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The second voyage to Guinea set out by Sir George Barne, Sir John Yorke, Thomas Lok, Anthonie Hickman and Edward Castelin, in the yere 1554. The Captaine whereof was M. John Lok.

As in the first voiage I have declared rather the order of the history, then the course of the navigation, whereof at that time I could have no perfect information: so in the description of this second voyage, my chiefe intent hath beene to shew the course of the same, according to the observation and ordinarie custome of the mariners, and as I received it at the handes of an expert Pilot, being one of the chiefe in this voyage, who also with his owne hands wrote a briefe declaration of the same, as he found and tried all things, not by conjecture, but by the art of sayling, and instruments perteining to the mariners facultie. Not therefore assuming to my selfe the commendations due unto other, neither so bold as in any part to change or otherwise dispose the order of this voyage so well observed by art and experience, I have thought good to set forth the same, in such sort and phrase of speech as is commonly used among them, and as I received it of the said Pilot, as I have said. Take it therefore as followeth.

In the yeere of our Lord 1554 the eleventh day of October, we departed the river of Thames with three goodly ships, the one called the Trinitie, a ship of the burden of seven-score tunne, the other called the Bartholomew, a ship of the burden of ninetie, the third was the John Evangelist, a ship of seven score tunne. With the sayd ships and two pinnesses (whereof the one was drowned on the coast of England) we went forward on our voyage, and stayed at Dover fourteene dayes. We staied also at Rie three or foure dayes. Moreover last of all we touched at Dartmouth .

The first day of November at nine of the clocke at night, departing from the coast of England, we set off the Start, bearing Southwest all that night in the sea, and the next day all day, and the next night after, untill the third day of the said moneth about noone, making our way good, did runne threescore leagues.

The 17 day in the morning we had sight of the Ile of Madera, which doth rise to him that commeth in the Northnortheast part upright land in the west part of it, and very high: and to the Southsoutheast a low long land, and a long point, with a saddle thorow the middest of it, standing in two and thirtie degrees: and in the West part, many springs of water running downe from the mountaine, and many white fieldes like unto corne fields, & some white houses to the Southeast part of it: and the toppe of the mountaine sheweth very ragged, if you may see it, and in the Northeast part there is a bight or bay as though it were a harborow: Also in the said part, there is a rocke a little distance from the shoare, and over the sayd bight you shall see a great gappe in the mountaine.

The 19 day at twelve of the clocke we had sight of the isle of Palmes and Teneriffa and the Canaries. The Ile of Palme, riseth round, & lieth Southeast and Northwest, and the Northwest part is lowest. In the South is a round hill over the head land, and another round hill above that in the land. There are betweene the Southeast part of the Ile of Madera & the Northwest part of the Ile of Palme seven and fifty leagues. This Isle of Palme lieth in eight and twenty degrees. And our course from Madera to the Ile of Palme was South and South and by West, so that we had sight of Teneriffa and of the Canaries. The Southeast part of the Ile of the Palme, & the Northnortheast of Teneriffa lie Southeast and Northwest, and betweene them are 20 leagues. Teneriffa and the great Canary called Gran Canaria, and the West part of Forteventura stande in seven and twenty degrees and a halfe. Gomera is a faire Island but very ragged, & lieth Westsouthwest off Teneriffa. And whosoever wil come betweene them two Ilands must come South and by East, and in the South part of Gomera is a towne and a good rode in the said part of the Iland : and it standeth in seven and twentie degrees and three terces. Teneriffa is an high land, with a great high pike like a sugar loafe, and upon the said pike is snow throughout all the whole yeere. And by reason of that pike it may be knowen above all other Ilands, and there we were becalmed the twentieth day of November, from sixe of the clocke in the morning, untill foure of the clocke at afternoone.

The two and twentieth day of November, under the Tropike of Cancer the Sunne goeth downe West and by South. Upon the coast of Barbarie five and twentie leagues by North Cape blanke, at three leagues off the maine, there are fifteene fadomes and good shelly ground, and sande among and no streames, and two small Ilands standing in two and twentie degrees and a terce.

From Gomera to Cape de las Barbas is an hundred leagues, and our course was South and by East. The said Cape standeth in two and twentie and a halfe: and all that coast is flatte, sixteene or seventeene fadome deepe. Seven or eight leagues off from the river del Oro to Cape de las Barbas, there use many Spaniardes and Portugals to trade for fishing, during the moneth of November: and all that coast is very low lands. Also we went from Cape de las Barbas Southsouthwest, and Southwest and by South, till we brought our selves in twentie degrees and a halfe, reckoning our selves seven leagues off: and there were the least sholes of Cape Blanke.

