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A large testimony of John Huighen van Linschoten Hollander, concerning the worthy exploits atchieved by the right honourable the Earle of Cumberland, By Sir Martine Frobisher, Sir Richard Greenvile, and divers other English Captaines, about the Isles of the Acores, and upon the coasts of Spaine and Portugall, in the yeeres 1589, 1590, 1591, &c. recorded in his excellent discourse of voiages to the East and West Indies. cap. 96. 97. and 99.

THE 22 of July 1589 about Evening, being by the Islands of Flores & Corvo , we perceived 3 ships that made towards us, which came from under the land, which put us in great feare: for they came close by our Admirall, and shot divers times at him, and at another ship of our companie, whereby we perceived them to be Englishmen, for they bare an English flagge upon their maine tops, but none of them shewed to be above 60 tunnes in greatnes. About Evening they followed after us, and all night bore lanternes with candles burning in them at their sternes, although the Moone shined. The same night passing hard by the Island of Fayal, the next day being betweene the Island of S. George that lay on our right hand, and the small Island called Graciosa on our left hand, we espied the 3 English ships still following us yt tooke counsell together, whereof one sailed backwards, thinking that some other ship had come after us without company, & for a time was out of sight, but it was not long before it came again to ye other two, wherwith they tooke counsel & came all 3 together against our ship, because we lay in the lee of al our ships, & had ye Island of S. George on the one side in stead of a sconce, thinking to deale so with us, that in ye end we should be constrained to run upon the shore, whereof we wanted not much, and in that manner with their flagges openly displayed, came lustily towardes us, sounding their Trumpets, and sayled at the least three times about us, beating us with Musket and Caliver, and some great pieces, and did us no hurt in the body of our shippe, but spoyled all our sayles and ropes, and to conclude, wee were so plagued by them, that no man durst put foorth his head, and when wee shot off a peece, wee had at the least an houres worke to lade it againe, whereby wee had so great a noise and crie in the shippe, as if we had all bene cast away, whereat the English men themselves beganne to mocke us, and with a thousand jesting words called unto us. In the meane time the other shippes hoised all their sayles, and did the best they could to saile to the Island of Tercera, not looking once behinde them to helpe us, doubting they should come too late thither, not caring for us, but thinking themselves to have done sufficiently so they saved their owne stakes, whereby it may easily be seene what company they keepe one with the other, and what order is among them. In the ende the English men perceiving small advantage against us, (little knowing in what case and feare we were, as also because wee were not farre from Tercera) left us, which made us not a litle to rejoyce, as thinking our selves to bee risen from death to life, although wee were not well assured, neyther yet voyde of feare till we lay in the road before Tercera, and under the safetie of the Portingales fort, and that we might get thither in good time wee made all the sailes we could: on the other side we were in great doubt, because we knew not what they did in the Island, nor whether they were our friends or enemies, and we doubted so much the more, because we found no men of warre nor any Carvels of advise from Portingal, as wee made our accounts to doe, that might convoy us from thence, or give us advise, as in that countrey ordinarily they use to do: and because the English men had bene so victorious in those parts, it made us suspect that it went not well with Spaine: they of the Island of Tercera were in no lesse feare then we, for seeing our fleete, they thought us to bee Englishmen, and that wee came to overrun the Island, because the 3. Englishmen had bound up their flags, and came in company with us: for the which cause the Island sent out two Carvels that lay there with advise from the king, for the Indians ships that should come thither. Those Carvels came to view us, and perceiving what we were, made after us, whereupon the English ships left us, and made towardes them, because the Carvels thought them to. be friends, and shunned them not, as supposing them to bee of our company, but we shot foure or five times and made signes unto them that they should make towards the Island, which they presently did. The Englishmen perceiving that, did put forwards into the sea, & so the Carvels borded us telling us that the men of the Island were all in armes, as having received advise from Portugall, that Sir Francis Drake was in readinesse, and woulde come unto those Islands. They likewise brought us newes of the overthrow of the Spanish fleet before England, and that the English men had bene before the gates of Lisbon : whereupon the king gave us commandement that we should put into the Island of Tercera, and there lie under the safety of the Castle until we received further advise what we should do, or whether we should saile: for that they thought it too dangerous for us to go to Lisbon . Those newes put our fleet in great feare, and made us looke upon eche other not knowing what to say, as being dangerous for them to put into the road, because it lieth open to the sea: so that the Indian ships, although they had expresse commandement from the king, yet they durst not anker there, but onely used to come thither, and to lie to and fro, sending their boates on land to fetch such necessaries as they wanted, without ankering: but being by necessitie compelled thereunto, as also by the kings commandement, and for that we understood the Erle of Cumberland not to bee farre from those Islands with certaine ships of warre, we made necessitie a vertue, and entring the road, ankered close under the Castle, staying for advise and order from the king, to performe our voyage, it being then the 24. of July, and S. James day.

The day before the Erle of Cumberland with 6. or 7. ships of war, sailed by the Island of Tercera, and to their great good fortune passed out of sight, so that they dispatched themselves in all haste, and for the more securitie, tooke with them 4. hundred Spaniards, of those that lay in Garrison in the Island, and with them they sayled towards Lisbon , having a good wind: so that within 11 daies after they arrived in the river of Lisbon with great gladnes & triumph: for if they had stayed but one day longer before they had entred the river, they had all beene taken by Captaine Drake, who with 40 ships came before Cascais at the same time that the Indian ships cast anker in the river of Lisbon, being garded thither by divers Gallies.

