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The second voyage to Guiana .

SUNDAY the 26. of January, in the yeere of our Lord 1596. we departed from Portland road, in the Darling of London, having in company the Discoverer, a small pinnesse, whom we lost at sea, in foule weather, the Thursday next following. Friday, the 13. of February, wee fell with the Canarie Islands, where we expected our pinnesse, according to our appoyntment, seven or eight dayes. Here we tooke two boats, the one a passenger, we bulged, the other wee towed at our shippe sterne, steering Southsouthwest for the Islands of Cape Verde. Therehence we set saile the 28. of Februarie, keeping a Westsouthwest course. In this passage wee found very smooth seas, faire weather, and steddie winds, blowing ordinarily betweene the East and Northeast poynts. Neere 30. leagues from these Islands, wee came into a growne sea, the swollen waters making a strange noise & hurtling together, as if it might be two strong currents encountring ech other. The 12. of March wee sounded, and had sandie ground in 47. fathome. At midnight in twelve fathom wee came to an anker, the ground sandie oaze. Sunday the 14. towards night, about some sixe leagues from the shore, wee descried a low land in the bottome of a bay. From the 9. of March untill this time, we kept for the most part a Southsouthwest course. The water in this place is smooth, but muddie, and the colour red or tawny. From the Westermost of the Cape Verde-Islands unto this Bay I doe estimate the distance to be neere 550. leagues. It seemed to most of our sea-men, to be the very banke of a shoald upon a lee-shore: the rather because without it, in the cleane greene sea wee had but 7. fathome depth: but after by proofe finding that there is no sudden alteration in any part of the coast, and that the sea is smoothest neere the land, we alwayes at night sought to anker in three or foure fathome. And doubtlesse as the hand of God is woonderfull in all his workes: so herein his mercifull providence is most admirable, that upon a lee-shore subject unto a perpetuall Easterly gale, neither much wind can endanger shipping, by reason that the foule heavie water is not capable of vehement motion, and the soft light oaze, if they touch cannot bruise them: nor is there any jeopardie in beeing wind-bound, or imbayed: for the most forcible windes make the greatest flood-tides, whereby the freshets when they take their ordinarie course of ebbe, doe grow strong and swift, setting directly off to sea against the wind. Wee by turning went cleere of all Bayes: howbeit in this case, as also in the rivers, the use of a drove sayle seemeth a good and readie helpe. The first place wherein wee ankered, was in the mouth of Arrowari, a faire and great river. It standeth in one degree and fourtie minutes: for we fell so farre to the Southwardes by your lordships direction. The barre without hath at the least three fathome, at the shoaldest place, when it is lowe ebbe. The depth within is eight and tenne fathome. The water alwayes brackish. We found not any inhabitants in this place neere the sea coast. I omit here to recite the names of the nations that are borderers, their townes, Captaines and commodities that their countreyes doe yeelde, as also the soundings, tydes, and how the coast lyeth &c. thinking it fittest to reduce these disjoyned and scattering remembrances to one place. As wee passed we alwayes kept the shore within viewe and stopped the floods, still ankering at night in three or foure fathome. When we came to the North headland of this Bay (which wee named Cape Cecyl) we sawe two high mountaines like two islands, but they joyne with the mayne. In this tract lying Northnorthwest neere 60. leagues, there fall into the sea these severall great rivers, Arrowari, Iwaripoco, Maipari, Coanawini, Caipurogh. Wee ankered in two fathome not farre from these hilles, and filled all our caske with fresh water by the shippe side, for in the sea thirtie miles from the mouth of any river it is fresh and good. This second Bay extendeth it selfe above thirtie leagues to the Westward, and containeth within it these rivers Arcooa, Wiapoco, Wanari, Caparwacka, Cawo, Caian, Wia, Macuria, Cawroor, Curassa wini. Here leaving the ship at anker, I tooke into the boate John Provost, my Indian Interpreter, John Linsey, and eight or nine others, intending to search some of these rivers, and to seeke speech with the Indians. In Wiapoco, at the foote of the Eastermost mountaine, where the river falleth into the sea, wee found twentie or thirtie houses, but not inhabited. Wee stayed there but one night. Wanari we overpassed, because the entrance is rockie and not deepe. In Caperwacka we sailed some fourtie miles, but could see no Indian. At one of their portes under the side of a hill, wee tooke in so much Brasill wood as our boate could carrie. Amongst other trees we cut downe one for an example, which I do verily beleeve to be the same sort of sinamon, which is found in the streights of Magellan. From Caperwacka wee passed to Cawo, and there met with a Canoa, wherein were two Indians. It was long time before wee could procure them to come neere us, for they doubted least wee were Spanish. When my interpreter had perswaded them the contrarie, and that wee came from England , they without farther speech or delay, brought us to Wareo their Captaine, who entertained us most friendly, and then at large declared unto us, that hee was lately chased by the Spaniards from Moruga, one of the neighbour rivers to Raleana, or Orenoque: and that having burnt his owne houses, and destroyed his fruites and gardens, hee had left his countrey and townes to bee possessed by the Arwaccas, who are a vagabound nation of Indians, which finding no certaine place of abode of their owne, doe for the most part serve and follow the Spanyards. Hee shewed me that he was of the nation of the Iaos, who are a mightie people, and of a late time were Lords of all the sea coast so farre as Trinidad , which they likewise possessed. Howbeit, that with a generall consent, when the Spanyards first began to borrow some of their wives, they all agreed to change their habitation, and doe now live united for the most part towards the river of Amazones. But the especiall cause of his present remoove was, because two or three yeeres past, twentie Spaniards came to his towne, and sought to take his best wife from him: but before they carried her away, hee at time and place of advantage killed halfe of them: the rest fledde, most of them sore hurt. Now in this case hee thought it best to dwell farre ynough from them. Your Indian pilot Ferdi nando, who conducted you by Amana, and now abideth neere the head of Dessekebe, is one of this mans subjects: By whom (as it may seeme) hee hath taken good notice of our princesse and countrey. For hee descended more particularly to inquire what forces were come with us, assuring me of the Spaniards beeing in Trinidad , and that the Indians our friendes betwixt hope and feare, have earnestly expected our returne from England these foure or five moneths. When I had answered him, that at our departure we left no Spaniards alive to annoy them; that we now came only to discover, and trade with them; and that if her Majestie should have sent a power of men, where no enemie was to resist, the Indians might perhaps imagine, that wee came rather to invade, then to defend them: He replied, that this course very wel sorted with the report which they had heard of our Princesse justice, rare graces, and vertues: the fame of whose power in beeing able to vanquish the Spaniards, and singular goodnesse in undertaking to succour and defend the afflicted Indians, was now so generall, that the nations farre and neere were all agreed to joyne with us, and by all meanes possible to assist us in expelling and rooting out the Spaniards from all parts of the land: and that we were deceived, if wee thought this countrey not large ynough to receive us, without molestation or intrusion upon the Indians, who wanted not choise of dwelling-places, if they forsooke one to live in another: but stoode in neede of our presence at all times to ayde them, and maintaine their libertie, which to them is deerer then land or living. He then farther desired, that he with his people might have our favour against the Arwaccas, who not being content to enjoy their groundes and houses, had taken from them many of their wives and children, the best of whose fortune was, if they lived, to live in perpetuall slaverie under the Spaniards. Wee put him in good hope and comfort thereof. And hee to deserve some part of this friendship, commended unto us an elderly man to be our Pilote in bringing us to Raleana. When we were ready to depart, he demanded whether we wanted any Urapo, which is the wood, that is usually carried from these parts to Trinidad in Canoas, and is there sold to the French for trade: he offered, if we would bring our ship neere his port, to put in her lading thereof. But because most of our caske was not yron-bound, and in making stowage way to remoove it, would have bene the losse of our Sider and other drinke; I therefore referred the taking of any quantity to fitter opportunitie: thinking it sufficient at this time, to have only my boats lading thereof: which afterwards in extremitie of foule weather, before we could get aboord our ship, wee were inforced in a darke night to heave all overboord: thinking our selves happy, to have recovered thither at seven dayes ende, with safetie of life onely. All which time wee could no where set foote on shore, but rested day and night wet and weatherbeaten in our covertlesse boate, which was sometimes ready to sinke under us. For wee had in this place without comparison more raine, wind, and gustes, then else where at any time. To bee briefe, my men became weake and sicke, and if wee had stayed any longer time out, I doubt whether the greatest part of us had ever come aboord againe. I afterwards understood by my Indian pilot that this weather is for most part of the yeere usuall, neere the Island Oncaiarie, which lyeth North from the river Capurwacka some sixe leagues into the sea: and that they hold opinion how this Iland is kept by some evil spirit: for they verily beleeve, that to sleepe in the day time neere it (except it be after much drinke) is present death. The only season wherein little raine doth fal there, is (as I gathered by their speech, they dividing al times by their Moones) at our Winter Solstice. The motherwind of this coast is for the most part to the Northward of the East, except when the Sunne is on this side of the Equinoctiall, for then it often veares Southerly, but most in the night. This our guid is of the laos, who doe al marke themselves, thereby to bee knowen from other nations after this maner. With the tooth of a small beast like a Rat, they race some their faces, some their bodies, after divers formes, as if it were with the scratch of a pin, the print of which rasure can never bee done away againe during life. When he had sometime conversed with our Indians, that went from England with us, hee became willing to see our countrey. His sufficiencie, trustinesse, and knowledge is such, that if the pretended voyage for Guiana doe take place, you shall (I doubt not) find him many wayes able to steed your Lordship in your designes and purposes. For besides his precise knowledge of all the coast, and of the Indian townes and dwellings, he speaketh all their languages, was bred in Guiana , is a sworne brother to Putima, who slewe the Spaniards in their returne from Manoa, can direct us to many golde mines, and in nothing will undertake more, then hee assuredly will performe.

