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The second Chapter sheweth, that it is lawfull and necessarie to trade and traffique with the Savages: And to plant in their Countries: And divideth planting into two sorts.

AND first for traffique, I say that the Christians may lawfully travell into those Countries and abide there: whom the Savages may not justly impugne and forbidde in respect of the mutuall societie and fellowshippe betweene man and man prescribed by the Law of Nations.

For from the first beginning of the creation of the world, and from the renewing of the same after Noes flood, all men have agreed, that no violence should be offered to Ambassadours: That the Sea with his Havens should be common: That such as should fortune to be taken in warre, should be servants or slaves: And that strangers should not bee driven away from the place or Countrey whereunto they doe come.

If it were so then, I demaund in what age, and by what Law is the same forbidden or denied since? For who doubteth but that it is lawfull for Christians to use trade and traffique with Infidels or Savages, carrying thither such commodities as they want, and bringing from thence some part of their plentie?

A thing so commonly and generally practised, both in these our dayes, and in times past, beyond the memorie of man, both by Christians and Infidels, that it needeth no further proofe.

And forasmuch as the use of trade and traffique (be it never so profitable) ought not to be preferred before the planting of Christian faith: I will therefore somewhat intreate of planting, (without which, Christian Religion can take no roote, be the Preachers never so carefull and diligent) which I meane to divide into two sortes.

The first, when Christians by the good liking and willing assent of the Savages, are admitted by them to quiet possession.

The second, when Christians being unjustly repulsed, doe seeke to attaine and mainteine the right for which they doe come.

And though in regard of the establishment of Christian Religion, eyther of both may be lawfully and justly exercised: (Whereof many examples may be found, as well in the time of Moyses and Josua, and other rulers before the birth of Christ, as of many vertuous Emperours and Kings sithence his incarnation :) yet doe I wish, that before the second be put in practise, a proofe may be made of the first, saving that for their safetie as well against the Savages, as all other forreigne enemies, they should first well and strongly fortifie themselves: which being done, then by all fayre speeches, and every other good meanes of perswasion to seeke to take away all occasions of offence.

As letting them to understand, how they came not to their hurt, but for their good, and to no other ende, but to dwell peaceably amongst them, and to trade and traffique with them for their owne commoditie, without molesting or grieving them any way: which must not be done by wordes onely but also by deedes.

For albeit, to maintaine right and repell injury, be a just cause of warre: yet must there hereof be heedefull care had, that whereas the Savages be fearefull by nature, and fond otherwise, the Christians should doe their best endevour to take away such feare as may growe unto them by reason of their strange apparell, Armour, and weapon, or such like, by quiet and peaceable conversation, and letting them live in securitie, and keeping a measure of blamelesse defence, with as little discommoditie to the Savages as may bee: for this kinde of warre would be onely defensive and not offensive.

And questionlesse there is great hope and likelyhoode, that by this kinde of meanes we should bring to passe all effects to our desired purposes: Considering that all creatures, by constitution of nature, are rendred more tractable and easier wonne for all assayes, by courtesie and mildnesse, then by crueltie or roughnesse : and there fore being a principle taught us by naturall reason, it is first to be put in ure.

For albeit as yet the Christians are not so throughly furnished with the perfectnesse of their language, eyther to expresse their mindes to them, or againe to conceive the Savages intent: Yet for the present opportunitie, such policie may be used by friendly signes, and courteous tokens towards them, as the Savages may easily perceive (were their sences never so grosse) an assured friendship to be offered them, and that they are encountered with such a nation, as brings them benefite, commoditie, peace, tranquilitie and safetie. To further this, and to accomplish it in deedes, there must bee presented unto them gratis, some kindes of our pettie marchandizes and trifles: As looking glasses, Belles, Beades, Bracelets, Chaines, or collers of Bewgle, Chrystall, Amber, Jet, or Glasse &c. For such be the things, though to us of small value, yet accounted by them of high price and estimation: and soonest will induce their Barbarous natures to a liking and a mutuall societie with us.

Moreover, it shall be requisite eyther by speeche, if it be possible, either by some other certaine meanes, to signifie unto them, that once league of friendship with all loving conversation being admitted betweene the Christians and them: that then the Christians from thenceforth will alwayes be ready with force of Armes to assist and defend them in their just quarrels, from all invasions, spoyles and oppressions offered them by any Tyrants, Adversaries, or their next borderers: and a benefite is so much the more to be esteemed, by how much the person upon whom it is bestowed standeth in neede thereof.