While I remained in Tercera, the Erle of Cumb. came to S. Marie, to take in fresh water, and some other victuals: but the inhabitants would not suffer him to have it, but wounded both himself & divers of his men, whereby they were forced to depart without having any thing there.

The Erle of Cumberland while I lay in Tercera, came unto the Isle of Graciosa, where himself in person, with seven or eight in his company went on land, asking certaine beastes, hens, and other victuals, with wine and fresh water, which they willingly gave him, and therewith he departed from thence, without doing them any hurt: for the which the inhabitants thanked him, and commended him for his courtesie, and keeping of his promise.

The same time that the Erle of Cumberland was in the Island of Graciosa, he came likewise to Fayall, where at the first time that he came, they beganne to resist him, but by reason of some controversie among them, they let him land, where he razed the Castle to the ground, and sunke all their Ordinance in the sea, taking with him certaine Caravels and ships that lay in the road, with provision of all things that he wanted: and therewith departed againe to sea. Whereupon the king caused the principall actors therein to be punished, and sent a company of souldiers thither againe, which went out of Tercera, with all kinde of warlike munition, and great shot, making the foretresse up againe, the better to defend the Island, trusting no more in the Portugales.

The 99 Chapter.

THE ninth of October 1589. there arrived in Tercera fourteene ships that came from the Spanish Indies, laden with Cochenile, Hides, Golde, Silver, Pearles, and other rich wares. They were fiftie in companie, when they departed out of the Haven of Havana, whereof, in their comming out of the Channell, eleven sunke in the same Channell by foule weather, the rest by a storme were scattered and separated one from the other. The next day there came another ship of the same companie, that sailed close under the Island, so to get into the Roade: where she met with an English ship that had not above three cast peeces, and the Spaniards 12. They fought a long time together, which we being in the Island might stand and behold: whereupon the Governour of Tercera sent two boates of Musketiers to helpe the shippe: but before they could come at her, the English ship had shot her under water, and we saw her sinke into the Sea with all her sayles up, and not any thing seene of her above the water. The Englishmen with their boate saved the Captaine and about thirtie others with him, but not one penie-worth of the goods, and yet in the shippe there was at the least to the value of two hundred thousand Duckats in Golde, Silver, and Pearles, the rest of the men were drowned which might be about fiftie persons, among the which were some Fryers and women, which the Englishmen would not save. Those that they had saved they set on land: and then they sayled away. The seven and twentieth of the same moneth, the sayd fourteene ships having refreshed themselves in the Island departed from Tercera toward Sivill, and comming upon the coast of Spaine they were taken by the English ships that lay there to watch for them, two onely excepted which escaped away, and the rest were wholly caried into England.

About the same time the Erle of Cumberland with one of the Queenes ships, and five or sixe more, kept about those Islands and came oftentimes so close under the Island, and to the Road of Angra, that the people on land might easily tell all his men that he had aboord, and knewe such as walked on the Hatches: they of the Island not once shooting at them, although they might easily have done it, for they were within Musket shot both of the towne and fort. In these places he continued for the space of two moneths, and sayled round about the Islands, and landed in Graciosa and Fayal, as in the description of those Islands I have alreadie declared. Here he tooke divers ships and Caravels, which he sent into England: so that those of the Island durst not once put foorth their heads. At the same time about three or foure dayes after the Earle of Cumberland had beene in the Island of Fayal, and was departed from thence, there arrived in the said Island of Fayal sixe Indian shippes, whose Generall was one Juan Dorives: and there they discharged in the Iland 4 millions of golde and silver. And having with all speede refreshed their ships, fearing the comming of the Englishmen they set sayle, and arrived safely in S. Lucar, not meeting with the enemie, to the great good lucke of the Spaniards and hard fortune of the Englishmen: for that within lesse then two dayes after the gold and silver was laden againe into the Spanish ships, the Erle of Cumberland sayled againe by that Island: so that it appeared that God would not let them have it, for if they had once had sight thereof, without doubt it had bene theirs, as the Spaniards themselves confessed.