Then we went South untill we brought our selves in 13 degrees, reckoning our selves five and twentie leagues off. And in 15 degrees we did reare the Crossiers, and we might have reared them sooner if we had looked for them. They are not right a crosse in the moneth of November, by reason that the nights are short there. Neverthelesse we had the sight of them the 29 day of the said moneth at night.

The first of December, being in 13 degrees we set our course South and by East, untill the fourth day of December at 12 of the clocke the same day. Then we were in nine degrees and a terce, reckoning our selves 30 leagues off the sholes of the river called Rio Grande, being Westsouthwest off them, the which sholes be 30 leagues long.

The fourth of December we beganne to set our course Southeast, we being in sixe degrees and a halfe.

The ninth day of December we set our course Eastsoutheast: the fourteenth day of the sayde moneth we set our course East, we being in five degrees and a halfe, reckoning our selves thirty and sixe leagues from the coast of Guinea.

The nineteenth of the said moneth we set our course East and by North, reckoning our selves seventeene leagues distant from Cape Mensurado, the said Cape being Eastnortheast of us, and the river of Sesto being East.

The one and twentieth day of the said moneth, we fell with Cape Mensurado to the Southeast, about two leagues off. This Cape may be easily knowen, by reason yt the rising of it is like a Porpose-head. Also toward the Southeast there are three trees, whereof the Eastermost tree is the highest, and the middlemost is like a hie stacke, & the Southermost like unto a gibet: and upon the maine are foure or five high hilles rising one after another like round hommocks or hillocks. And the Southeast of the three trees, brandiernwise: and all the coast along is white sand. The said Cape standeth within a litle in sixe degrees.

The two and twentieth of December we came to the river of Sesto , & remained there untill the nine and twentieth day of the said moneth. Here we thought it best to send before us the pinnesse to the river Dulce, called Rio Dulce, that they might have the beginning of the market before the comming of the John Evangelist.

At the river of Sesto we had a tunne of graines. This river standeth in sixe degrees, lacking a terce. From the river of Sesto to Rio Dulce are five and twentie leagues. Rio Dulce standeth in five degrees and a halfe. The river of Sesto is easie to be knowen, by reason there is a ledge of rockes on the Southeast part of the Rode. And at the entring into the haven are five or sixe trees that beare no leaves. This is a good harborow, but very narow at ye entrance into the river. There is also a rocke in the havens mouth right as you enter. And all that coast betweene Cape de Monte, and cape de las Palmas, lieth Southeast & by East, Northwest & by West, being three leagues off the shore. And you shal have in some places rocks two leagues off: and that, betweene the river of Sesto and cape de las Palmas.

Betweene the river of Sesto and the river Dulce are five and twentie leagues : & the high land that is betweene them both, is called Cakeado, being eight leagues from the river of Sesto . And to the Southeastwarde of it is a place called Shawgro, and an other called Shyawe or Shauo, where you may get fresh water. Off this Shyawe lieth a ledge of rockes: and to the Southeastward lieth a hedland called Croke. Betweene Cakeado and Croke are nine or ten leagues. To the Southeastward off, is a harborow called S. Vincent: Right over against S. Vincent, is a rocke under the water, two leagues & a halfe off the shore. To the Southeastward of that rocke you shal see an island about three or foure leagues off: this island is not past a league off the shore. To the Eastsoutheast of the island is a rocke that lieth above the water, and by that rocke goeth in the river Dulce, which you shall know by the said river and rocke. The Northwest side of the haven is flat sand, and the Southeast side therof is like an Island, and a bare plot without any trees, and so is it not in any other place.

In the Rode you shall ride in thirteene or foureteene fadomes, good oaze and sand, being the markes of the Rode to bring the Island and the Northeast land together, and here we ankered the last of December.

The third day of Januarie, we came from the river Dulce.

Note that Cape de las Palmas is a faire high land, but some low places thereof by the water side looke like red cliffes with white strakes like hie wayes, a cable length a piece, and this is the East part of the cape. This cape is the Southermost land in all the coast of Guinea, and standeth in foure degrees and a terce.

The coast from Cape de las Palmas to Cape Trepointes, or de Tres Puntas, is faire & cleare without rocke or other danger.

Twentie and five leagues from Cape de las Palmas, the land is higher then in any place, untill we come to Cape Trepointes: And about ten leagues before you come to Cape Trepointes, the land riseth still higher and higher, untill you come to Cape Trepointes, Also before you come to the said Cape, after other 5 leagues to the Northwest part of it, there is certaine broken ground, with two great rockes, and within them in the bight of a bay, is a castle called Arra , perteining to the king of Portugall. You shall know it by the said rockes that lie off it: for there is none such from Cape de las Palmas to Cape Trepointes. This coast lieth East and by North, West and by South. From Cape de las Palmas to the said castle is fourescore and fifteene leagues. And the coast lieth from the said castle to the Westermost point of Trepoyntes, Southeast and by South, Northwest and by North. Also the Westermost point of Trepoyntes is a low lande, lying halfe a mile out in the sea: and upon the innermost necke, to the land-ward, is a tuft of trees, and there we arrived the eleventh day of January.

