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The Ambassage of M. Edmund Hogan, one of the sworne Esquires of her Majesties person, from her Highnesse to Mully Abdelmelech Emperour of Marocco, and king of Fes and Sus: in the yeere 1577, written by himselfe.

I EDMUND HOGAN being appointed Ambassadour from the Queenes Majestie to the above named Emperour and King Mully Abdelmelech, departed with my company and servants from London the two and twentie day of Aprill 1577, being imbarked in the good ship called the Gallion of London, and arrived in Azafi a port of Barbarie the one and twentie day of May next following. Immediatly I sent Leonell Edgerton a shoare with my letters directed to John Williams and John Bampton, who dispatched a Trottero to Marocco to knowe the kings pleasure for my repaire to the Court, which letters came to their hands on the Thursday night.

They with all speede gave the king understanding of it, who being glad thereof speeded the next day certaine Captaines with souldiers and tents, with other provision to Azafi: so that upon Whitsunday at night the said Captaines with John Bampton, Robert Washborne, and Robert Lion, and the kings officers came late to Azafi.

In the meane time I remained a boord, and caused some of the goods to be discharged for lightning of the shippe, and I wrote in my letter that I would not lande, till I knewe the Kings pleasure.

The 22 day being Saturday, the Make-speede arrived in the roade about two of the clocke in the afternoone.

The 27 day, being Whitsunday, came aboord the Gallion John Bampton, and others, giving me to understande how much the King rejoyced of my safe arrivall, comming from the Queenes Majestie, and how that for my safe conduct to the Court he had sent foure Captaines and an hundred souldiers well appointed, with a horse furnished which he used himselfe to ride on with all other furniture accordingly: they wished mee also to come on lande in the best order I could, as well for my selfe as my men, which I did, having to the number of tenne men, whereof three were trumpetters.

The ships being foure appointed themselves in the best order they could for the best shew, and shot off all their ordinance to the value of twentie Markes in powder.

At my comming a shoare, I found all the souldiers well appointed on horsebacke, the Captaines and the Governour of the towne standing as neere the water side as they could, with a Jennet of the kings, and received mee from the boate declaring how glad his Majestie was of my safe arrivall, comming from the Queenes Majestie my Mistresse, and that hee had sent them to attend upon me, it being his pleasure that I should tarie there on shoare five or sixe dayes for my refreshing.

So being mounted upon the Jennet, they conducted mee through the Towne into a faire fielde upon the Sea-side where was a tent provided for mee, and all the ground spread with Turkie carpets, and the Castle discharged a peale of ordinance, and all things necessarie were brought into my tent, where I both tooke my table and lodging, and had other convenient tents for my servants.

The souldiers environed the tents, and watched about us day and night as long as I lay there, although I sought my speedier dispatch.

On the Wednesday towards night, I tooke my horse and travelled ten miles to the first place of water that we could finde, and there pitched our tents till the next morning, and so travelled till ten of the clocke, and then pitched our tents till foure, and so traveiled as long as day light would suffer about 26 miles that day.

The next day being Friday I travelled in like order but eight and twentie miles at the most, and by a River being about sixe miles within sight of the Citie of Marocco we pitched our tents.

Immediatly after came all our English marchants, and the French on horsebacke to meete me, and before night there came an Alcayde from the king with fiftie men, & divers mules laden with victuall and banket, for my supper, declaring unto me how glad the king shewed himselfe to heare of the Queenes Majestie, and that his pleasure was I should be received into his countrey as never any Christian the like: and desired to knowe what time the next day I would come into his citie, because he would that all the Christians as also his nobilitie should meete me, and willed John Bampton to be with him early in the morning, which he did.

About seven of the clocke being accompanied with the French and English marchants, and a great number of souldiers, I passed towards the citie, and by that time I had travelled 2 miles, there met me all the Christians of the Spaniards and Portugals to receive me, which I knowe was more by the kings commandement then of any good wils of themselves: for some of them although they speake me faire hung downe their heads like dogs, and especially the Portugales, and I countenanced them accordingly.

So I passed on till I came within two English miles of the Citie, and then John Bampton returned, shewing me that the king was so glad of my comming, that hee could not devise to doe too much, to shewe the good will that hee did owe to the Queenes Majestie, and her Realme.

