweth : Mokaires larines 6 per table of 60 pikes. Aquariosa 8 larines by ordinarie chist, raisins 10 by chist, which is a quintall of roues 128. Ruvia of Chalangi larines 10 per quintall, glasses larines 8 per chist, of 4 foote and a halfe, glasses in great chists 14 & 15 larines by chist. Small wares larines 12 by chist of five foot. Tamari for Maschat sadines 2 and a half, and 3 by the fardle. Tamarie for Diu and Chaul 4 sadines, and 4 and a halfe by bale. Other drugs and things which come from Persia pay according to the greatnesse of the bales.

The fraight mentioned, they pay as appeareth, when they ship the sayd goods in ships where horses goe: otherwise not having horses, they pay somewhat lesse, because of the custom which they are to pay.

The use of the India ships is, that the patrones thereof are not at any charge neither with any passenger, nor yet with any mariner in the ship, but that every one at the beginning of the voyage doe furnish to maintaine his owne table (if he will eate) and for drinke they have a great jarre of water, which is garded with great custodie.

The weight, measure, and mony currant in Goa.

THE quintall of Goa is 5 manas, and 8 larines, & the mana is 24 rotilos, so that the quintall of Goa is 128 rot. and every rot. is 16 ounces, which is of Venice weight 1 li. and a halfe, so that the quintall of Goa is 192 li. sotile Venice , which is 26 rotiloes 8 ounces Aleppine, and of London weight 132 li. English, as the weight of Ormuz .

All the marchandize, spices and drugs, are sold by this quintal, except some drugs, as lignum de China, Galanga, & others, whereof they bargaine at so much per candill, advertising that there be two sorts of candill, one of 16 manas, the other of 20 manas, that of 16 manas commeth to be just 3 quintals, and that of 20 manas, 3 quintals, 3 roues. Note that 4 roues make a quintall, and the roue is 32 rotiloes, as in Ormuz .

There is also another weight which they call Marco , which is eight ounces or halfe a rotilo of Goa, & 9 ounces of Venice sotile: with this they weigh amber, corall, muske, ambracan, civet, and other fine wares.

There is also another sort of weight called Mangiallino, which is 5 graines of Venice weight and therewith they weigh diamants and other jewels.

Note that in Goa they use not to abate any tare of any goods, except of sacks or wraps, & therfore it requireth great advisement in buying of the goods, especially in the muske of Tartaria which commeth by way of China in bladders, and so weigh it without any tare rebating.

The measure of Goa is called a tode, which encreaseth upon the measure of Babylon & Balsara after the rate of 17 & one eight part by the 100, so that bringing 100 pikes of any measurable ware from thence to Goa, it is found 17 pikes 7 eight parts, and bringing 100 codes from Ormuz to Goa, there is found but 93 codes and one fourth part.

There is also the vare in Goa, which is just as the vare of Ormuz , and therewith they measure onely things that are of small value.

For the mony of Goa, there is a kind of mony made of lead and tin mingled, being thicke and round, and stamped on the one side with the spheare or globe of the world, and on the other side two arrowes & 5 rounds: and this kind of mony is called Basaruchi, and 15 of these make a vinton of naughty mony, and 5 vintons make a tanga, and 4 vintenas make a tanga of base money: so that the tanga of base mony is 60 basaruchies, and the tanga of good mony 75 basaruchies, & 5 tangas make a seraphine of gold, which in marchandize is worth 5 tangas good money: but if one would change them into basaruchies, he may have 5 tangas, and 16 basaruchies, which overplus they cal cerafagio, & when they bargain of the pardaw of gold, each pardaw is ment to be 6 tangas good mony, but in marchandize they use not to demaund pardawes of gold in Goa, except it be for jewels and horses, for all the rest they take of seraphins of silver, per adviso.

The roials of plate, I say, the roial of 8 are worth per custome & commandement of the king of Portugall 400 reies, and every rey is one basaruchie & one fourth part, which maketh tangas 6, and 53 basaruchies as their just value, but for that the said roials are excellent silver and currant in divers places of the India, and chiefly in Malacca, when the ships are to depart at their due times (called Monsons) every one to have the said roials pay more then they are worth, & the overplus, as is abovesaid they call serafagio. And first they give ye just value of the 100 roials of 8, and 5 tangas 50 basaruchies a piece, which done, they give seraphins 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 12, 15, untill 22 by the 100, according as they are in request.

The duckat of gold is worth 9 tangas and a halfe good money, and yet not stable in price, for that when the ships depart from Goa to Cochin, they pay them at 9 tangas and 3 fourth partes, and 10 tangas, and that is the most that they are woorth.