The 12 day of January we came to a towne called Samma or Samva, being 8 leagues from Cape Trepointes toward Eastnortheast. Betweene Cape Trepointes and the towne of Samva is a great ledge of rockes a great way out in the sea. We continued foure dayes at that Towne, and the Captaine thereof would needs have a pledge a shore. But when they received the pledge, they kept him still, and would traffike no more, but shot off their ordinance at us. They have two or three pieces of ordinance and no more.

The sixteenth day of the said month we made reckoning to come to a place called Cape Corea, where captaine Don John dwelleth, whose men entertained us friendly. This Cape Corea is foure leagues Eastwarde of the castle of Mina, otherwise called La mina, or Castello de mina, where we arrived the 18 day of the moneth. Here we made sale of all our cloth, saving two or three packes.

The 26 day of the same moneth we weighed anker, and departed from thence to the Trinitie, which was seven leagues Eastward of us, where she solde her wares. Then they of the Trinitie willed us to go Eastward of that eight or nine leagues, to sell part of their wares, in a place called Perecow, and another place named Perecow Grande, being the Eastermost place of both these, which you shal know by a great round hill neere unto it, named Monte Rodondo, lying Westward from it, and by the water side are many high palme trees. From hence did we set forth homeward the thirteenth day of February, & plied up alongst till we came within seven or eight leagues to Cape Trepointes. About eight of the clocke the 15 day at afternoone, wee did cast about to seaward: and beware of the currants, for they will deceive you sore. Whosoever shall come from the coast of Mina homeward, let him be sure to make his way good West, untill he reckon himselfe as farre as Cape de las Palmas, where the currant setteth alwayes to the Eastward. And within twentie leagues Eastward of Cape de las Palmas is a river called De los Potos, where you may have fresh water and balast enough, and plenty of ivory or Elephants teeth. This river standeth in foure degrees, and almost two terces. And when you reckon your selfe as farre shot as Cape de las Palmas, being in a degree, or a degree and a halfe, you may go West, and West by North, untill you come in three degrees: and then you may go Westnorthwest, and Northwest and by West, untill you come in five degrees, and then Northwest. And in sixe degrees, we met Northerly windes, and great ruffling of tides. And as we could judge, the currants went to the Northnorthwest. Furthermore betweene Cape de Monte, and Cape Verde, go great currants, which deceive many men.

The 22 day of Aprill, we were in 8 degrees and two terces: and so we ran to the Northwest, having the winde at Northeast and Eastnortheast, and sometimes at East, untill we were at 18 degrees and a terce, which was on May day. And so from 18 and two terces, we had the winde at East and Eastnortheast, and sometimes at Eastsoutheast: and then we reckoned the Islands of Cape verde Eastsoutheast of us, we judging our selves to be 48 leagues off. And in 20 and 21 degrees, we had the winde more Easterly to the Southward then before. And so we ran to the Northwest and Northnorthwest, and sometimes North and by West and North, untill we came into 31 degrees, where we reckoned our selves a hundred and fourescore leagues Southwest and by South of the Island de los Flores, and there wee met with the winde at Southsoutheast, and set our course Northeast.

In 23 degrees we had the winde at the South and Southwest, and then we set our course Northnortheast, and so we ran to 40 degrees, and then we set our course Northeast, the winde being at the Southwest, and having the Isle de Flores East of us, and 17 leagues off.

In the 41 degrees we met with the winde at Northeast, and so we ran Northwestward, then we met with the winde Westnorthwest, and at the West within 6 leagues, running toward the Northwest, and then we cast about, and lay Northeast, untill we came in 42 degrees, where we set our course Eastnortheast, judging the Ile of Corvo South and by West of us, and sixe and thirtie leagues distant from us.

A remembrance, that the 21 day of May we communed with John Rafe, and he thought it best to goe Northeast, and judged himselfe 25 leagues Eastward to the Isle de Flores, and in 39 degrees and a halfe.

Note, that on the fourth day of September, under nine degrees, we lost the sight of the North starre.

Note also, that in 45 degrees, the compasse is varied 8 degrees to the West.

Item, in 40 degrees the compasse did varie 15 degrees in the whole.

Item, in 30 degrees and a halfe, the compasse is varied 5 degrees to the West.

Be it also in memory that two or three daies before we came to Cape de 3 puntas, the pinnesse went alongst the shore, thinking to sell some of our wares, and so we came to anker three or foure leagues West and by South of the Cape de 3 puntas, where we left the Trinitie.

