The Ambassage of M. Edmund Hogan, one of the sworne
Esquires of her Majesties person, from her Highnesse
to Mully Abdelmelech Emperour of Marocco, and king
of Fes and Sus: in the yeere 1577, written by himselfe.
I EDMUND HOGAN being appointed Ambassadour from the
Queenes Majestie to the above named Emperour and King
Mully Abdelmelech, departed with my company and
servants from London the two and twentie day of Aprill
1577, being imbarked in the good ship called the Gallion
of London, and arrived in Azafi
a port of Barbarie the
one and twentie day of May next following. Immediatly
I sent Leonell Edgerton a shoare with my letters directed
to John Williams and John Bampton, who dispatched a
Trottero to Marocco to knowe the kings pleasure for my
repaire to the Court, which letters came to their hands on
the Thursday night.
They with all speede gave the king understanding of it,
who being glad thereof speeded the next day certaine
Captaines with souldiers and tents, with other provision
to Azafi: so that upon Whitsunday at night the said
Captaines with John Bampton, Robert Washborne, and
Robert Lion, and the kings officers came late to Azafi.
In the meane time I remained a boord, and caused some
of the goods to be discharged for lightning of the shippe,
and I wrote in my letter that I would not lande, till I
knewe the Kings pleasure.
The 22 day being Saturday, the Make-speede arrived in
the roade about two of the clocke in the afternoone.
The 27 day, being Whitsunday, came aboord the Gallion
John Bampton, and others, giving me to understande how
much the King rejoyced of my safe arrivall, comming from
the Queenes Majestie, and how that for my safe conduct
to the Court he had sent foure Captaines and an hundred
souldiers well appointed, with a horse furnished which he
used himselfe to ride on with all other furniture accordingly: they wished mee also to come on lande in the best
order I could, as well for my selfe as my men, which I did,
having to the number of tenne men, whereof three were
The ships being foure appointed themselves in the best
order they could for the best shew, and shot off all their
ordinance to the value of twentie Markes in powder.
At my comming a shoare, I found all the souldiers well
appointed on horsebacke, the Captaines and the Governour
of the towne standing as neere the water side as they
could, with a Jennet of the kings, and received mee from
the boate declaring how glad his Majestie was of my safe
arrivall, comming from the Queenes Majestie my
Mistresse, and that hee had sent them to attend upon me,
it being his pleasure that I should tarie there on shoare
five or sixe dayes for my refreshing.
So being mounted upon the Jennet, they conducted mee
through the Towne into a faire fielde upon the Sea-side
where was a tent provided for mee, and all the ground
spread with Turkie carpets, and the Castle discharged a
peale of ordinance, and all things necessarie were brought
into my tent, where I both tooke my table and lodging,
and had other convenient tents for my servants.
The souldiers environed the tents, and watched about
us day and night as long as I lay there, although I sought
my speedier dispatch.
On the Wednesday towards night, I tooke my horse and
travelled ten miles to the first place of water that we
could finde, and there pitched our tents till the next
morning, and so travelled till ten of the clocke, and then
pitched our tents till foure, and so traveiled as long as
day light would suffer about 26 miles that day.
The next day being Friday I travelled in like order but
eight and twentie miles at the most, and by a River being
about sixe miles within sight of the Citie of Marocco we
pitched our tents.
Immediatly after came all our English marchants, and
the French on horsebacke to meete me, and before night
there came an Alcayde from the king with fiftie men, &
divers mules laden with victuall and banket, for my
supper, declaring unto me how glad the king shewed
himselfe to heare of the Queenes Majestie, and that his
pleasure was I should be received into his countrey as
never any Christian the like: and desired to knowe what
time the next day I would come into his citie, because he
would that all the Christians as also his nobilitie should
meete me, and willed John Bampton to be with him early
in the morning, which he did.
About seven of the clocke being accompanied with the
French and English marchants, and a great number of
souldiers, I passed towards the citie, and by that time I
had travelled 2 miles, there met me all the Christians of
the Spaniards and Portugals to receive me, which I knowe
was more by the kings commandement then of any good
wils of themselves: for some of them although they
speake me faire hung downe their heads like dogs, and
especially the Portugales, and I countenanced them
So I passed on till I came within two English miles of
the Citie, and then John Bampton returned, shewing me
that the king was so glad of my comming, that hee
could not devise to doe too much, to shewe the good
will that hee did owe to the Queenes Majestie, and her
His counsellers met me without the gates, and at the
entrie of the gates, his footmen & guard were placed on
both sides of my horse, and so brought me to the kings
The king sate in his chaire with his Counsell about him,
as well the Moores as the Elchies, and according to his
order given unto me before, I there declared my message
, and made deliverie of the Queenes Majesties
letters, and all that I spake at that present in Spanish
hee caused one of his Elchies to declare the same to the
Moores present, in the Larbe tongue.