His counsellers met me without the gates, and at the entrie of the gates, his footmen & guard were placed on both sides of my horse, and so brought me to the kings palace.

The king sate in his chaire with his Counsell about him, as well the Moores as the Elchies, and according to his order given unto me before, I there declared my message in Spanish, and made deliverie of the Queenes Majesties letters, and all that I spake at that present in Spanish, hee caused one of his Elchies to declare the same to the Moores present, in the Larbe tongue.

Which done, he answered me againe in Spanish, yeelding to the Queenes Majestie great thankes, and offering himselfe and his countrey to bee at her Graces commaundement, and then commaunded certaine of his Counsellers to conduct me to my lodging, not being farre from the Court.

The house was faire after the fashion of that countrey, being daily well furnished with al kind of victuall at the kings charge.

The same night he sent for mee to the Court, and I had conference with him about the space of two houres, where I throughly declared the charge committed unto mee from her Majestie, finding him conformable, willing to pleasure and not to urge her Majestie with any demaundes, more then conveniently shee might willingly consent unto, hee knowing that out of his countrey the Realme of England might be better served with lackes, then hee in comparison from us.

Further he gave me to understand, that the king of Spaine had sent unto him for a licence, than an Ambassadour of his might come into his countrey, and had made great meanes that if the Queenes majesty of England sent any unto him, that he would not give him any credit or intertainment, albeit (said he) I know what the king of Spaine is, and what' the Queene of England and her Realme is: for I neither like of him nor of his religion, being so governed by the Inquisition that he can doe nothing of himselfe.

Therefore when he commeth upon the licence which I have granted, he shall well see how litle account I will make of him and Spaine, and how greatly I will extoll you for the Queenes majestie of England.

He shall not come to my presence as you have done, and shall dayly: for I minde to accept of you as my companion and one of my house, whereas he shall attend twentie dayes after he hath done his message.

After the end of this speech I delivered Sir Thomas Greshams letters, when as he tooke me by the hand, and led me downe a long court to a palace where there ranne a faire fountaine of water, and there sitting himselfe in a chaire, he commanded me to sit downe in another, and there called for such simple Musicians as he had.

Then I presented him with a great base Lute, which he most thankfully accepted, and then he was desirous to heare of the Musicians, and I tolde him that there was great care had to provide them, and that I did not doubt but upon my returne they should come with the first ship. He is willing to give them good intertainment with provision of victuall, and to let them live according to their law and conscience wherein he urgeth none to the contrary.

I finde him to be one that liveth greatly in the feare of God, being well exercised in the Scriptures, as well in the olde Testament as also in the New, and he beareth a greater affection to our Nation then to others because of our religion, which forbiddeth worship of Idols, and the Moores called him the Christian king.

The same night being the first of June, I continued with him till twelve of the clocke, and he seemed to have so good liking of me, that he tooke from his girdle a short dagger being set with 200 stones, rubies and turkies, and did bestow it upon me, and so I being conducted returned to my lodging for that time.

The next day because he knew it to be Sunday & our Sabboth day he did let me rest. But on the munday in the afternoone he sent for me, and I had conference with him againe, and musicke.

Likewise on the tuesday by three of the clocke he sent for me into his garden, finding him layd upon a silke bed complayning of a sore leg: yet after long conference he walked into another Orchard, where as having a faire banketting-house and a great water, and a new gallie in it, he went aboord the gallie and tooke me with him, and passed the space of two or three houres, shewing the great experience he had in Gallies, wherein (as he said) he had exercised himselfe eighteene yeres in his youth.

After supper he shewed me his horses and other commodities that he had about his house, and since that night I have not seene him, for that he hath kept in with his sore legge, but he hath sent to me daily.

The 13 of June at sixe of the clocke at night I had againe audience of the king, and I continued with him till midnight, having debated as well for the Queenes commission as for the well dealing with her marchants for their traffike here in these parts, saying, he would do much more for the Queenes majesty and the Realme, offering that all English ships with her subjects may with good securitie enter into his ports and dominions as well in trade of marchandize, as for victuall & water, as also in time of warre with any her enemies to bring in prises and to make sales as occasion should serve, or else to depart againe with them at their pleasure.