In the moneth of November there arrived in Tercera two great shippes, which were the Admirall and Viceadmirall of the Fleete laden with silver, who with stormie weather were separated from the Fleete, and had beene in great torment and distresse, and readie to sinke: for they were forced to use all their Pumps: so that they wished a thousand times to have met with the Englishmen to whom they would willingly have given their silver and all that ever they brought with them, onely to save their lives. And although the Erle of Cumberland lay still about those Islands, yet they met not with him, so that after much paine and labour they got into the Road before Angra , where with all speede they unladed and discharged above five millions of silver, all in pieces of 8 or 10 pound great: so that the whole Kay lay covered with plates and chests of silver, full of Ryales of eight, most wonderfull to behold, (each million being ten hundred thousand duckats,) besides pearles, gold, and other stones, which were not registred. The Admirall and chiefe commaunder of those ships and Fleete called Alvaro Flores de Quiniones was sicke of the Neapolitan disease, and was brought to land, whereof not long after he died in Sivillia. He brought with him the Kings broad seale and full authoritie to be Generall and chiefe commaunder upon the Seas, and of all Fleetes or ships, and of all places and Islands, or lands wheresoever he came: whereupon the governour of Tercera did him great honour, and betweene them it was concluded, perceiving the weaknesse of their ships, and the danger of the Englishmen, that they would send the shippes emptie with souldiers to convey them, either to Sivill or Lisbon , where they could first arrive, with advise unto his Majestie of all that had past, and that he would give order to fetch the silver with good and safe convoy. Whereupon the said Alvaro Flores stayed there, under colour of keeping the silver, but specially because of his disease, and for that they were affraide of the Englishmen. This Alvaro Flores had alone for his owne part above 50000 Duckats in pearles which he shewed unto us, & sought to sell them or barter them with us for spices or bils of exchange. The said two ships set sayle with 3 or 4 hundred men, as well souldiers as others that came with them out of India, and being at sea had a storme, wherewith the Admiral burst and sunke in the sea, & not one man saved. The Vice-Admirall cut downe her mast, and ranne the ship on ground hard by Setuval, where it burst in pieces, some of the men saving themselves by swimming, that brought the newes, but the rest were drowned.

In the same moneth there came two great ships out of the Spanish Indies, and being within half a mile of the Road of Tercera, they met with an English ship, which, after they had fought long together, tooke them both. About 7 or 8 moneths before, there had beene an English shippe in Tercera, that under the name of a Frenchman came to traffike in the Island, there to lade woad, and being discovered was both ship and goods confiscated to the kings use, and all the men kept prisoners : yet went they up and downe the streetes to get their livings, by labouring like slaves, being in deede as safe in that Island, as if they had beene in prison. But in the ende upon a Sunday, all the Saylers went downe behinde the hils called Bresil : where they found a Fisher-boat, whereinto they got and rowed into the sea to the Erle of Cumberlands shippes, which to their great fortune chanced at that time to come by the Island, and ankered with his ships about halfe a mile from the Road of Angra, hard by two small Islands, which lie about a bases shot from the Island and are full of Goats, Deere and Sheepe, belonging to the inhabitants of the Island of Tercera. Those Saylers knew it well, and thereupon they rowed unto them with their boates, and lying at anker that day, they fetched as many Goates and sheepe as they had neede of: which those of the towne and of the Island well saw and behelde, yet durst not once goe foorth: so there remained no more on land but the Master and the Marchant of the said English ship. This Master had a brother in lawe dwelling in England, who having newes of his brothers imprisonment in Tercera, got licence of the Queene of England to set forth a ship, therewith to see if he could recover his losses of the Spaniards by taking some of them, and so to redeeme his brother that lay prisoner in Tercera, and he it was that tooke the two Spanish ships before the Towne, the Master of the ship aforesaid standing on the shore by me, and looking upon them, for he was my great acquaintance. The ships being taken that were worth 300 thousand duckats, he sent al the men on land saving onely two of the principall Gentlemen, which he kept aboord thereby to ransome his brother: and sent the Pilot of one of the Indian ships that were taken, with a letter to the Governor of Tercera: wherein he wrote that he should deliver him his brother, & he would send the 2 Gentlemen on land: if not, he would saile with them into England, as indeed he did, because the Governour would not doe it, saying that the Gentlemen might make that suite to the king of Spaine himselfe. This Spanish Pilot we bid to supper with us, and the Englishmen likewise, where he shewed us all the manner of their fight, much commending the order and maner of the Englishmens fighting, as also their courteous using of him: but in the end the English Pilot likewise stole away in a French ship, without paying any ransome as yet.

In the moneth of Januarie 1590 there arrived one ship alone in Tercera, that came from the Spanish Indies, and brought newes that there was a Fleete of a hundred shippes which put out from the Firme land of the Spanish Indies, and by a storme were driven upon the coast called Florida , where they were all cast away, she having onely escaped, wherin there were great riches, & many men lost, as it may well be thought: so that they made their account, that of 220 ships that for certaine were knowen to have put out of Nova Spagna, S. Domingo, Havana, Capo verde, Brasilia , Guinea, &c. in the yeere 1589. to saile for Spaine & Portugall, there were not above 14 or 15 of them arrived there in safetie, all the rest being either drowned, burst or taken.