Then our pinnesse came aboord with all our men, the pinnesse also tooke in more wares. They told me moreover that they would goe to a place where the Primrose was, and had received much gold at the first voyage to these parties, and tolde me furthermore that it was a good place: but I fearing a brigantine that was then upon the coast, did wey and follow them, and left the Trinitie about foure leagues off from us, and there we rode against that towne foure dayes: so that Martine by his owne desire, and assent of some of the Commissioners that were in the pinnesse, went a shoare to the towne, and there John Berin went to trafique from us, being three miles off trafiquing at an other towne. The towne is called Samma or Samva, for Samma and Sammaterra, are the names of the two first townes, where we did trafique for gold, to the Northeast of Cape de 3 puntas.

Hitherto continueth the course of the voyage, as it was described by the sayde Pilot. Nowe therefore I will speake somewhat of the countrey and people, and of such things as are brought from thence.

They brought from thence at the last voiage foure hundred pound weight and odde of gold, of two and twentie carrats and one graine in finenesse : also sixe and thirtie buts of graines, & about two hundred and fifty Elephants teeth of all quantities. Of these I saw & measured some of nine spans in length, as they were crooked. Some of them were as bigge as a mans thigh above the knee, and weyed about fourescore and ten pound weight a peece. They say that some one hath bin seene of an hundred and five & twentie pound weight. Other there were which they call the teeth of calves, of one or two or three yeeres, whereof some were a foot and a halfe, some two foot, and some 3 or more, according to ye age of the beast. These great teeth or tusks grow in the upper jaw downeward, and not in the nether jaw upward, wherein the Painters and Arras workers are deceived. At this last voyage was brought from Guinea the head of an Elephant, of such huge bignesse, that onely the bones or cranew thereof, beside the nether jaw & great tusks, weighed about two hundred weight, and was as much as I could well lift from the ground: insomuch that considering also herewith the weight of two such great teeth, the nether jaw with the lesse teeth, the tongue, the great hanging eares, the bigge & long snout or troonke, with all the flesh, braines, and skinne, with all other parts belonging to the whole head, in my judgement it could weigh litle lesse then five hundred weight. This head divers have scene in the house of the worthy marchant sir Andrew Judde, where also I saw it, and beheld it, not onely with my bodily eyes, but much more with the eyes of my mind and spirit, considering by the worke, the cunning and wisedome of the workemaister: without which consideration, the sight of such strange and wonderfull things may rather seeme curiosities, then profitable contemplations.

The Elephant (which some call an Oliphant) is the biggest of all foure footed beasts, his forelegs are longer then his hinder, he hath ancles in the lower part of his hinder legges, and five toes on his feete undivided, his snout or tronke is so long, and in such forme, that it is to him in the stead of a hand: for he neither eateth nor drinketh but by bringing his tronke to his mouth, therewith he helpeth up his Master or keeper, therewith he overthroweth trees. Beside his two great tusks, he hath on every side of his mouth foure teeth, wherewith he eateth and grindeth his meate: either of these teeth are almost a span in length, as they grow along in the jaw, and are about two inches in height, and almost as much in thicknesse. The tuskes of the male are greater then of the female : his tongue is very litle, and so farre in his mouth, that it cannot be seene: of all beastes they are most gentle and tractable, for by many sundry wayes they are taught, and doe understand: insomuch that they learne to doe due honor to a king, and are of quicke sense and sharpenesse of wit. When the male hath once seasoned the female, he never after toucheth her. The male Elephant liveth two hundreth yeeres, or at the least one hundred and twentie: the female almost as long, but the floure of their age is but threescore yeres, as some write. They cannot suffer winter or cold: they love rivers, and will often go into them up to the snout, wherewith they blow and snuffe, and play in the water: but swimme they cannot, for the weight of their bodies. Plinie and Soline write, that they use none adulterie. If they happen to meete with a man in wildernesse being out of the way, gently they wil go before him, & bring him into the plaine way. Joyned in battel, they have no small respect unto them that be wounded: for they bring them that are hurt or weary into the middle of the army to be defended: they are made tame by drinking the juise of barley. They have continual warre against Dragons, which desire their blood, because it is very cold: and therfore the Dragon lying awaite as the Elephant passeth by, windeth his taile (being of exceeding length, about the hinder legs of the Elephant, & so staying him, thrusteth his head into his tronke and exhausteth his breath, or else biteth him in the eare, wherunto he cannot reach with his tronke, and when the Elephant waxeth faint, he falleth downe on the serpent, being now full of blood, and with the poise of his body breaketh him: so that his owne blood with the blood of the Elephant runneth out of him mingled together, which being colde, is congealed into that substance which the Apothecaries call Sanguis Draconis, (that is) Dragons blood, otherwise called Cinnabaris, although there be an other kinde of Cinnabaris, commonly called Cinoper or Vermilion , which the Painters use in certaine colours.