For it appeareth by the relation of a Countryman of ours, namely David Ingram, (who travelled in those countries xi. Moneths and more) That the Savages generally for the most part, are at continuall warres with their next adjoyning neighbours, and especially the Cannibals, being a cruell kinde of people, whose foode is mans flesh, and have teeth like dogges, and doe pursue them with ravenous mindes to eate their flesh, and devoure them.

And it is not to be doubted, but that the Christians may in this case justly and lawfully ayde the Savages against the Cannibals. So that it is very likely, that by this meanes we shall not only mightily stirre and inflame their rude mindes gladly to embrace the loving company of the Christians, proffering unto them both commodities, succour, and kindnesse: But also by their franke consents shall easily enjoy such competent quantity of Land, as every way shall be correspondent to the Christians expec. tation and contentation, considering the great abundance that they have of Land, and how small account they make thereof, taking no other fruites thereby then such as the ground of it selfe doeth naturally yeelde. And thus much concerning the first sort of planting, which as I assuredly hope, so I most heartily pray may take effect and place.

But if after these good and fayre meanes used, the Savages neverthelesse will not bee herewithall satisfied, but barbarously will goe about to practise violence eyther in repelling the Christians from their Ports & safelandings, or in withstanding them afterwards to enjoy the rights for which both painfully and lawfully they have adventured themselves thither:

Then in such a case I holde it no breach of equitie for the Christians to defend themselves, to pursue revenge with force, and to doe whatsoever is necessarie for the atteining of their safetie: For it is allowable by all Lawes in such distresses, to resist violence with violence: And for their more securitie to increase their strength by building of Forts for avoyding the extremitie of injurious dealing.

Wherein if also they shal not be suffered in reasonable quietnesse to continue, there is no barre (as I judge) but that in stoute assemblies the Christians may issue out, and by strong hand pursue their enemies, subdue them, take possession of their Townes, Cities, or Villages, and (in avoyding murtherous tyrannie) to use the Law of Armes, as in like case among all Nations at this day is used: and most especially to the ende they may with securitie holde their lawfull possession, lest happily after the departure of the Christians, such Savages as have bene converted, should afterwards through compulsion and enforcement of their wicked Rulers, returne to their horrible idolatrie (as did the children of Israel , after the decease of Joshua) and continue their wicked custome of most unnaturall sacrificing of humane creatures.

And in so doing, doubtlesse the Christians shall no whit at all trangresse the bonds of equitie or civilitie, forasmuch as in former ages, (yea, before the incarnation of Christ) the like hath bene done by sundry Kings and Princes, Governours of the children of Israel : chiefly in respect to begin their planting, for the establishment of Gods worde: as also since the Nativitie of Christ, mightie and puissant Emperours and Kings have performed the like, I say to plant, possesse, and subdue. For proofe whereof, I will alledge you examples of both kindes.

Wee reade in the olde Testament, how that after Noes flood was ceased, restauration of mankinde began onely of those fewe of Noes children and familie as were by God preelected to bee saved in the Arke with him, whose seede in processe of time, was multiplyed to infinite numbers of Nations, which in divers sortes divided themselves to sundry quarters of the earth. And forasmuch as all their posteritie being mightily encreased, followed not the perfect life of Noe their predecessour, God chose out of the multitude a peculiar people to himselfe, to whom afterwardes being under the government of Moyses in Mount Sinay, hee made a graunt to inherite the Land of Canaan, called the Land of promise, with all the other rich and fertile Countries next adjoyning thereunto. Neverthelesse, before they came to possession thereof, having bene afflicted with many grievous punishments and plagues for their sinnes, they fell in despayre to enjoy the same.

But being encouraged and comforted by their Rulers, (men of God) they proceeded, arming themselves with all patience, to suffer whatsoever it should please God to send: and at last attaining to the Land, they were encountered with great numbers of strong people, and mighty Kings.

Notwithstanding, Josua their Leader replenished with the Spirite of God, being assured of the justnesse of his quarell, gathered the chiefe strength of the children of Israel together, to the number of 40000. with whom he safely passed the huge river Jordan , and having before sent privie spies for the discoverie of the famous citie Jerico , to understand the certaintie of the Citizens estate, he forthwith came thither, and environed it round about with his whole power the space of seven dayes.