In the same moneth of January there arrived in Tercera 15 or 16 ships that came from Sivil, which were most Flieboats of the Low countries, and some Britons that were arrested in Spaine: these came full of souldiers, and wel appointed with munition, to lade the silver that lay in Tercera, and to fetch Alvares de Flores by the kings commandement into Spaine. And because that time of the yeere there are alwayes stormes about those Ilands, therefore they durst not enter into the road of Tercera, for that as then it blew so great a storme that some of their ships that had ankred were forced to cut downe their mastes, and were in danger to be lost: and among the rest a ship of Biscaie ran against the land and was striken in pieces, but all the men saved themselves. The other ships were forced to keepe the sea and seperate themselves one from the other, where wind and weather would drive them untill the 15 of March for that in all that time they could not have one day of faire weather to anker in, whereby they endured much miserie, cursing both the silver and the Iland. This storme being past, they chanced to meet with a small English ship of about 40 tunnes in bignesse, which by reason of the great wind could not beare all her sailes: so they set upon her and tooke her, and with the English flag in their Admirals sterne, they came as proudly into the haven as if they had conquered all the realme of England: but as the Admirall that bare the English flag upon her sterne was entring into the road, there came by chance two English ships by the Iland that paied her so well for her paines, that they were forced to cry Misericordia, and without all doubt had taken her, if she had bene but a mile further in the sea: but because she got under the Fortresse, which also began to shoot at the Englishmen, they were forced to leave her, and to put further into the sea, having slaine five or sixe of the Spaniards. The Englishmen that were taken in the small shippe were put under hatches, and coupled in bolts, and after they had bene prisoners 3 or 4 dayes, there was a Spanish Ensigne-bearer in the ship that had a brother slaine in the Fleet that came for England, who as then minding to revenge his death, and withall to shew his manhood on the English captives that were in the English ship, which they had taken, as is aforesayd, tooke a poiniard in his hand and went downe under the hatches, where finding the poore Englishmen sitting in boltes, with the same poiniard he stabbed sixe of them to the heart: which two others of them perceiving, clasped each other about the middle, because they would not be murthered by him, & threw themselves into the sea and there were drowned. This acte was of all the Spaniards much disliked and very ill taken, so that they caried the Spaniard prisoner unto Lisbon , where being arrived, the king of Spaine willed he should be sent into England, that the Queene of England might use him as she thought good: which sentence his friends by intreatie got to be reversed, notwithstanding he commanded he should without all favour be beheaded: but upon a good Friday the Cardinall going to masse, all the captaines and Commanders made so great intreaty for him, that in the end they got his pardon. This I thought good to note, that men might understand the bloody & dishonest minds of the Spaniards when they have men under their subjection.

The same two English ships which folowed the Spanish Admirall till he had got the Fort of Tercera, as I sayd before, put into the sea, where they met with another Spanish ship being of the same Fleet, that had likewise bene scattred by the storme and was onely missing, for the rest lay in the road. This small ship the Englishmen tooke, and sent all the men on shore, not hurting any of them: but if they had knowen what had bene done unto the foresayd English captives, I beleeve they would soone have revenged themselves, as afterward many an innocent soule paied for it. This ship thus taken by the Englishmen, was the same that was taken and confiscated in the Iland of Tercera by the Englishmen that got out of the Iland in a fisher boat (as I said before) and was sold unto the Spaniards that as then came from the Indies, wherewith they sayled to S. Lucar, where it was also arrested by the duke, and appointed to go in company to fetch the silver in Tercera, because it was a ship that sailed well, but among the Spaniards Fleet it was the meanest of the company. By this means it was taken from the Spaniards and caried into England, and the owners had it againe when they least thought of it.

The 19 of March the aforesayd ships being 19 in number, set saile, having laden the kings silver, and received in Alvaro Flores de Quiniones, with his company and good provision of necessaries, munition and souldiers that were fully resolved (as they made shew) to fight valiantly to the last man before they would yeeld or lose their riches: and although they set their course for S. Lucar, the wind drave them unto Lisbon , which (as it seemed) was willing by his force to helpe them, and to bring them thither in safetie, although Alvaro de Flores, both against the wind and weather would perforce have sailed to Saint Lucar, but being constrained by the wind and importunitie of the sailers that protested they would require their losses and damages of him, he was content to saile to Lisbon : from whence the silver was by land caried unto Sivil. At Cape S. Vincent there lay a Fleet of 20 English ships to watch for the Armada, so that if they had put into S. Lucar, they had fallen right into their hands, which if the wind had served they had done. And therefore they may say that the wind hath lent them a happy voiage: for if the Englishmen had met with them, they had surely bene in great danger, and possibly but few of them had escaped, by reason of the feare wherewith they were possessed, because fortune or rather God was wholy against them: which is a sufficient cause to make the Spaniards out of heart, & to the contrary to give the Englishmen more courage, and to make them bolder for that they are victorious, stout and valiant: and seeing all their enterprises do take so good effect, that thereby they are become lords and masters of the sea, and need care for no man, as it wel appeareth by this briefe discourse.

The 7 of August 1590. a navie of English ships was seen before Tercera, being 20 in number, and 5 of them the Queenes ships: their Generall was one Martin Frobisher, as we after had intelligence. They came purposely to watch for the Fleet of the Spanish Indies, and for the Indian ships, and the ships of the countreys in the West: which put the Ilanders in great feare, specially those of Fayal, for that the Englishmen sent a trumpet to the Governour to aske certaine wine, flesh, and other victuals for their money and good friendship. They of Fayal did not onely refuse to give eare unto them, but with a shot killed their messenger or trumpeter: which the Englishmen tooke in evill part, sending them word that they were best to looke to themselves and stand upon their guard, for they ment to come and visite them whether they would or no. The Governour made them answere, that he was there in the behalfe of his majestie of Spaine, and that he would doe his best to keepe them out, as he was bound: but nothing was done, although they of Fayal were in no litle feare, sending to Tercera for aide, from whence they had certaine barkes with pouder and munition for warre, with some bisket and other necessary provision.