To the Westward this Bay hath many good roads under small Islands, whereof the greatest named Gowateri, is inhabited by the Shebaios : and besides the plenty of foule, fish, fruits, wilde porks and deere, which are there to be had, where Caiane falles into the sea, (for it standeth in the mouthes of Wia and Caiane) it yeeldes safe and good harbour in foure and five fathome for ships of great burthen. On all that coast we found not any like it: wee therefore honoured this place by the name of Port Howard. The road under Triangle Islands, which are the Westermost from the rest and stand in five degrees, which have also store of fish, foule, deere and Iwanas, is good, but not comparable with this other, where in all windes and weather, shippes, though they be many, may all ride securely. The hils and high lands are limits to this bay on ech side: for to the Eastward beyond it appeare none at all, and to the Westward of mount Hobbeigh very few. Where the mountaines faile, there brasill wood is no farther to bee sought for: but in all parts cotton, pepper, silke and Balsamum trees doe grow in abundance. The rootes of the herbe Wiapassa are here most plentifull: I finde them in taste nothing different from good ginger, and in operation very medicinable against the flixe and headach. These rivers, as also others neerer Raleana, doe all fall out of the plaines of this empire over rocks, as the river Caroli doeth into Raleana: and in most places within the utmost hedge of woods, the land within is plaine, voyd of trees, and beareth short grasse like Arromaiaries countrey.