In which respite, perceiving none of the Gentiles disposed to yeeld or call for mercie, he then commanded (as God before had appointed) that both the citie Jerico should be burned, yea, and all the inhabitants, as well olde as young, with all their cattell should be destroyed, onely excepted Rahab, her kindred and familie, because shee before had hid secretly the messengers of Josua, that were sent thither as spies. As for all their golde, silver, precious stones, or vessels of brasse, they were reserved and consecrated to the Lords treasurie.

In like maner he burned the citie Hay, slew the inhabitants thereof, and hanged up their King. But for so much as the Gebionites (fearing the like event) sent Ambassadours unto Josua to intreate for grace, favour, and peace: hee commaunded that all their lives should bee saved, and that they should be admitted to the company of the children of Israel . Yet understanding afterwards they wrought this by a policie, he used them as drudges to hewe wood and to care water, and other necessaries for his people. Thus beganne this valiant Captaine his conquest, which he pursued and never left till hee had subdued all the Hethites, Amorites, Cananites, Peresites, Hevites, and Jebusites, with all their princes and Kings, being thirtie and one in number, & divers other strange nations, besides whose lands & dominions he wholy divided among Gods people.

After that Josua was deceased, Juda was constituted Lord over the armie, who receiving like charge from God, pursued the proceedings of the holy captaine Josua, and utterly vanquished many Gentiles, Idolaters, and adversaries to the children of Israel , with all such Rulers or Kings as withstoode him, and namely Adonibezek the most cruell tyrant: whose thumbes and great toes he caused to be cut off, for so much as hee had done the like before unto seventie Kings, whom being his prisoners, he forced to gather up their victuals underneath his table. In this God shewed his justice to revenge tyrannie. We reade likewise, that Gedeon a most puissant and noble warriour so behaved himselfe in following the worthy acts of Josua and Juda, that in short time he not only delivered the children of Israel from the hands of the multitude of the fierce Madianites, but also subdued them and their Tyrants, whose landes he caused Gods people to possesse and inherite.

I could recite divers other places out of the Scripture, which aptly may be applyed hereunto, were it not I doe indevour my selfe by all meanes to be briefe. Now in like maner will I alledge some fewe Inductions out of the autenticall writings of the Ecclesiasticall Historiographers, all tending to the like argument. And first to begin withall, we doe reade: That after our Saviour Jesus Christ had suffered his passion, the Apostles being inspired with the holy Ghost, and the knowledge of all strange languages, did immediatly disperse themselves to sundry parts of the world, to the preaching of the Gospel. Yet not in so generall a maner, but that there remayned some farre remote Countries unvisited by them, among the which it is reported that India the great, called the uttermost India , as yet had received no light of the word. But it came to passe, that one Metrodorus a very learned and wise Philosopher in that age, being desirous to search out unknowen lands, did first discover the same, finding it wonderfull populous and rich, which upon his returne being published, and for certaine understood, there was another grave Philosopher of Tyrus called Meropius, being a Christian, who did resolve himselfe (following the example of Metrodorus) to travaile thither, and in a short time assisted but with a fewe, in a small Vessel arrived there, having in his company two yong youths, Edesius and Frumentius, whom (being his schollers) he had throughly instructed both in liberall Sciences, and christian Religion. Now after that Meropius somewhile staying there, had (as hee thought) sufficient understanding of the Indians whole estate: He determined to depart, and to bring notice thereof unto the Emperour, whom he meant to exhort to the conquest of the same.

But by misfortune he was prevented, for being in the middest of his course on the Sea homeward, a sore tempest arose, and perforce drove him backe againe, to an unknowen Port of the sayd land: where he by the most cruell barbarous Indians on the sudden was slaine with all his company, except the two young schollers aforesayde, whom the barbarous Indians, by reason they were of comely stature and beautifull personages, tooke, and forthwith presented them to their King and Queene : which both being very well liked of, the King courteously entreated, and ordeined Edesius to be his Butler, and Frumentius his Secretarie, and in few yeeres by reason of their learning and civill government, they were had in great favour, honour, and estimation with the Princes. But the King departing this life, left the Queene his wife with her yong sonne to governe, and gave free scope and libertie to the two Christians, at their best pleasure to passe to their native soyles, allowing them all necessaries for the same. Yet the Queene who highly favoured them was very sorowfull they should depart, and therefore most earnestly intreated them to tarie and assist her in the government of her people, till such time as her yong sonne grewe to ripe yeeres, which request they fulfilled.