The 30 of August we received very certaine newes out of Portugal , that there were 80 ships put out of the Groine laden with victuals, munition, money and souldiours, to goe for Britaine to aide the Catholiques and Leaguers of France against the king of Navarre . At the same time two Netherland hulkes comming out of Portugall to Tercera being halfe the Seas over, met with 4 of the Queenes ships, their Generall being sir John Hawkins, that staied them, but let them go againe without doing them any harme. The Netherlanders reported, that each of the Queenes ships had 80 pieces of Ordinance, and that captaine Drake lay with 40 ships in the English chanell watching for the armie of the Groine: and likewise that there lay at the Cape S. Vincent ten other English ships, that if any ships escaped from the Ilands, they might take them. These tidings put the Ilanders in great feare, least if they failed of the Spanish fleete and got nothing by them, that then they would fall upon the Ilands, because they would not returne emptie home, whereupon they held streit watch, sending advise unto the king what newes they heard.

The first of September there came to the Iland of S. Michael a Portugall ship out of the haven of Phernambuck in Brasile , which brought newes that the Admirall of the Portugall Fleet that came from India, having missed the Iland of S. Helena, was of necessitie con strained to put into Phernambuck, although the king had expresly under a great penaltie forbidden him so to doe, because of the wormes that there doe spoile the ships. The same shippe wherein Bernardin Ribero was Admirall the yeere before 1589. sailed out of Lisbon into the Indies, with 5 ships in her company, whereof but 4 got into India, the 5 was never heard of, so that it was thought to be cast away: the other foure returned safe againe into Portugall, though the Admiral was much spoiled, because he met with two English ships that fought long with him, and slew many of his men, but yet he escaped from them.

The 5 of the same moneth there arrived in Tercera a caravel of the Iland of Corvo, & brought with her 50 men that had bin spoiled by the Englishmen who had set them on shore in the Iland of Corvo, being taken out of a ship that came from the Spanish Indies, they brought tidings that the Englishmen had taken 4 more of the Indian ships, & a caravel with the king of Spaines letters of advise for the ships comming out of the Portugal Indies, & that with those which they had taken, they were at the least 40 English ships together, so yt not one bark escaped them, but fel into their hands, & that therefore the Portugall ships comming out of India durst not put into the Ilands, but tooke their course under 40 & 42 degrees, and from thence sailed to Lisbon , shunning likewise the cape S. Vincent, otherwise they could not have had a prosperous journey of it, for that as then the sea was ful of English ships. Whereupon the king advised the fleet lying in Havana in ye Spanish Indies ready to come for Spaine, that they should stay there all that yeere till the next yeere, because of the great danger they might fal into by ye Englishmen, which was no smal charge, & hinderance to the fleet, for that the ships that lie there do consume themselves, and in a maner eat up one another, by reason of the great number of people, together with the scarcitie of al things, so that many ships chose rather one by one to adventure themselves alone to get home, then to stay there: all which fell into the Englishmens hands, wherof divers of the men were brought into Tercera, for that a whole day we could see nothing els, but spoiled men set on shore, some out of one ship, some out of another, that pitie it was to see all of them cursing the Englishmen & their owne fortunes, with those that had bene the causes to provoke the Englishmen to fight, and complaining of the small remedie and order taken therein by the king of Spaines officers.

The 19 of the same moneth there came to Tercera a Caravel of Lisbon, with one of the kings officers, to cause the goods that were saved out of the ship which came from Malacca (for ye which we staied there) to be laden and sent to Lisbon . And at the same time there put out of the Groine one Don Alonso de Bacan, with 40 great ships of warre to come unto the Ilands, there to watch for the fleet of the Spanish & Portugall Indies, and the goods of the Malacca ship being laden, they were to convoy them all together into the river of Lisbon : but being certaine daies at sea, alwaies having a contrary wind, they could not get unto the Ilands, onely two of them that were scattered from the fleet, arrived at Tercera, and not finding the fleet, they presently returned to seeke them: in the meane time the king changed his mind, & caused the fleet to stay in India, as I said before: and therefore hee sent worde unto Don Alonso de Bassan, that hee should returne againe to the Groine, which he presently did (without doing any thing, nor once approching neer the Ilands, saving onely the two foresayd ships, for he well knew that the Englishmen lay by the Iland of Corvo, but he would not visit them: and so he returned to the haven the Groine, whereby our goods that came from Malacca were yet to ship, and trussed up againe, and forced to stay a more fortunate time with patience perforce.