Next adjoyning unto these, are the rivers Cunanamma, Uracco, Mawara, Mawarparo, Amonna, Marawini, Oncowi, Wiawiami, Aramatappo, Camaiwini, Shurinama, Shurama, Cupanamma, Inana, Guritini, Winitwara, Berbice, Wapari, Maicaiwini, Mahawaica, Wappari, Lemdrare, Dessekebe, Caopui, Pawrooma, Moruga, Waini , Barima, Amacur, Aratoori, Raleana. From Cape Cecyl to Raleana, the coast trendeth two hundred leagues next hand Westnorthwest. In this varietie of goodly rivers, Amonna among the rest powreth himselfe into the sea in a large and deepe chanell : his swiftnesse suffereth no barre, nor refuseth any shipping of what burthen soever they be: within his mouth for good and hopefull respectes is port Burley placed. The inhabitants that dwell Eastward, doe never passe lower then Berbice to trade. Above Curitini in the woods they gather great quantities of hony. Farther to the Eastward then Dessekebe, no Spaniard ever travelled. In which respect, and that no sea-card that I have seene at any time, doth in any sort neere a trueth, describe this coast: I thought the libertie of imposing English names to certaine places of note, of right to belong unto our labours; the rather because occasion thereby offereth it selfe gratefully to acknowledge the honour due unto them that have beene, and I hope will still continue favourers of this enterprize. The Indians to shew the worthinesse of Dessekebe (for it is very large and full of Islands in the mouth) doe call it the brother of Orenoque. It lyeth Southerly into the land, and from the mouth of it unto the head, they passe in twentie dayes: then taking their provision they carrie it on their shoulders one dayes journey; afterwards they returne for their Canoas, and beare them likewise to the side of a lake, which the laos call Roponowini, the Charibes, Parime: which is of such bignesse, that they know no difference betweene it & the maine sea. There be infinite numbers of Canoas in this lake, and (as I suppose) it is no other then that, whereon Manoa standeth: In this river, which we now call Devoritia, the Spaniards doe intend to build them a towne. In Moruga it was, that they hunted Wareo and his people, about halfe a yere since. Arromaiarie, who wan so great credit by overthrowing the Tivitivas of Amana, and making free the passage of that river (but now againe liveth in disgrace, by reason that the Charibes of Guanipa have killed most of his followers, and burnt his townes) was present with them, and tooke away many of the women of that place. Arracurri, another Indian of the nation of the Arwaccas inhabiting in Barima, was likewise present, and conducted the Spaniards to all the Indian dwellings. They were not of Anthonie de Berreo his companie, that followed this chase, but were the Spaniards of Margarita, and the Caraccas, with whom Santiago forsaking his governour Berreo joyned himselfe. For which fact he now lyeth in fetters at Trinidad , every day expecting sentence of death. The occasion hereof grew as followeth.

When Berreo, having lost his men, was left with Fasshardo at Cumana all alone, as forlorne, and never likely to compasse his intended conquest of Guiana : the governours of the Caraccas and Margarita consulting together, sent with all speede into Spaine, to advertise their king, that Berreo was utterly unable to folow this enterprise, that he had given it over, and did now sojorne in his old dayes at Fasshardo his house, minding nothing else but his solace, and recreation. They farther declared, of how great importance this matter was: and that an English gentleman of such reckoning, as they named your lordship to be, having bene in Guiana , and understanding so much of the state thereof, and the nations thereunto adjoyning, as Topiawarie, being both olde and wise, could informe you of, who also in confirmation of friendship, had given you his onely sonne, to whome the inheritance of the countrey did belong after him: there was no other likelihood, but that you, who adventured so farre, and in such sort as you did, onely to see, and knowe a certainty, would leave nothing unattempted to possesse so rich a countrey, and without all doubt would returne presently. That meane time, you had left this aged Sire alive, to bee a blocke in their way, to whom after his decease, this enterprise by patent did belong, and to bee a weake adversarie against your selfe, whom at all times you knew easily how to distresse: and that therefore it might be behoovefull for his majestie to revoke Berreo his grant, and to use their service, who were readie and willing without any delay to undertake the charge. These newes being at large amplified and delivered to the king: Domingo de Vera, Berreo his Campmaster, who was sent into Spaine, five moneths before your arrivall at Trinidad , with a sufficient quantitie of gold gotten out of Guiana , to levie and furnish 500. men, having gotten knowledge of this practise, so solicited this cause in Berreo his behalfe, that present order was given for the victualling and manning of tenne ships to be sent to Berreo: and farther, this gold bore such waight, that the king commanded other 18. of his ships to stop at Trinidad , and not to follow their other directions, before they saw that place secured from enemies.

Berreo supposing that these governours in sending with such speede into Spaine, meant him no good; to approove his care and constancie, and that he never would yeelde under the burthen of his adverse fortune; giving no time or breath to his adversaries nor himselfe: returned foorthwith to Carapana his port, onely with fifteene men, being the scattered remnant of those whom you lately dispossessed of Trinidad . These governours followed him, and assuring themselves of present imployment from their king, preoccupating the time of their directions to bee returned from Spaine, entered Guiana with their men, with full determination to murther Berreo, and to dispatch all his company. They indeed killed two or three, but Berreo fledde towards Caroli, where hee stayed hoping for succour from his sonne Antonie de Ximenes, to come downe the river from Nuevo Reyno de Granada. The Margaritanes with their accomplices busied themselves, some in searching the countrey, others in purveying of victuals out of the rivers that doe lie Eastward, of which number these were, that entred into Moruga with twentie Canoas. Santiago passed up into Topiawaries countrey, and there tooke Francis Sparrowe sir George Gifford his man prisoner, who with plentie of gold ransomed his life, and is now abiding in Cumana . This done, they all returned to Trinidad , and beganne to builde their towne there, when unhappily to their small comfort the eight and twentie sayles arrived, and tooke Santiago prisoner. The other Actors in this Enterlude vanished, and in Canoas recovered Margarita and Cumana againe. Eighteene of the said ships leaving all things in good order, departed from Trinidad to follow their others directions: ten doe yet remaine fortifying at Conquerabia , and expecting our comming.