And Frumentius excelling Edesius farre in all wisedome, ruled both the Queene and her subjects at his discretion, whereby he tooke occasion to put in practise privily, that the foundation of Christian religion might be planted in the hearts of such as with whom he thought his perswasion might best prevaile, and that soonest would give eare unto him: which being brought to passe accordingly, hee then with his fellow Edesius tooke leave of the Queene to returne to his native countrey. And so soone as he was arrived there, he revealed to the Emperour Constantine, the effect of all those events: who both commending his deedes and wholy allowing thereof, by the advise and good liking of Athanasius then Bishop of Alexandria, did arme and set forth a convenient power for the ayde of Frumentius, in this his so godly a purpose. And by this meanes came the Emperour afterwards by faire promises, and by force of armes together, unto the possession of all the Indians countrey. The author of this storie Ruffinus received the trueth hereof from the very mouth of Edesius companion to Frumentius.

Moreover Eusebius in his Historie Ecclesiasticall in precise termes, and in divers places maketh mention how Constantine the great not onely enlarged his Empire by the subduing of his next neighbours, but also endeavoured by all meanes to subject all such remote Barbarous and Heathen nations, as then inhabited the foure quarters of the worlde. For (as it is written) the Emperour throughly ayded with a puissant armie of valiant souldiers whom he had before perswaded to Christian religion, in proper person himselfe came even unto this our country of England , then called the Island of Britaines, bending from him full West, which he wholy conquered, made tributarie, and setled therein Christian faith, and left behinde him such Rulers thereof, as to his wisedome seemed best. From thence hee turned his force towardes the North coast of the world, and there utterly subdued the rude and cruell Nation of the Scythians, whereof part by friendly perswasions, part by maine strength, hee reduced the whole to Christian faith. Afterwards he determined with himselfe to search out what strange people inhabited in the uttermost parts of the South. And with great hazard and labour, making his journey thither, at last became victour over them all, even to the countrey of the Blemmyans, and the remote Æthiopians, that now are the people of Presbyter John, who yet till this day continue and beare the name of Christians.

In the East likewise, what Nation soever at that time he could have notice of, he easily wonne and brought in subjection to the Empire. So that to conclude, there was no region in any part of the world, the inhabitants whereof being Gentiles, though unknowen unto him, but in time he overcame and vanquished.

This worthy beginning of Constantine , both his sonnes succeeding his roome, and also divers other Emperours afterward to their uttermost endevour followed and continued, which all the bookes of Eusebius more at large set foorth. Theodoretus likewise in his Ecclesiasticall historie maketh mention how Theodosius the vertuous Emperour imployed earnestly all his time, as well in conquering the Gentiles to the knowledge of the holy Gospel, utterly subverting their prophane Temples and abominable Idolatry, as also in extinguishing of such usurping tyrants as with Paganisme withstood the planting of Christian religion. After whose decease his sonnes Honorius and Arcadius were created Emperours, the one of the East, the other of the West, who with all stout godlinesse most carefully imitated the foresteps of their Father, eyther in enlarging theyr territories, or increasing the christian flocke.

Moreover, it is reported by the sayd author, that Theodosius junior the Emperour, no whit inferiour in vertuous life to any of the above named Princes, with great studie and zeale pursued and prosecuted the Gentiles, subdued their tyrants and countries, and utterly destroyed all their idolatry, converting their soules to acknowledge their onely Messias and Creator, and their Countries to the enlargement of the Empire. To be briefe, who so listeth to read Eusebius Pamphilus, Socrates Scholasticus, Theodoritus, Hermia, Sozomen, and Euagrius Scholasticus, which all were most sage Ecclesiasticall writers, shall finde great store of examples of the worthy lives of sundry Emperours, tending all to the confirmation of my former speeches.

And for like examples of later time, (yea even in the memorie of man) I shall not neede to recite any other then the conquest made of the West and East Indies by the Kings of Spaine and Portugall, whereof there is particular mention made in the last Chapter of this booke. Herein have I used more copy of examples then otherwise I would have done, saving that I have bene in place, where this maner of planting the Christian faith hath bene thought of some to be scarce lawfull, yea, such as doe take upon them to be more then meanely learned. To these examples could I joyne many moe, but whosoever is not satisfied with these fewe, may satisfie himselfe in reading at large the Authors last above recited. Thus have I (as I trust) prooved that we may justly trade and traffique with the Savages, and lawfully plant and inhabite their Countries.

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