The 23 of October there arrived in Tercera a Caravel with advise out of Portugall, that of 5 ships which in the yere 1590 were laden in Lisbon for the Indies, 4 of them were turned againe to Portin. After they had bene 4 moneths abroad, & that the Admirall, wherein the Viceroy called Mathias d'Albukerk sailed, had onely gotten to India, as afterward newes thereof was brought overland, having bin at the least 11 moneths at sea & never saw land, and came in great misery to Malacca. In this ship there died by the way 280 men, according to a note by himselfe made, and sent to the Cardinal at Lisbon , with the names & surnames of every man, together with a description of his voiage, & the misery they had endured, which was onely done, because he would not lose the government of India: and for that cause he had sworne either to lose his life, or to arrive in India, as in deed he did afterwards, but to the great danger, losse and hinderance of his companie, that were forced to buy it with their lives, & onely for want of provision, as it may wel be thought: for he knew full well that if he had returned backe againe into Portugal as the other ships did, he should have bin cassiered from his Indian regiment, because the people began already to murmure at him for his proud & lofty mind. And among other things that shewed his pride the more, behind above the gallery of his ship he caused Fortune to be painted, & his own picture wt a staffe standing by her, as it were threatning Fortune, with this posie, Quero que vencas, that is, I wil have thee to overcome: which being read by the Cardinal & other gentlemen (that to honor him brought him aboord his ship) it was thought to be a point of exceeding folly: but it is no strange matter among the Portugals: for they above all others must of force let the foole peepe out of their sleeves, specially when they are in authoritie, for that I knew the said Mathias d'Albukerk in India, being a souldier and a captaine, where he was esteemed and accounted for one of the best of them, & much honoured, and beloved of all men, as behaving himselfe curteously to every man, whereby they all desired that he might be Viceroy. But when he once had received his patent with full power & authoritie from the king to be Viceroy, he changed so much from his former behavior, that by reason of his pride, they all began to feare and curse him, and that before hee departed out of Lisbon , as it is often seene in many men that are advanced unto state and dignitie.

The 20 of Januarie 1591. there was newes brought out of Portugall into Tercera, that the Englishmen had taken a ship that the king had sent into the PortugalIndies, wt advise to the Viceroy for the returning againe of the 4 ships that should have gone to India, & because the ships were come backe againe, that ship was stuffed and laded as full of goods as possible it might be, having likewise in ready money 500 thousand duckets in roials of 8, besides other wares. It departed from Lisbon in the moneth of November 1590. & met with the Englishmen, with whom for a time it fought, but in the end it was taken and caried into England with men & all, yet when they came there, the men were set at libertie, and returned into Lisbon , where the captaine was committed prisoner; but he excused himselfe and was released, with whom I spake my selfe, & he made this report unto me. At the same time also they tooke a ship that came from the Mine laden with gold, & 2 ships laden with pepper & spices that were to saile into Italy , the pepper onely that was in them, being worth 170 thousand duckets: all these ships were caried into England, & made good prise.

In the moneth of July 1591. there hapned an earthquake in the Iland of S. Michael, which continued from the 26 of July, to the 12 of August, in which time no man durst stay within his house but fled into the fields, fasting & praying with great sorow, for that many of their houses fel down, and a towne called Villa Franca, was almost cleane razed to the ground, all the cloisters & houses shaken to the earth, and therein some people slaine. The land in some places rose up, and the cliffs remooved from one place to another, and some hils were defaced and made even with the ground. The earthquake was so strong, that the ships which lay in the road and on the sea, shaked as if the world would have turned round: there sprang also a fountaine out of the earth, from whence for the space of 4 daies, there flowed a most cleare water, & after that it ceased. At the same time they heard such thunder & noise under the earth, as if all the devils in hell had bin assembled together in that place, wherewith many died for feare. The Iland of Tercera shooke 4 times together, so that it seemed to turne about, but there hapned no misfortune unto it. Earthquakes are common in those Ilands, for about 20 yeres past there hapned another earthquake, wherein a high hill that lieth by the same towne of Villa Franca, fell halfe downe, & covered all the towne with earth, and killed many men. The 25 of August the kings Armada comming out of Ferol arrived in Tercera being in all 30 ships, Biskaines, Portugals and Spaniards, and 10 dutch flieboats that were arrested in Lisbon to serve the king, besides other small ships & pataxos, that came to serve as messengers from place to place, and to discover the seas. This navie came to stay for, and convoy the ships that should come from the Spanish Indies, and the flieboats were appointed in their returne home, to take in the goods that were saved in the lost ship that came from Malacca, and to convoy them to Lisbon .

The 13 of September the said Armada arrived at the Iland of Corvo, where the Englishmen with about 16 ships as then lay, staying for the Spanish fleet, whereof some or the most part were come, and there the English were in good hope to have taken them. But when they perceived the kings army to be strong, the Admiral being the lord Thomas Howard, commanded his Fleet not to fal upon them, nor any of them once to separate their ships from him, unlesse he gave commission so to do: notwithstanding the viceadmirall sir Richard Greenvil being in the ship called the Revenge, went into the Spanish fleet, and shot among them doing them great hurt, & thinking the rest of the company would have folowed, which they did not, but left him there, & sailed away: the cause why could not be knowen. Which the Spaniards perceiving, with 7 or 8 ships they boorded her, but she withstood them all, fighting with them at the least 12 houres together and sunke two of them, one being a new double Flieboat of 600 tunnes, and Admiral of the Flieboats, the other a Biscain: but in the end by reason of the number that came upon her, she was taken, but to their great losse : for they had lost in fighting and by drowning above 400 men, and of the English were slaine about 100, Sir Richard Greenvil himselfe being wounded in his braine, whereof afterwards he died. He was caried into the ship called S. Paul, wherein was the Admirall of the fleet Don Alonso de Bacan: there his wounds were drest by the Spanish surgeons, but Don Alonso himselfe would neither see him nor speake with him: all the rest of the captaines and gentlemen went to visite him, and to comfort him in his hard fortune, wondering at his courage and stout heart, for yt he shewed not any signe of faintnes nor changing of colour; but feeling the houre of death to approch, he spake these words in Spanish, and said: Here die I Richard Greenvil with a joyful & quiet mind, for that I have ended my life as a true souldier ought to do, that hath fought for his countrey, Queene, religion and honor, whereby my soule most joyfull departeth out of this body, & shal alwayes leave behind it an everlasting fame of a valiant & true souldier that hath done his dutie as he was bound to doe. When he had finished these or such other like words, he gave up the Ghost, with great & stout courage, & no man could perceive any true signe of heavines in him.