Which done, he answered me againe in Spanish
, yeelding to the Queenes Majestie great thankes, and offering
himselfe and his countrey to bee at her Graces commaundement, and then commaunded certaine of his Counsellers to conduct me to my lodging, not being farre from
The house was faire after the fashion of that countrey,
being daily well furnished with al kind of victuall at the
The same night he sent for mee to the Court, and I had
conference with him about the space of two houres, where
I throughly declared the charge committed unto mee from
her Majestie, finding him conformable, willing to pleasure
and not to urge her Majestie with any demaundes, more
then conveniently shee might willingly consent unto, hee
knowing that out of his countrey the Realme of England
might be better served with lackes, then hee in comparison
Further he gave me to understand, that the king of
Spaine had sent unto him for a licence, than an Ambassadour of his might come into his countrey, and had made
great meanes that if the Queenes majesty of England sent
any unto him, that he would not give him any credit or
intertainment, albeit (said he) I know what the king of
Spaine is, and what' the Queene of England and her
Realme is: for I neither like of him nor of his religion,
being so governed by the Inquisition that he can doe
nothing of himselfe.
Therefore when he commeth upon the licence which I
have granted, he shall well see how litle account I will
make of him and Spaine, and how greatly I will extoll you
for the Queenes majestie of England.
He shall not come to my presence as you have done,
and shall dayly: for I minde to accept of you as my
companion and one of my house, whereas he shall attend
twentie dayes after he hath done his message.
After the end of this speech I delivered Sir Thomas
Greshams letters, when as he tooke me by the hand, and
led me downe a long court to a palace where there ranne
a faire fountaine of water, and there sitting himselfe in a
chaire, he commanded me to sit downe in another, and
there called for such simple Musicians as he had.
Then I presented him with a great base Lute, which
he most thankfully accepted, and then he was desirous
to heare of the Musicians, and I tolde him that there was
great care had to provide them, and that I did not doubt
but upon my returne they should come with the first ship.
He is willing to give them good intertainment with provision of victuall, and to let them live according to their
law and conscience wherein he urgeth none to the
I finde him to be one that liveth greatly in the feare of
God, being well exercised in the Scriptures, as well in
the olde Testament as also in the New, and he beareth a
greater affection to our Nation then to others because of
our religion, which forbiddeth worship of Idols, and the
Moores called him the Christian king.
The same night being the first of June, I continued with
him till twelve of the clocke, and he seemed to have so
good liking of me, that he tooke from his girdle a short
dagger being set with 200 stones, rubies and turkies, and
did bestow it upon me, and so I being conducted returned
to my lodging for that time.
The next day because he knew it to be Sunday & our
Sabboth day he did let me rest. But on the munday in
the afternoone he sent for me, and I had conference with
him againe, and musicke.
Likewise on the tuesday by three of the clocke he sent
for me into his garden, finding him layd upon a silke
bed complayning of a sore leg: yet after long conference
he walked into another Orchard, where as having a faire
banketting-house and a great water, and a new gallie in
it, he went aboord the gallie and tooke me with him, and
passed the space of two or three houres, shewing the
great experience he had in Gallies
, wherein (as he said)
he had exercised himselfe eighteene yeres in his youth.
After supper he shewed me his horses and other commodities that he had about his house, and since that night
I have not seene him, for that he hath kept in with his
sore legge, but he hath sent to me daily.
The 13 of June at sixe of the clocke at night I had
againe audience of the king, and I continued with him till
midnight, having debated as well for the Queenes commission as for the well dealing with her marchants for their
traffike here in these parts, saying, he would do much
more for the Queenes majesty and the Realme, offering
that all English ships with her subjects may with good
securitie enter into his ports and dominions as well in
trade of marchandize, as for victuall & water, as also in
time of warre with any her enemies to bring in prises and
to make sales as occasion should serve, or else to depart
againe with them at their pleasure.