They are also of three kinds, as of the Marshes, the plaines, and the mountaines, no lesse differing in conditions. Philostratus writeth, that as much as the Elephant of Libya in bignes passeth the horse of Nysea, so much doe the Elephants of India exceed them of Libya : for the Elephants of India, some have bene seene of the height of nine cubits: the other do so greatly feare these, that they dare not abide the sight of them. Of the Indian Elephants onely the males have tuskes, but of them of Ethiopia and Libya both kindes are tusked: they are of divers heights, as of twelve, thirteene, and fourteene dodrants, every dodrant being a measure of nine inches. Some write that an Elephant is bigger then three wilde Oxen or Buffes. They of India are black, or of ye colour of a mouse, but they of Ethiope or Guinea are browne: the hide or skinne of them all is very hard, and without haire or bristles: their cares are two dodrants broad, and their eyes very little. Our men saw one drinking at a river in Guinea, as they sailed into the land.

Of other properties & conditions of the Elephant, as of their marvellous docilitie, of their fight and use in the warres, of their generation and chastitie, when they were first seene in the Theaters and triumphes of the Romanes, how they are taken & tamed, and when they cast their tusks, with the use of the same in medicine, who so desireth to know, let him reade Plinie, in the eight booke of his naturall history. He also writeth in his twelft booke, that in olde time they made many goodly workes of ivory or Elephants teeth: as tables, tressels, postes of houses, railes, lattesses for windowes, images of their gods, and divers other things of ivory, both coloured and uncoloured, and intermixt with sundry kindes of precious, woods, as at this day are made certaine chaires, lutes,, and virginals. They had such plenty thereof in olde time,, that (as far as I remember) Josephus writeth, that one of the gates of Hierusalem was called Porta Eburnea, (that is) the Ivory gate. The whitenesse thereof was so much esteemed, that it was thought to represent the natural fairnesse of mans skinne: insomuch that such as went about to set foorth (or rather corrupt) naturall beautie with colours and painting, were reproved by this proverbe, Ebur atramento candefacere, that is, To make ivory white with inke. The Poets also describing the faire necks of beautifull virgins, call them Eburnea colla, that is, Ivory necks. And to have said thus much of Elephants and Ivory, it may suffice.

Now therefore I will speake somewhat of the people and their maners, and maner of living, with an other briefe description of Africa also. It is to be understood, that the people which now inhabite the regions of the coast of Guinea, and the midle parts of Africa , as Libya the inner, and Nubia , with divers other great & large regions about the same, were in old time called Æthiopes and Nigritae, which we now call Moores, Moorens, or Negroes, a people of beastly living, without a God, lawe, religion, or common wealth, and so scorched and vexed with the heat of the sunne, that in many places they curse it when it riseth. Of the regions and people about the inner Libya (called Libya interior) Gemma Phrysius writeth thus.

Libya interior is very large and desolate, in the which are many horrible wildernesses & mountaines, replenished with divers kinds of wilde and monstrous beastes and serpents. First from Mauritania or Barbary toward the South is Getulia, a rough and savage region, whose inhabitants are wilde and wandering people. After these follow the people called Melanogetuli and Pharusii, which wander in the wildernesse, carrying with them great gourdes of water. The Ethiopians called Nigritae occupy a great part of Africa , and are extended to the West Ocean. Southward also they reach to the river Nigritis, whose nature agreeth with the river of Nilus, forasmuch as it is increased and diminished at the same time, and bringeth forth the like beasts as the Crocodile. By reason whereof, I thinke this to be the same river which the Portugals call Senega: For this river is also of the same nature. It is furthermore marveilous and very strange that is said of this river: And this is, that on the one side thereof, the inhabitants are of high stature and black, and on the other side, of browne or tawnie colour, and low stature, which thing also our men confirme to be true.