This particular relation I had from an Indian, servant to Berreo, that could speake Spanish, whom I tooke in the river. He is of the nation of the Iaos, and from a child bred up with Berreo. I gave him trade to buy him a Canoa to returne into his countrey, and so left him glad, that hee had met with us.

Now the Indians of Moruga being chased from their dwellings, doe seeke by all meanes possible to accord all the nations in one, so to invade the Arwaccas who were guides to the Spaniards, in shewing their townes, and betraying them. For they are fully perswaded, that by driving these Arwaccas, who serve the Spaniards (for a great part of this nation doth also hate, or not know them) out of their territories, and Trinidad , the Spaniards for want of bread, will bee inforced to seeke habitation farther off, or at the least in time consume and be wasted.

The 6. day of Aprill we came to an anker within the mouth of the river Raleana, having spent twentie and three dayes in discoverie upon this coast. The chanell of this river hath sixe or seven fathome depth, nine or ten miles off at sea, the barre lyeth farther out, and at low water hath not full two fathome. It highes not above five foote, except at a spring tyde. Wee ankered in ten fathome the first night: the next morning twelve Canoas came unto us, furnished and provided of victuals after their maner for the warres. Their Captaines names were Anwara, and Aparwa. These Cassiques, when the Spaniards made the last inrode in those parts, were in the inland amongst the Iwarawakeri their neighbours, by which occasion having lost some of their wives (for notwithstanding their profession of Christianitie, some of these Spaniards keepe ten or twelve women, thinking themselves wel and surely blessed, howsoever they live, if their towne and houses be religiously crossed) they kept together 30. Canoas, hoping at our comming, which they had now long expected to recover this losse upon them and the Arwaccas, who in their absence had done this wrong. They shewed me this their purpose, & required to be joyned in league of frindship with us against our enemies. When of them I had learned so much of the present estate of the countrey, as they did know: they demanded whether we had brought no more forces with us, but onely one ship? I answered them as before I did the others, that wee now came only to trade, not knowing until this present that any Spaniards were in Guiana ; that upon our returne our whole fleete will hasten to set forwardes, and that in the meane time, wee would now visite our friendes, and helpe them so farre as wee could in any thing that wee should finde needefull presently to bee done. After long discourse (for their chiefe man stayed with mee all night) when hee had caused mee to spit in my right hand, with many other ceremonies which they use in confirming friendshippe, hee went to the shoare, and one of his Canoas hee sent to bring forwardes the other twentie: one other hee caused to goe up the river before us, to bring intelligence. Then calling together the chiefe of his companie, they made small fyers, and sitting in their Hamacas, or Indian beddes, each one sorted himselfe with his companion, recounting amongst themselves the worthiest deedes, and deaths of their Ancestours, execrating their enemies most despitefully, and magnifying their friendes with all titles of prayses and honour, that may bee devised. Thus they sitte talking, and taking Tabacco some two houres, and untill their pipes bee all spent (for by them they measure the time of this their solemne conference) no man must interrupt, or disturbe them in any sort: for this is their religion, and prayers, which they now celebrated, keeping a precise fast one whole day, in honour of the great Princes of the North, their Patronesse and defender. Their Canoas being made ready, they accompanyed us, and in their way shewed us, where the shoaldes of the river doe lye. By this Captaine I learned that Muchikeri is the name of the Countrey where Macureguerai the first towne of the Empire of Guiana, that lyeth towardes Raleana, is seated in a fayre and exceeding large plaine, belowe the high mountaines, that beare Northwesterly from it, that it is but three dayes journey distant from Carapana his Porte, and that Manoa is but sixe dayes farther. That they themselves doe passe in three dayes into the Countrey of the Iwarewakeri by the River Amacur, which though it bee not the directest, yet it is the readiest way to Macureguarai, for that which leadeth to Carapana his dwelling, is in some places difficult, and mountainous. That a nation of clothed people, called Cassanari, doe dwell not farre from the place, where the River doeth first take the name of Orenoque, and that farre within, they border upon a Sea of salt water, named Parime. That a great River, called Macurwini, passeth through their Countrey into Orenoque. That Manoa standeth twentie dayes journey from the mouth Wiapoco: sixeteene dayes from Barima, thirteene dayes from Amacur, and tenne dayes from Aratoori. That the best way unto it, is not by Macureguerai. That of all others the Charibes that dwell high up in Orenoque, knowe most the inlande, and of those nations, and they speake no other language, then such as John your Interpreter doeth well understand. Hee certified mee of the headlesse men, and that their mouthes in their breastes are exceeding wide. The name of their nation in the Charibes language is Chiparemai, and the Guianians call them Ewiapanomos. What I have heard of a sorte of people more monstrous, I omit to mention, because it is no matter of difficultie to get one of them, and the report otherwise will appeare fabulous. Lastly hee tolde mee of an inland River, named Cawrooma, adjoyning to Aratoori, and that the Quepyn mountaines, where Carapana dwelleth, are hardly accessible. That the Amapagotos have images of gold of incredible bignesse, and great store of unmanned horses of the Caracas breed: and they dwell five dayes journey up the River about Caroli. Wee with our fleete of Canoas were now not farre from Carapanas Port, when our intelligencer returned and informed us that tenne Spaniardes were lately gone with much trade to Barima, where these Indians dwelt, to buy Cassavi bread; and that within one day two other Canoas of Spaniards were appointed to come by the River Amana, to Carapana his Port.