Likewise for all English ships that shall passe along his
coast of Barbarie, & thorow the straites into the Levant
seas, that he would graunt safe conduct that the said
ships and marchants with their goods might passe into the
seas, and so to the Turks dominions, and the king
of Argiers, as his owne, and that he would write to the
Turke and to the king of Argier his letters for the well
using of our ships and goods.
Also that hereafter no Englishmen that by any meanes
may be taken captives, shall be solde within any of
his dominions: whereupon I declared that the Queenes
majesty accepting of these his offers was pleased to
confirme the intercourse & trade of our marchants within
this his countrey, as also to pleasure him with such
commodities as he should have need of, to furnish the
necessities and wants of his countrey in trade of marchandize, so as he required nothing contrarie to her
honour and law, and the breach of league with the
Christian princes her neighbours.
The same night I presented the king with the case of
combes, and desired his majestie to have special regard
that the ships might be laden backe againe, for that I
found litle store of salt-peter in readinesse in John
Bamptons hands. He answered me that I should have
all the assistance therein that he could, but that in Sus
he thought to have some store in his house there, as also
that the Mountayners had made much in a readinesse: I
requested that he would send downe, which he promised to
The eighteene day I was with him againe and so continued there till night, and he shewed me his house with
pastime in ducking with water-Spaniels, and baiting buls
with his English dogges.
At this time I mooved him againe for the sending downe
to Sus, which he granted to doe, and the 24. day there
departed Alcayde Mammie, with Lionell Edgerton, and
Rowland Guy to Sus, and caried with them for our
accompts and his company the kings letters to his brother
Muly Hammet, and Alcayde Shauan, and the Viceroy.
The 23. day the king sent me out of Marocco to his
garden called Shersbonare, with his gard, and Alcayde
Mamoute, and the 24. at night I came to the court to see a
dance, and a play of his Elchies. He promised me
audience the next day being Tuesday, but he put it off till
Thursday: and the Thursday at night I was sent for to
the king after supper, and then he sent Alcayde Rodwan,
and Alcayde Gowry to conferre with me, but after a little
talke I desired to be brought to the King for my dispatch.
And being brought to him, I preferred two bils of John
Bamptons which he had made for provision of Salt-peter:
also two bils for the quiet traffique of our English Marchants, and bils for sugars to be made for the Jewes, as
well for the debts past, as hereafter, and for good order in
the Ingenios. Also I mooved him againe for the Saltpeter, and other dispatches, which he referred to be agreed
upon by the two Alcaydes. But the Friday being the 20.
the Alcaydes could not intend it, and upon Saturday
Alcayde Rodwan fell sicke, so on Sunday we made meanes
to the King, and that afternoone I was sent for to conferre upon the bargaine with the Alcaydes and others, but
did not agree.
Upon Tuesday I wrote a letter to the King for my
dispatch, and the same afternoone I was called againe to
the Court, and referred all things to the King, accepting
his offer of Salt-peter.
That night againe the King had me into his Gallie, and
the Spaniels did hunt the ducke.
The Thursday I was appointed to way the 300. kintals
grosse of Salt-peter, and that afternoone the Tabybe came
unto mee to my lodging, shewing mee that the king was
offended with John Bampton for divers causes.
The Sunday night late being the 7. of July, I got
the King to forgive all to John Bampton, and the King
promised me to speake againe with me upon Munday.
Upon Tuesday I wrote to him againe for my dispatch,
and then hee sent Fray Lewes to mee, and said that he
had order to write.
Upon Wednesday I wrote againe, and he sent me word
that upon Thursday I should come and be dispatched, so
that I should depart upon Friday without faile, being the
twelfth of July.
So the friday after according to the kings order &
appointment I went to the court, & whereas motion and
petition was made for the confirmation of the demaunds
which I had preferred, they were all granted, and likewise
the privileges which were on the behalfe of our English
marchants requested, were with great favour and readinesse yeelded unto. And whereas the Jewes there resident
were to our men in certaine round summes indebted, the
Emperors pleasure and commandement was, that they
should without further excuse or delay, pay and discharge
the same. And thus at length I was dismissed with great
honour and speciall countenance, such as hath not
ordinarily bene shewed to other Ambassadors of the
And touching the private affaires intreated upon betwixt
her Majestie and the Emperour, I had letters from him to
satisfie her highnesse therein. So to conclude, having
received the like honourable conduct from his Court, as I
had for my part at my first landing, I embarked my selfe
with my foresaid company, and arriving not long after in
England, I repaired to her Majesties court, & ended my
Ambassage to her highnesse good liking, with relation of
my service performed.