Likewise for all English ships that shall passe along his coast of Barbarie, & thorow the straites into the Levant seas, that he would graunt safe conduct that the said ships and marchants with their goods might passe into the Levant seas, and so to the Turks dominions, and the king of Argiers, as his owne, and that he would write to the Turke and to the king of Argier his letters for the well using of our ships and goods.

Also that hereafter no Englishmen that by any meanes may be taken captives, shall be solde within any of his dominions: whereupon I declared that the Queenes majesty accepting of these his offers was pleased to confirme the intercourse & trade of our marchants within this his countrey, as also to pleasure him with such commodities as he should have need of, to furnish the necessities and wants of his countrey in trade of marchandize, so as he required nothing contrarie to her honour and law, and the breach of league with the Christian princes her neighbours.

The same night I presented the king with the case of combes, and desired his majestie to have special regard that the ships might be laden backe againe, for that I found litle store of salt-peter in readinesse in John Bamptons hands. He answered me that I should have all the assistance therein that he could, but that in Sus he thought to have some store in his house there, as also that the Mountayners had made much in a readinesse: I requested that he would send downe, which he promised to doe.

The eighteene day I was with him againe and so continued there till night, and he shewed me his house with pastime in ducking with water-Spaniels, and baiting buls with his English dogges.

At this time I mooved him againe for the sending downe to Sus, which he granted to doe, and the 24. day there departed Alcayde Mammie, with Lionell Edgerton, and Rowland Guy to Sus, and caried with them for our accompts and his company the kings letters to his brother Muly Hammet, and Alcayde Shauan, and the Viceroy.

The 23. day the king sent me out of Marocco to his garden called Shersbonare, with his gard, and Alcayde Mamoute, and the 24. at night I came to the court to see a Morris dance, and a play of his Elchies. He promised me audience the next day being Tuesday, but he put it off till Thursday: and the Thursday at night I was sent for to the king after supper, and then he sent Alcayde Rodwan, and Alcayde Gowry to conferre with me, but after a little talke I desired to be brought to the King for my dispatch. And being brought to him, I preferred two bils of John Bamptons which he had made for provision of Salt-peter: also two bils for the quiet traffique of our English Marchants, and bils for sugars to be made for the Jewes, as well for the debts past, as hereafter, and for good order in the Ingenios. Also I mooved him againe for the Saltpeter, and other dispatches, which he referred to be agreed upon by the two Alcaydes. But the Friday being the 20. the Alcaydes could not intend it, and upon Saturday Alcayde Rodwan fell sicke, so on Sunday we made meanes to the King, and that afternoone I was sent for to conferre upon the bargaine with the Alcaydes and others, but did not agree.

Upon Tuesday I wrote a letter to the King for my dispatch, and the same afternoone I was called againe to the Court, and referred all things to the King, accepting his offer of Salt-peter.

That night againe the King had me into his Gallie, and the Spaniels did hunt the ducke.

The Thursday I was appointed to way the 300. kintals grosse of Salt-peter, and that afternoone the Tabybe came unto mee to my lodging, shewing mee that the king was offended with John Bampton for divers causes.

The Sunday night late being the 7. of July, I got the King to forgive all to John Bampton, and the King promised me to speake againe with me upon Munday.

Upon Tuesday I wrote to him againe for my dispatch, and then hee sent Fray Lewes to mee, and said that he had order to write.

Upon Wednesday I wrote againe, and he sent me word that upon Thursday I should come and be dispatched, so that I should depart upon Friday without faile, being the twelfth of July.

So the friday after according to the kings order & appointment I went to the court, & whereas motion and petition was made for the confirmation of the demaunds which I had preferred, they were all granted, and likewise the privileges which were on the behalfe of our English marchants requested, were with great favour and readinesse yeelded unto. And whereas the Jewes there resident were to our men in certaine round summes indebted, the Emperors pleasure and commandement was, that they should without further excuse or delay, pay and discharge the same. And thus at length I was dismissed with great honour and speciall countenance, such as hath not ordinarily bene shewed to other Ambassadors of the Christians.

And touching the private affaires intreated upon betwixt her Majestie and the Emperour, I had letters from him to satisfie her highnesse therein. So to conclude, having received the like honourable conduct from his Court, as I had for my part at my first landing, I embarked my selfe with my foresaid company, and arriving not long after in England, I repaired to her Majesties court, & ended my Ambassage to her highnesse good liking, with relation of my service performed.

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