Upon this occasion they tooke counsell, and in the ende desired to returne to their houses, least the Spaniardes finding them from home, and imagining that they did purposely absent themselves, shoulde take away their wives and spoyle their dwellings. They farther resolved if it were possible to cut them off : which afterwardes they did perfourme. For when they were dispersed in their houses seeking Cassavi, suddenly at one time, in all places they were assaulted, and not one of them escaped. Carapana, whose hand was in laying this plot, sent us this newes, as wee returned downe the River. The two other Canoas that came from Trinidad by Amana, notwithstanding that wee kept a league before the shippe with our boates, sawe the shippe before wee had sight of them, and presently with all speede went to Berreo to advertize him of our comming. Hee foorthwith dispatched two or three messengers to Trinidad . One of his Canoas mette with our spie, whome the Indians of Barima had left to goe with us: they rifled him of his victuals, gave him knives, and dismissed him.

In eight dayes sayling still before a winde, wee arrived at Topiawaries Porte, in all which time no Indian that wee knewe came abourd us. For the time of our returne promised at your Lordshippes departure from thence being expired; they in dispaire severed themselves amongst the other nations. Here the Spaniardes have seated their Rancheria of some twentie or thirtie houses. The high rockie Island, that lyeth in the middest of the River, against the mouth of Caroli, is their Forte or refuge, when they misdoubt safetie in their Towne, or having notice of any practise against them: but now leaving both Towne and Island, they joyned themselves altogether, and returning to the mouth of River Caroli, placed there a secret ambush, to defend the passage to those mines, from whence your Oare and white stones were taken the last yeere: Wee all not without griefe to see ourselves thus defeated, and our hungry hopes made voyde, were witnesses of this their remoove. As we road at an ancor within musket shot of their Towne, an Indian came unto us with lean cheekes, thinne haire, and a squint eye, to informe us that they were very strong, that Berreo his sonne was with him, that they had but two small Pinnisses at Trinidad , which they dayly looked for to come up the River, and lastly to viewe our shippe well, and our provision, but especially to learne whether Gualtero, Topiawarie his sonne were with us.

This informers very countenance gave him to bee suspected, and therefore partlie by threatning, partlie by promise of rewarde wee wonne him to confesse the trueth. Which hee did, assuring us that Berreo had not full fiftie five men with him, whereof twentie came lately from Trinidad , twentie from Nuevo Reyno, and the rest hee brought with him about sixe moneths since, when hee fledde from Carapana his Porte, and was driven with his small companie to keepe the aforesaid Island neere Caroli. And that though nowe his number is thus increased yet dareth hee not adventure at any time to leave the fast woodes, and to goe but halfe a league from his holde into the plaines. That some fewe of the Arwaccas are abiding with him. That hee dayly looketh for his sonne from Nuevo Reyno, for his Campemaster from Trinidad , and for horses from the Caraccas. That Topiawarie is dead: the Indians of that coast all fledde, and dispersed, excepting the sonne of one Curmatoi, and another woman of account, whome the Spaniardes holde prisoners, for consenting to the death of their nine men, and the holy Fryer in Morekito his time. This Curmatoi is fledde towardes Guanipa, and is a man of speciall note amongst the Indians. That Iwiakanarie Gualtero his neere kinsman, hath helde the Countrey to his use, by his fathers appointment, ever since your being in the River. That there are tenne ships, and many Spaniardes at Trinidad . That the Indians our friendes did feare, least you with your company were all slaine, and your shippes sunke at Cumana (for so the Spaniardes noysed it amongst them,) that some of Gualtero his friendes with Putijma, were in the mountaines not farre from the hill Aio. And that Berreo had sent for sixe peeces of ordinance, which he meant to plant, where they might best command the River.

When wee had stayed here two dayes, considering that where no hope was left of doing good, to abide there in harmes way doing nothing, would be bootlesse: I resolved to seeke Putijma in the mountaines: and turning downe the River with the force of the streame some twentie miles in sixe houres: the next morning with ten shot I went ashoare, intending if the Indians should thinke themselves too weake, with our helpe to displant the Spaniardes: to set some of them on worke, for hatchets and knives to returne us golde graines, and white stones from such places, as they should be directed unto. When wee came to the place of their usuall abode; wee sawe that they lately had bene there, but could speake with none of them. It may be that feare (which is easie of beliefe) perswaded them that we were Spaniards. Gilbert my Pilot here offered to bring us either to the myne of white stones neere Winicapora, or else to a gold myne, which Putijma had shewed him, being but one dayes journey overland, from the place where we now stayed at an ancor. I sawe farre off the mountaine adjoyning to this gold myne, and having measured their pathes neere the same place this last yeere, could not judge it to bee fifteene miles from us. I doe well remember howe comming that way with Putijma the yeere before, he pointed to this same mountaine, making signes to have me goe with him thither. I understood his signes and marked the place, but mistooke his meaning, imagining that he would have shewed mee the overfall of the River Curwara from the mountaines. My Indian shewed me in what sort without digging they gather the gold in the sand of a small river, named Macawini, that springeth and falleth from the rockes where this myne is. And farther tolde me, that hee was with Putijma, at what time Morekito was to be executed by the Spaniardes, and that then the chiefe of Morekito his friends were in consultation, to shewe this myne unto them if so they might redeeme their Captaines life, but upon better advise, supposing them in this case to bee implacable, and that this might proove a meanes to loose not onely their king, but their Countrey also: they have to this day concealed it from them, being of all others the richest and most plentifull. The aged sort to keepe this from common knowledge, have devised a fable of a dangerous Dragon that haunteth this place and devoureth all that come neere it. But our Indian, if when we returne, we doe bring store of strong wine (which they love beyond measure) with it will undertake so to charme this Dragon, that he shall doe us no harme.