This sir Rich. Greenvil was a great and a rich gentleman in England, & had great yeerely revenues of his owne inheritance, but he was a man very unquiet in his mind, and greatly affected to war; insomuch as of his owne private motion he offred his service to the Queene: he had performed many valiant acts, and was greatly feared in these Ilands, and knowen of every man, but of nature very severe, so that his owne people hated him for his fiercenesse, & spake very hardly of him: for when they first entred into the fleet or Armada, they had their great saile in a readinesse, and might possibly enough have sailed away, for it was one of the best ships for saile in England, and the master perceiving that the other ships had left them, & folowed not after, commanded the great saile to be cut that they might make away: but sir Rich. Greenvil threatned both him & al the rest that were in the ship, yt if any man laid hand upon it, he would cause him to be hanged, and so by that occasion they were compelled to fight & in the end were taken. He was of so hard a complexion, that as he continued among the Spanish captains while they were at dinner or supper with him, he would carouse 3 or 4 glasses of wine, and in a braverie take the glasses betweene his teeth and crash them in pieces & swalow them downe, so that oftentimes the blood ran out of his mouth without any harme at all unto him: & this was told me by divers credible persons that many times stood and beheld him. The Englishmen that were left in the ship, as the captaine of the souldiers, the master and others were dispersed into divers of the Spanish ships that had taken them, where there had almost a new fight arisen between the Biscains and the Portugals: while each of them would have the honour to have first boorded her, so that there grew a great noise and quarel among them, one taking the chiefe ensigne, and the other the flag, and the captaine and every one held his owne. The ships that had boorded her were altogether out of order, and broken, and many of their men hurt, whereby they were compelled to come into the Island of Tercera, there to repaire themselves: where being arrived, I and my chamber-felow, to heare some newes, went aboord one of the ships being a great Biscain, and one of the 12 Apostles, whose captaine was called Bartandono, that had bin General of the Biscains in the fleet that went for England. He seeing us called us up into the gallery, where with great curtesie he received us, being as then set at dinner with the English captaine that sate by him, and had on a sute of blacke velvet, but he could not tell us any thing, for that he could speake no other language but English and Latine, which Bartandono also could a litle speake. The English captaine got licence of the governour that he might come on land with his weapon by his side, and was in our lodging with the Englishman that was kept prisoner in the Iland, being of that ship whereof the sailers got away, as I said before. The governour of Tercera bade him to dinner, and shewed him great curtesie. The master likewise with licence of Bartandono came on land and was in our lodging, and had at the least 10 or 12 wounds, as well in his head as on his body, whereof after that being at sea between Lisbon & the Ilands he died. The captaine wrote a letter, wherein he declared all the maner of the fight, and left it with the English marchant that lay in our lodging, to send it to the lord Admiral of England. This English captaine comming unto Lisbon , was there wel received and not any hurt done unto him, but with good convoy sent to Setuval, and from thence sailed into England with all the rest of the Englishmen that were taken prisoners.