There are also other people of Libya called Garamantes, whose women are common: for they contract no matrimonie, neither have respect to chastitie. After these are the nations of the people called Pyrei, Sathiodaphnitae, Odrangi, Mimaces, Lynxamatae, Dolopes, Aganginae, Leuci Ethiopes, Xilicei Ethiopes, Calcei Ethiopes, and Nubi. These have the same situation in Ptolome that they now give to the kingdome of Nubia . Here are certaine Christians under the dominion of the great Emperour of Æthiopia, called Prester John. From these toward the West is a great nation of people called Aphricerones, whose region (as farre as may be gathered by conjecture) is the same that is now called Regnum Orguene, confining upon the East parts of Guinea. From hence Westward, and somewhat toward the North, are the kingdoms of Gambra and Budomel, not farre from the river of Senega. And from hence toward the inland regions, and along by the sea coast, are the regions of Ginoia or Guinea, which we commonly call Ginnee. On the Westside of these regions toward the Ocean, is the cape or point called Cabo verde, or Caput viride, (that is) the greene cape, to the which the Portugals first direct their course when they saile to America , or the land of Brasile . Then departing from hence, they turne to the right hand toward the quarter of the winde called Garbino, which is betweene the West and the South. But to speake somewhat more of Æthiopia: although there are many nations of people so named, yet is Aethiopia chiefly divided into two parts, whereof the one is called Aethiopia under Aegypt, a great & rich region. To this perteineth the Island Meroe, imbraced round about with the stremes of the river Nilus. In this Island women reigned in old time. Josephus writeth, that it was sometime called Sabea: and that the Queene of Saba came from thence to Jerusalem, to heare the wisedom of Salomon. From hence toward the East reigneth the said Christian Emperor Prester John, whom some cal Papa Johannes, & other say that he is called Pean Juan (that is) great John, whose Empire reacheth far beyond Nilus, and is extended to the coasts of the Red sea & Indian sea. The middle of the region is almost in 66. degrees of longitude, and 12. degrees of latitude. About this region inhabite the people called Clodi, Risophagi, Babylonii, Axiunitae, Molili, and Molibae. After these is the region called Troglodytica, whose inhabitants dwel in caves and dennes : for these are their houses, & the flesh of serpents their meat, as writeth Plinie, and Diodorus Siculus. They have no speech, but rather a grinning and chattering. There are also people without heads, called Blemines, having their eyes and mouth in their breast. Likewise Strucophagi, and naked Ganphasantes: Satyrs also, which have nothing of men but onely shape. Moreover Oripei, great hunters. Mennones also, and the region of Smyrnophora, which bringeth foorth myrrhe. After these is the region of Azania, in the which many Elephants are found. A great part of the other regions of Africke that are beyond the Aequinoctiall line, are now ascribed to the kingdome of Melinde, whose inhabitants are accustomed to trafique with the nations of Arabia , and their king is joyned in friendship with the king of Portugal, and payeth tribute to Prester John.

The other Ethiope, called Æthiopia interior (that is) the inner Ethiope, is not yet knowne for the greatnesse thereof, but onely by the sea coastes: yet is it described in this maner. First from the Aequinoctiall toward ye South, is a great region of Aethiopians, which bringeth forth white Elephants, Tygers, and the beastes called Rhinocerotes. Also a region that bringeth foorth plenty of cynamome, lying betweene the branches of Nilus. Also the kingdome of Habech or Habasia, a region of Christian men, lying both on this side and beyond Nilus. Here are also the Aethiopians, called Ichthiophagi (that is) such as live onely by fish, and were sometimes subdued by the warres of great Alexander. Furthermore the Aethiopians called Rhapsii, & Anthropophagi, yt are accustomed to eat mans flesh, inhabite the regions neere unto the mountains called Montes Lunae (that is) the mountaines of the Moone. Gazatia is under the Tropike of Capricorne. After this followeth the front of Afrike, the Cape of Buena Speranza, or Caput Bonae Spei, that is, the Cape of good hope, by the which they passe that saile from Lisbon to Calicut . But by what names the Capes and gulfes are called, forasmuch as the same are in every globe and card, it were here superfluous to rehearse them.

Some write that Africa was so named by the Grecians, because it is without colde. For the Greeke letter Alpha or A signifieth privation, voyd, or without: and Phrice signifieth colde. For in deed although in the stead of Winter they have a cloudy and tempestuous season, yet is it not colde, but rather smoothering hote, with hote showres of raine also, and somewhere such scorching windes, that what by one meanes and other, they seeme at certaine times to live as it were in fornaces, and in maner already halfe way in Purgatorie or hell. Gemma Phrisius writeth, that in certaine parts of Africa , as in Atlas the greater, the aire in the night season is scene shining, with many strange fires and flames rising in maner as high as the Moone : and that in the element are sometime heard as it were the sound of pipes, trumpets and drummes: which noises may perhaps be caused by the vehement and sundry motions of such firie exhalations in the aire, as we see the like in many experiences wrought by fire, aire and winde. The hollownesse also, and divers reflexions and breaking of the cloudes may be great causes hereof, beside the vehement colde of the middle region of the aire, whereby the said fiery exhalations, ascending thither, are suddenly stricken backe with great force: for even common and dayly experience teacheth us, by the whissing of a burning torch, what noise fire maketh in the aire, and much more where it striveth when it is inclosed with aire, as appeareth in gunnes, and as the like is seene in onely aire inclosed, as in Organ pipes, and such other instruments that go by winde. For winde (as say the Philosophers) is none other then aire vehemently moved, as we see in a paire of bellowes, and such other.