I, that for this ende came from home, and in this journey had taken much more paines to lesse purpose, would very gladly from this mountaine have taken so good a proofe to witnes my being in the Countrey : but withall considering that not one Indian of our knowne friends came unto us: that Don Juan the cousin of Gualtero, who liveth here a revolt from the Spaniard, was now in election to bee chiefe commander of all the Indian forces in these partes, cannot in pollicie, for Gualtero his sake, whose inheritance hee sought to usurpe, bee a fast friend unto us: that the Spaniardes abiding in Winicapora (for there were tenne) might well before wee could doe any thing, and returne, cause some others of Berreo his men to joyne with them, in the way to intercept us: and forethinking withall, that there being no meanes but our selves, to make knowne our discoverie, if wee returned not; in our misfortune the hope of following this voyage would bee buried: but besides all this, and the respect of such spyals, as the Spaniardes kept to observe our dooings, foreknowing that if the enemie should by our lingring, stop our passage, which in one or two places of advantage, fewe of them might easilie doe: it would bee a question howe with our shippe to get out of the River, except first wee could remoove them: I thought it best (all other possibilities set apart) to seeke in time to bee free from the hazard of the aforesaid evill passages.

Whilest wee were searching at the shoare for the Indians, my Barge tooke a Canoa, with three men in her: the one a servant to Berreo, (as before is mentioned) the other two marchants of Cassavi. They had a letter sent from the Governour to bee conveied to Trinidad , which I received. There was also a great hatchet, and twentie knives, wherewith this Indian servant should buy a Canoa, and hire Indians to cary her up the River towardes Nuevo Reyno. This Canoa forsooth with foure other were to bee sent to bring downe Berreo his sonne with all his forces, which nowe have bene, I thinke, full three yeeres in preparing. If five such boates bee sufficient to convoy him, his men and all their provision: it may seeme, hee commeth with no great strength.

This servant as hee was a man of especiall trust, and neere Berreo: so appeared hee to have some insight in his proceedings. He shewed mee that the Indians, who with these knives should be hired, were to passe up so high, as where some of the Cassanari doe dwell in small villages. That Berreo his purpose was, when they came thither to leave them there, and make them officers over the other Indians: and in their places some of the Cassanari should returne, who likewise should be made Justices and Constables over them of Guiana : that from Trinidad he meant to remove most of the olde inhabitants, that would be tractable; and interpose them amongst the Cassanarians of Guiana, and the Guianians of the Cassanari. That the Arwaccas should wholly possesse Trinidad , and the river side of Raleana. That they already were provided of threescore Negros, to worke the mynes in these places. And that by this meanes Berreo hoped to keepe these severall nations in mutual enmitie each against other, all to serve his turne, and never to become strong, or likely to joyne themselves against him. He farther shewed me, that Topiawary, soone after our departure from the river, fledde into the mountaines, carying Hugh Godwyn with him, and leaving a Substitute in his Countrey, as aforesaide: and that the next newes they heard of him was, that hee was dead, and the English boy eaten by a Tyger. That the Spaniardes beleeve neither the one nor the other. That about the ende of June, when the River shall bee impassable, the tenne shippes shall depart from Trinidad . And that Berreo ever since his comming to Guiana , hath spent his time altogether in purveying of victuals, whereof there is such scarsitie, by reason that the Indians forsaking their houses, have not this halfe yeere planted any of their grounds, so that the Spaniards are inforced to seeke their bread farre off, and content themselves to live with litle.

In sayling up the River, wee passed by Topiarimacko his Port, which in one place is very shoalde, the chanell lying close aboord the shore. Wee returned therefore another way by the maine river on the South side: this branch wee found large, deepe, and without danger. When wee were come neere Carapana his Port, hee sent five or sixe severall Canoas, promising this day and the next, that hee would come and speake with us. Thus wee lingred sixe or seven dayes, but hee came not. In the ende hee sent one of his aged followers, to certifie us, that hee was sicke, olde, and weake: that the wayes neere his dwelling are not easie: and that therefore he desired us to holde him excused for not comming. This olde man dilated unto us, that Carapana in hope of our returne, hath ever since your Lordshippes being in that Countrey, kept the mountaines, where the Spaniardes can hardly any way inforce him; that they have taken from him and his people many of their wives, because they refused to furnish them weekely with a certaine proportion of bread and victuals: that Don Juan otherwise called Eparacano hath the commandement of all his subjects, excepting onely a choise guarde of men sufficient to keepe the place hee nowe dwelleth in. That it repenteth him of his ambition, ever to have sought by the Spaniardes meanes, to have enlarged his Countreys and people. For true it is that from the beginning hee was a Lorde of no other then ordinarie power amongst them, untill hee had entered into friendshippe with Berreo : for then the Indians on all sides left some their habitations, and manie their commanders to become his subjectes, that they might have the priviledge to trade with the Spaniardes for hatchets and knives, which are jewels of great price amongst them: that hee nowe sawe no other choise, but that the Indians must, if they will doe well, without farther dissembling of their necessitie, either entertaine us their friendes, or else give place to the Spaniardes their enemies. For the plentie of golde that is in this countrey, being nowe knowen and discovered, there is no possibilitie for them to keepe it: on the one side they coulde feele no greater miserie, nor feare more extremitie, then they were sure to finde, if the Spaniardes prevayled, who perforce doe take all things from them, using them as their slaves, to runne, to rowe, to bee their guides, to cary their burthens, and that which is worst of all, to bee content, for safetie of their lives, to leave their women, if a Spaniard chance but to set his eye on any of them to fancie her: on the otherside they could hope for, nor desire no better state and usage, then her Majesties gracious government, and Princely vertues doe promise, and assure unto them. For, sayde he, the other yeere, when wee fledde into the mountaines, and measured your doings by the Spaniards in like case, we made no other account, but that your Commander being able, as hee was, would doubtlesse have persecuted us to the uttermost, as the onely maintainers and supporters of your enemies, and would at the least, if hee could not reach us, take our Townes, and make us ransome our wives and children: wee found it farre otherwise, and that none of your well governed companie durst offer any of us wrong or violence, no not by stealth, when unknowne they might have done it. We then beleeving it to bee true, that your grand Captaine reported of his Princesse, tooke this for a good proofe of her royall commandement and wisedome, that had framed her subjectes to such obedience, and of your happinesse, that injoyed the benefite thereof: that Carapana weighing the good and friendly course of our proceedings, doeth humbly crave of her Majestie for himselfe and his people, that with the rest of the Indians, which wholly depende on her Princely regarde towardes them, hee also may injoy her favourable protection: that hee doeth this, not as a man left unto himselfe and forsaken by the Spaniardes, but as one that knoweth their injustice, hateth their cruelties, and taketh it for his best choise, utterly to disclaime their friendshippe. It may bee pertinent (as surely it is a thing worth the noting) to consider howe this president of your moderation and good order, which to us seemeth a matter but of small and ordinarie respect, hath both alienated their heartes altogether from the Spaniard, and stirred up in them true love and admiration thereof. For as governement is the onely bond of common societie: so to men lawlesse, that each one to another are, Omnes hoc jure molesti, quo fortes: To men, I say, that live in dayly tumultes, feares, doubtes, suspitions, barbarous cruelties, never sleeping secure, but alwayes either drunke, or practising one anothers death: to such men as these bee, who wanting discipline, justice and good order to confirme them in a quiet and peaceable course of living, knowing not where to finde it: the sence and sweetenesse thereof is as the dewe of Hermon: it is as the Harmonie of a well tuned Instrument: to bee briefe, it carieth in it selfe not onely a due and worthy commendation; but is avayle able without stroke striking to gaine a kingdome. For the Indians in all partes within and neere Guiana , doe offer their service, and promise to provide victuall, and what else their countrey yeeldeth, desiring onely that some force of men may remaine with them, to deliver them from oppression and tyrannie. And nowe by generall consent (though hatchets and knives bee the onely things of request and usefull unto them) they have agreed by no meanes to trade with the Spaniard for any thing.