The Spanish armie staied at the Iland of Corvo til the last of September, to assemble the rest of the fleet together, which in the ende were to the number of 140 sailes of ships partly comming from India, and partly of the army, and being altogether ready to saile to Tercera in good company, there suddenly rose so hard & cruell a storme, that those of the Ilands did affirme, that in mans memorie there was never any such seen or heard off before: for it seemed the sea would have swalowed up the Ilands, the water mounting higher then the cliffs, which are so high that it amaseth a man to behold them: but the sea reached above them, and living fishes were throwen upon the land. This storme continued not only a day or two with one wind, but 7 or 8 dayes continually, the wind turning round about in al places of the compasse, at the lest twise or thrise during that time, and all alike, with a continuall storme and tempest most terrible to behold, even to us that were on shore, much more then to such as were at sea: so that onely on the coasts and cliffes of the Iland of Tercera, there were above 12 ships cast away, and not onely upon the one side, but round about it in every corner, wherby nothing els was heard but complaining, crying, lamenting & telling, here is a ship broken in pieces against the cliffes, and there another, and all the men drowned: so that for the space of 20 dayes after the storme, they did nothing els but fish for dead men that continually came driving on the shore. Among the rest was the English ship called the Revenge, that was cast away upon a cliffe neere to the Iland of Tercera, where it brake in an hundred pieces & sunke to the ground, having in her 70 men Galegos, Biscains, and others, with some of the captive Englishmen, whereof but one was saved that got up upon the cliffes alive, and had his body and head all wounded, and he being on shore brought us the newes desiring to be shriven, & thereupon presently died. The Revenge had in her divers faire brasse pieces that were all sunke in ye sea, which they of the Iland were in good hope to waigh up againe the next Sommer after. Among these ships that were cast away about Tercera, was likewise a Flieboat, one of those that had bin arrested in Portugall to serve the king, called the white Dove, the master of her was one Cornelius Martenson of Schiedam in Holland , and there were in her 100 souldiers, as in every one of the rest there were. He being over-ruled by the captaine that he could not be master of his owne, sayling here and there at the mercy of God, as the storme drove him, in the end came within the sight of the Iland of Tercera, which the Spaniards perceiving thought all their safetie onely to consist in putting into the road, compelling the Master and the Pilot to make towards the Iland, although the master refused to doe it, saying, that they were most sure there to be cast away and utterly spoyled: but the captaine called him drunkard and Heretique, and striking him with a staffe, commaunded him to doe as hee would have him. The Master seeing this and being compelled to doe it, sayd: well then my Masters, seeing it is the desire of you all to bee cast away, I can but lose one life, and therewith desperately he sailed towards the shore, and was on that side of the Iland, where there was nothing els but hard stones and rocks, as high as mountaines, most terrible to beholde, where some of the inhabitants stood with long ropes and corke bound at the end thereof, to throw them downe unto the men, that they might lay holde upon them, and save their lives: but few of them got so neere, most of them being cast away, and smitten in pieces before they could get to the wall. The ship sailing in this maner (as I sayd before) towards the Iland, and approching to the shore, the master being an olde man, and full of yeeres, called his sonne that was in the ship with him, and having imbraced one another, and taken their last farewell, the good olde father willed his sonne not to take care for him, but seeke to save himselfe; for (sayd he) sonne thou art yong, & mayest have some hope to save thy life, but as for me it is no great matter (I am olde) what become of me, and therewith ech of these shedding many teares, as every loving father and kinde childe may well consider, the ship fell upon the cliffes, and brake in pieces, the father on the one side, the sonne on the other side falling into the sea, ech laying holde upon that which came next to hand, but to no purpose; for the sea was so high and furious, that they were all drowned, and onely foureteene or fifteene saved themselves by swimming, with their legs and armes halfe broken and out of joynt, among which was the Masters sonne, and foure other Dutch boyes: the rest of the Spaniards and Sailers, with the Captaine and Master, were drowned. Whose heart would not melt with teares to beholde so grievous a sight, specially considering with himselfe that the greatest cause thereof was the beastlines and insolency of the Spaniards, as in this onely example may well be seene? Whereby may be considered how the other shippes sped, as we our selves did in part beholde, and by the men that were saved did heare more at large, as also some others of our countreymen that as then were in the like danger can well witnesse.

On the other Ilands the losse was no lesse then in Tercera: for on the Iland of Saint George there were two ships cast away: on the Iland of Pico two ships : on the Iland of Gratiosa three ships: and besides those there came every where round about divers pieces of broken ships, and other things fleeting towards the Ilands, wherewith the sea was all covered most pitifull to beholde. On the Iland of S. Michael there were foure ships cast away, and betweene Tercera and S. Michael three more were sunke, which were seene and heard to cry out; whereof not one man was saved. The rest put into the sea without masts, all torne and rent: so that of the whole fleet and armada, being 140 ships in all, there were but 32 or 33 arrived in Spaine and Portugall, yea, and those few with so great misery, paine and labour, that not two of them arrived there together, but this day one, and to morrow another, next day the third, and so one after the other to the number aforesayd. All the rest were cast away upon the Ilands, and overwhelmed in the Sea, whereby may be considered what great losse and hindrance they received at that time: for by many mens judgements it was esteemed to be much more then was lost by their army that came for England; and it may well be thought, and presumed, that it was no other but a just plague purposely sent by God upon the Spaniards, and that it might truely be sayd, the taking of the Revenge was justly revenged upon them, and not by the might or force of man, but by the power of God, as some of them openly sayd in the Ile of Tercera, that they beleeved verily God would consume them, and that he tooke part with the Lutherans and heretiks: saying further that so soone as they had throwen the dead body of the Viceadmirall Sir Richard Greenfield over-boord, they verily thought that as he had a divellish faith and religion, and therefore the divels loved him, so he presently sunke into the bottome of the sea, and downe into hell, where he raised up all the divels to the revenge of his death: and that they brought so great stormes and torments upon the Spaniards, because they onely maintained the Catholike & Romish religion. Such and the like blasphemies against God, they ceased not openly to utter, without being reprooved of any man therein, nor for their false opinions: but the most part of them rather sayd and affirmed, that of trueth it must needs be so.

As one of those Indian fleets put out of Nova Spagna, there were 35 of them by storme and tempest cast away and drowned in the Sea, being 50 in all; so that but 15 escaped. Of the fleet that came from Santo Domingo there were 14 cast away, comming out of the chanell of Havana, whereof the Admirall and Viceadmirall were two of them: and from Terra Firma in India there came two ships laden with golde and silver, that were taken by the Englishmen: and before the Spanish army came to Corvo , the Englishmen at times had taken at the least 20 ships, that came from S. Domingo, India, Brasilia , &c. and were all sent into England.

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