Some of our men of good credit that were in this last voiage to Guinea, affirme earnestly that in the night season they felt a sensible heat to come from the beames of the moone. The which thing, although it be strange and insensible to us that inhabite cold regions, yet doeth it stand with good reason that it may so be, forasmuch as the nature of starres and planets (as writeth Plinie) consisteth of fire, and conteineth in it a spirit of life, which cannot be without heat.

And, that the Moone giveth heate upon the earth the Prophet David seemeth to confirme in his 121. Psalme, where speaking of such men as are defended from evils by Gods protection, hee saith thus: Per diem Sol non exuret te, nec Luna per noctem. That is to say, In the day the Sunne shall not burne thee, nor the Moone by night.

They say furthermore, that in certaine places of the sea they saw certaine streames of water, which they call spouts, falling out of the aire into the sea, & that some of these are as bigge as the great pillars of Churches: insomuch that sometimes they fall into shippes, and put them in great danger of drowning. Some faine that these should be the Cataracts of heaven, which were all opened at Noes floud. But I thinke them rather to be such fluxions and eruptions as Aristotle in his booke de Mundo saith, to chance in the sea. For speaking of such strange things as are seene often times in the sea, he writeth thus. Oftentimes also even in the sea are seene evaporations of fire, and such eruptions and breaking foorth of springs, that the mouthes of rivers are opened. Whirlepooles, and fluxions are caused of such other vehement motions, not only in the middest of the sea, but also in creeks & streights. At certaine times also, a great quantity of water is suddenly lifted up and carried about with the Moone, &c. By which wordes of Aristotle it doth appeare that such waters be lifted up in one place at one time, and suddenly fall downe in an other place at another time. And hereunto perhaps perteineth it that Richard Chanceller told me that he heard Sebastian Cabot report, that (as farre as I remember) either about the coasts of Brasile or Rio de Plata, his shippe or pinnesse was suddenly lifted from the sea, and cast upon land, I wot not howe farre. The which thing, and such other like wonderfull and strange workes of nature while I consider, and call to remembrance the narrownesse of mans understanding and knowledge, in comparison of her mightie power, I can but cease to marvell and confesse with Plinie, that nothing is to her impossible, the least part of whose power is not yet knowen to men. Many things more our men saw and considered in this voyage, woorthy to be noted, whereof I have thought good to put some in memory, that the reader may aswell take pleasure in the variety of things, as knowledge of the historic. Among other things therefore, touching the maners and nature of the people, this may seeme strange, that their princes & noble men use to pounce and rase their skinnes with pretie knots in divers formes, as it were branched damaske, thinking that to be a decent ornament. And albeit they goe in maner all naked, yet are many of them, & especialy their women, in maner laden with collars, bracelets, hoopes, and chaines, either of gold, copper, or ivory. I my selfe have one of their braslets of Ivory, weighing two pound and sixe ounces of Troy weight, which make eight and thirtie ounces: this one of their women did weare upon her arme. It is made of one whole piece of the biggest part of the tooth, turned and somewhat carved, with a hole in the midst, wherin they put their hands to weare it on their arme. Some have on every arme one, and as many on their legges, wherewith some of them are so galled, that although they are in maner made lame thereby, yet will they by no meanes leave them off. Some weare also on their legges great shackles of bright copper, which they thinke to bee no lesse comely. They weare also collars, bracelets, garlands, and girdles, of certain blew stones like beads. Likewise some of their women weare on their bare armes certaine foresleeves made of the plates of beaten golde. On their fingers also they weare rings, made of golden wires, with a knot or wreath, like unto that which children make in a ring of a rush. Among other things of golde that our men bought of them for exchange of their wares, were certaine dog-chaines and collers.

They are very wary people in their bargaining, and will not lose one sparke of golde of any value. They use weights and measures, and are very circumspect in occupying the same. They that shall have to doe with them, must use them gently: for they will not trafique or bring in any wares if they be evill used. At the first voyage that our men had into these parties, it so chanced, that at their departure from the first place where they did trafick, one of them either stole a muske Cat, or tooke her away by force, not mistrusting that that should have hindered their bargaining in another place whither they intended to goe. But for all the haste they coulde make with full sailes, the fame of their misusage so prevented them, that the people of that place also, offended thereby, would bring in no wares: insomuch that they were inforced either to restore the Cat, or pay for her at their price, before they could trafique there.

Their houses are made of foure postes or trees, and covered with boughes.

Their common feeding is of roots, & such fishes as they take, whereof they have great plenty.