The larines are woorth by just value basaruchies 93 and 3 fourth parts, and 4 larines make a seraphine of silver, which is 5 tangas of good money, and these also have serafagion of 6, 7, 8, 10, untill 16, by the 100, for when the ships depart for the North, to say, for Chaul, Diu, Cambaia, or Bassaim, all cary of the same, because it is money more currant then any other.

There is also a sort of seraphins of gold of the stampe of Ormuz , whereof there are but fewe in Goa, but being there, they are woorth five larines and somewhat more, according as they are in request.

There is also another litle sort of mony, round, having on the one side a crosse, and on the other side a crowne, which is woorth one halfe a tanga of good money, and another of the same stampe lesse then that which they call Imitivo de buona moneda, which is worth 18 basaruches 3 fourth parts a piece.

Note that if a man bargaine in marchandize, it behooveth to demaund tangas of good money: for by nominating tangas onely, is understood to be base money of 60 basaruches, which wanteth of the good money ut supra.

The custome of Goa is 8 in the 100 inward, and as much outward, and the goods are esteemed justly rather to the marchants advantage then the kings. The custome they pay in this order. Comming with a ship from Ormuz to Goa without horses, they pay 8 in the 100 whether they sell part or all, but if they would carie of the sayd marchandise to any other place, they pay none other custome, except others buy it and carie it foorth of the countrey, and then they pay it 8 in the 100. And if one having paied the custome should sell to another with composition to passe it forth as for his proper accounts to save the custome, this may not be, because the seller is put to his oth, whether he send the goods for his owne account, or for the account of any others that have bought the same, and being found to the contrary, they pay custome as abovesaid. And in this order the marchants pay of all the goods which come from any part of the Indies. But if they come from Ormuz to Goa with horses, they are not subject to pay any custome inward, nothwithstanding if they send all or any part thereof for any other place, or returne it to Ormuz , they pay the custome outward, although they could not sell.

They use also in Goa amongst the common sort to bargaine for coales, wood, lime & such like, at so many braganines, accounting 24 basaruches for one braganine, albeit there is no such mony stamped. The custome of the Portugals is, that any Moore or Gentile, of what condition or state soever he be, may not depart from Goa to go within the land, without licence of certaine deputies deputed for that office, who (if they be Moores or Gentiles) doe set a seale upon the arme, having thereon the armes of Portugal , to be knowen of the porters of the citie, whether they have the said licence or no.

The weight, measure, and money, currant in Cochin.

ALL the marchandise which they sell or buy within the sayd citie, they bargaine for it at so many serafines per quintal, which is 128. rotilos of just weight with ye quintall & rotilo of Goa and Ormuz : advertising that there are divers sorts of bars according to the sorts of commodities, and in traffiquing, they reason at so much the bar. Note that there are bars of 3 quintals & 3 quintals and halfe, and 4 quintals. They abate a used tare of all marchandize, according to the sort of goods, and order taken for the same.

The measure of Goa and Cochin are all one.

The money of Cochin are all the same sorts which are currant in Goa, but the duckat of gold in value is 10 tangas of good money.

The custome of Cochin as well inward as outward for all strangers, is eight in the hundred, but those that have bene married foure yeere in the countrey pay but foure in the hundred, per adviso.

The weight, measure, and money of Malacca.

FOR the marchandise bought and sold in the citie they reckon at so much the barre, which barre is of divers sorts, great and small, according to the ancient custome of the said citie, & diversitie of the goods. But for the cloves they bargaine at so much the barre, which barre is 3 quintals, 2 roues and 10 rotilos. As I have abovesaid, all kind of drugs have their sorts of barres limited. Note that every quintal is 4 roues, and every roue 32 rotilos, which is 128 rotilos the quintall, the which answereth to Aleppo 95 rotilos, and to London 472 li. per quintal.

The measures of Malacca are as the measures of Goa. In Malacca they abate tare according to their distinction and agreement, for that there is no just tare limited.

For the money of Malacca, the least money currant is of tinne stamped with the armes of Portugall, and 12 of these make a Chazza.

The Chazza is also of tinne with the said armes, and 2 of these make a challaine.

The Challaine is of tinne with the said armes, and 40 of these make a tanga of Goa good money, but not stamped in Malacca.

There is also a sort of silver money which they call Patachines, and is worth 6 tangas of good money, which is 360 reyes, and is stamped with two letters, S. T. which is S. Thomas on the one side, and the armes of Portugall on the other side.

There is also a kind of mony called cruzados stamped with the armes of Portugall, & is worth 6 tangas good mony, the larines are every 9 of them worth 2 cruzados, which is 12 tangas good money, and these larines be of those which are stamped in Balsara and Ormuz .

The roials of 8 they call Pardaos de Reales, and are worth 7 tangas of good money.

The custome of Malacca is 10 in the 100 as wel inward as outward, and those which pay the custome inwards, if in case they send the same goods for any other place within terme of a yeere and a day, pay no custome for the same.

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