Farther this old man shewed mee, whence most of their golde commeth, which is formed in so many fashions: whence their Spleene-stones, & others of al sorts are to be had in plentie: where golde is to bee gathered in the sandes of their rivers: from what partes the Spaniards, both by trade, & otherwise, have returned much gold. This he uttered with Carapana his consent (I doubt not) hoping thereby to induce us to returne againe. For contrarie to their lawe of secrecie, which in this case they doe all generally observe, sharply punishing the breakers thereof, as enemies unto their native Countrey: I found this man no whit scrupulous, but very free and liberall of speech in all things.

And because we might knowe, that wee should not want handes or helpe, in this or any other our enterprises, if perhaps wee should finde cause to passe up to the head of this River: hee declared that the Spaniardes have no Indians to trust unto but some of the Arwaccas, which since they were not many, could bee but of small force: That the Charibes of Guanipa, the Ciawannas amongst the Tivitivas, the Shebaios, laos, Amaipagotos, Cassipagotos, Purpagotos, Samipagotos, Serowos, Etaiguinams, Cassamari, with the rest of the nations farre and neere, were all ready, on what side soever the Spaniards shall stirre, to fight against them: that the Pariagotos, through whose countrey they must first passe, are alone sufficient to encounter them, such is the strength of their countrey, and the valure of the men. The Indians holde opinion, that they are notable sorcerers, and invulnerable. In the mountaines where they dwell, white stones are found of such hardnesse, that by no arte or meanes they can bee pierced; they imagine that these Pariagotos become invulnerable, by eating these stones. The fable omitted, happily they may proove good Diamonds.

Then he shewed howe the Iwarewakeri have nourished grasse in all places, where passage is, these three yeeres, and that it is at this present so high, as some of the trees; which they meane to burne, so soone as the Spaniard shall bee within danger thereof. Lastly, hee shewed mee that Wariarimagoto the Emperours chiefe Captaine for those partes, hath gathered together many thousandes of the Epuremei, to keepe the borders of the Empire; and that hee lay now on the South side of the mountaines, some one dayes journey or little more from the Spaniard. To be short, hee certified mee, that they all were resolved not to seeke upon them (for indeede they feare their shot) but to defend their owne, and to expect our comming. In the meane time they take opportunities, when they finde any of them straggling or devided from their strength, by litle and litle to lessen their number.

The place where wee were at ancor was but one dayes journey from Carapana: I therefore made motion to this Captaine to stay with two or three of his company aboord the shippe, and to cause his men to bring mee with my Interpreter to Carapana his dwelling: hee answered mee that it were not good so to doe, least perhaps some Spie might informe the Spaniardes therof, whereby danger would growe to Carapana. For they have many times used many meanes to reconcile him unto them: but hee from time to time hath dalyed with them, neither professing himselfe their enemie, nor in ought shewing them any friendshippe. Nowe (sayde hee) if the Spaniardes shall by any meanes come to knowledge, that you have conferred together, they will take this occasion to persecute him with all extremitie, as their open enemie, whom they now neglect, or at the least feare not, as being an harmelesse olde man. And for this cause only hath Carapana forborne to come unto you.

By this I perceived, that to stay longer for him (though gladly I could have bene content to spend one sevennights more to speake with him) would bee purposelesse. Wherefore having assured so many of the Indians as at any time came unto us, of our speedie returne, promising them plentie of knives, beades, and hatchets, if they would reserve their Cassavi, and provide store of their pieces of golde for us: I desired this Captaine to bee a meanes that our friends of Trinidad might understand of our being in the River and that wee meant to relieve them so soone, as conveniently might bee. Hee promised in Carapana his behalfe, that this should not bee forgotten. One of the Captaines of the Cyawannas, who doe now dwell in the River Arawawo, neere Trinidad , undertooke also without fayle to ascertaine them thereof. I was the more carefull herein, because so many ships being heere, I doubted least they would take order that no Indian should speake with us. For so indeede it fell out.