There are also such flying fishes as are seene in the sea of the West Indies. Our men salted of their fishes, hoping to provide store thereof: but they would take no salt, and must therfore be eaten forthwith as some say. Howbeit other affirme, that if they be salted immediatly after they be taken, they wil last uncorrupted ten or twelve dayes. But this is more strange, that part of such flesh as they caried with them out of England, which putrified there, became sweete againe at their returne to the clime of temperate regions.

They use also a strange making of bread, in this maner. They grinde betweene two stones with their handes as much corne as they thinke may suffice their family, and when they have thus brought it to floure, they put thereto a certaine quantitie of water, and make thereof very thinne dough, which they sticke upon some post of their houses, where it is baked by the heate of the Sunne: so that when the master of the house or any of his family will eate thereof, they take it downe and eate it.

They have very faire wheate, the eare whereof is two handfuls in length, and as bigge as a great Bulrush, and almost foure inches about where it is biggest. The stemme or straw seemeth to be almost as bigge as the litle finger of a mans hand, or litle lesse. The graines of this wheate are as big as our peason, round also, and very white, and somewhat shining, like pearles that have lost their colour. Almost all the substance of them turneth into floure, & maketh litle bran or none. I told in one eare two hundred & threescore graines. The eare is inclosed in three blades longer then it selfe, & of two inches broad a piece. And by this fruitfulnes the Sunne seemeth partly to recompence such griefes and molestations as they otherwise receive by the fervent heate thereof. It is doubtlesse a worthy contemplation to consider the contrary effects of the sunne: or rather the contrary passions of such things as receive the influence of his beames, either to their hurt or benefit. Their drinke is either water, or the juise that droppeth from the cut branches of the barren Date trees, called Palmitos. For either they hang great gourdes at the said branches every evening, and let them so hang all night, or else they set them on the ground under the trees, that the droppes may fall therein. They say that this kinde of drinke is in taste much like unto whey, but somewhat sweeter, and more pleasant. They cut the branches every evening, because they are seared up in the day by the heate of the Sunne. They have also great beanes as bigge as chestnuts, and very hard, with a shell in the stead of a huske.

Many things more might be saide of the maners of the people, and of the wonders and monstrous things that are engendred in Africke. But it shall suffice to have saide thus much of such things as our men partly sawe, and partly brought with them.

And whereas before speaking of the fruit of graines, I described the same to have holes by the side (as in deede it hath, as it is brought hither) yet was I afterward enfourmed, that those holes were made to put stringes or twigges through the fruite, thereby to hang them up to dry at the Sunne. They grow not past a foote and a halfe, or two foote from the ground, and are as red as blood when they are gathered. The graines themselves are called of the Phisicions Grana Paradisi.

At their comming home the keeles of their shippes were marveilously overgrowne with certaine shelles of two inches length and more, as thicke as they could stand, and of such bignesse that a man might put his thumbe in the mouthes of them. They certainely affirme that in these there groweth a certaine slimie substance, which at the length slipping out of the shell and falling in the sea, becommeth those foules which we call Barnacles. The like shelles have bene seene in ships returning from Iseland, but these shels were not past halfe an inch in length. Of the other that came from Guinea, I sawe the Primerose lying in the docke, and in maner covered with the said shels, which in my judgement should greatly hinder her sayling. Their ships were also in many places eaten with the wormes called Bromas or Bissas, whereof mention is made in the Decades. These creepe betweene the plankes, which they eate through in many places.

Among other things that chanced to them in this voyage, this is worthy to be noted, that wheras they sailed thither in seven weekes, they could returne in no lesse space then twentie weekes. The cause whereof they say to be this: That about the coast of Cabo Verde the winde is ever at the East, by reason whereof they were enforced to saile farre out of their course into the maine Ocean, to finde the winde at the West to bring them home. There died of our men at this last voyage about twentie and foure, whereof many died at their returne into the clime of the colde regions, as betweene the Islands of Azores and England. They brought with them certaine blacke slaves, whereof some were tall and strong men, and could wel agree with our meates and drinkes. The colde and moyst aire doth somewhat offend them. Yet doubtlesse men that are borne in hot Regions may better abide colde, then men that are borne in colde Regions may abide heate, forasmuch as vehement heate resolveth the radicall moysture of mens bodies, as colde constraineth and preserveth the same.

This is also to be considered as a secret worke of nature, that throughout all Africke, under the Æquinoctial line, and neere about the same on both sides, the regions are extreeme hote, and the people very blacke. Whereas contrarily such regions of the West Indies as are under the same line are very temperate, and the people neither blacke, nor with curlde and short wooll on their heads, as they of Africke have, but of the colour of an Olive, with long and blacke heare on their heads: the cause of which variety is declared in divers places in the Decades.

It is also worthy to be noted that some of them that were at this voyage told me: That is, that they overtooke the course of the Sunne, so that they had it North from them at noone, the 14. day of March. And to have said thus much of these voyages, it may suffice.

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