This Captaine of the Cyawannas came likewise to joyne with us, and had provided fifteene Canoas for that purpose. Their dwelling was lately in Macureo, where the Spaniardes one night stealing on them, killed twentie of their men, and burnt their houses, because they refused to trade with them for certaine images of golde made with many heades which they had gotten out of Guiana . I sent a present of Yron to Carapana, and then set sayle.

In turning downe the river wee spent eight dayes. In many places where the chanell lyeth wee found twentie fathome depth: where it is sholdest, wee had two fathome and a halfe, and that but in one or two places. Of the worthinesse of this River, because I cannot say ynough, I will speake nothing. Wee have presumed to call it by the name of Raleana, because your selfe was the first of our nation that ever entred the same, and I thinke it nothing inferiour to Amazones, which is best knowen by the name of Orellana, the first discoverer thereof. By turning onely, without helpe of oares to passe so long away in so short a time, against the winde, may sufficiently proove, that the chanell is very large, good, and likely to second our hopes in all that wee can desire. Without the mouth of this River, our Pinnesse, the Discoverer, whome wee lost neere the coast of England , came unto us. Shee fell with this land somewhat to the Southwarde of Cape Cecyl, and had spent three weekes and odde dayes in ranging alongst the coast, when shee mette with us. William Downe the Master informed mee that they entred, and searched these foure rivers. In Wiapoco they sayled so farre, untill the rockes stopped their passage. In Caiane they went up one dayes journey. In Cunanama they found many inhabitantes. Curitini was the last River they had beene in. Whence, having no other meanes to finde Raleana, they were inforced to borrow a Pilot against his will: whom afterwardes I would have returned with reward to his contentment; but he would not.

Our English that to steale the first blessing of an untraded place, will perhaps secretly hasten thither, may bee beholding to mee for this caveat, if they take notice thereof. They may bee assured, that this people, as they no way sought our harme, but used our men with all kindnesse: so are they impatient of such a wrong, as to have any of their people perforce taken from them, and will doubtlesse seeke revenge. The example of the like practise upon the coast of Guinie, in the yeere, 1566, and againe at Dominica , where Alderman Wats his shippe hardly escaped being taken, may serve for our warning in like case to looke for no good, before they bee satisfied for this injury.

When wee had taken aboorde us such victuals as were in the Pinnesse: wee set fire in her, (for her Rudder could serve her to no longer use) and stopping the floodes, plyed to windwarde with the ebbe neere the shoare, untill wee were sixteene leagues to the Eastwarde of the Rivers mouth, and then standing off to Sea, wee fell in twentie foure houres sayling with Punta de Galera the Northeastermost part of Trinidad. But having Tabaco-island in sight, wee first went thither. This Island is plentifull of all things, and a very good soyle. It is not nowe inhabited, because the Charibes of Dominica are evill neighbours unto it. They of Trinidad have a meaning and purpose to flie thither, when no longer they can keepe Trinidad. Their onely doubt is, that when they are seated there, the Spaniard will seeke to possesse it also. The Governour of Margarita went lately in a Pinnesse to viewe this Island. Gilbert my Pilot who sometime lived there, noteth it for the best and fruitfullest ground that hee knoweth.

Thence wee returned to Punta de Galera and ancored in tenne fathome under the North side of the Island some five or sixe miles from the sayde point. The flood-tyde striketh alongst the coast to the Eastward very strongly. Wee discharged a peece of ordinance, and afterwards went to the shoore in our boat: but no Indian came unto us. I would have sent John of Trinidad to procure some of them to speake with us: but he was altogether unwilling, alleaging that their dwellings were farre within the mountaines, and that hee knewe no part of that side of the Island. From this place we set sayle for Santa Lucia, but fell with Granata, which wee found not inhabited. Saint Vincent we hardly recovered, by turning under the lee of the island. The Tabaco of this place is good: but the Indians being Canibals, promising us store, and delaying us from day to day, sought onely oportunitie to betray, take, and eate us, as lately they had devoured the whole companie of a French shippe. This their treacherie being by one of their slaves revealed, from thenceforth they did all forbeare to come unto us. To sit downe on their lowe stooles, when they by offering such ease, will seeme to shewe curtesie, abodeth death to strangers, that shall trust them. At Matalino or Martinino we found not any inhabitants. Lastly, wee came to Dominica , where we could get no good Tabaco. But having intelligence of a Spanish shippe, that was taking in of fresh water, at the Northwest side of the Island, wee wayed ancor to seeke him. Hee discrying us, stole away by night. The Indians of this place have determined to remoove, and joyne with them of Guanipa, against the Spaniardes, who lately dispeopled one of their Islands, and at our being there one of their Canoas returned from Guanipa, and certified us, that the tenne Spanish shippes at Trinidad doe ride, some of them at Conquerabia , the rest at the small Ilands neere the disemboging place. Herehence we steered North and by East, taking the directest course to shorten our way homewards.

Thus have I emptied your purse, spending my time and travell in following your lordships directions for the full discoverie of this coast, and the rivers thereof. Concerning the not making of a voyage for your private profite, I pretend nothing. Sorie I am, that where I sought no excuse, by the Spaniardes being there I found my defect remedilesse. And for mine owne part, I doe protest, that if the consideration of the publique good that may ensue, had not overpoysed all other hopes and desires: I would rather have adventured by such small and weake meanes as I had, to doe well with danger, then to returne onely with safetie. Nowe although in a cause not doubtfull, my allegation is no way needefull: yet because the weightiness thereof, and the expectation of others, seemeth of due and right to claime something to bee sayde by mee, whome your especiall trust and favour hath credited and graced with this employment: Pardon it (I beseech your honour) if, where my lampe had oyle, it borrow light also; and my speach, which is altogether unsavourie, season it selfe with some of the leaven of your owne discourse touching this discoverie. The particular relation of some certaine things I have reserved as properly belonging to your selfe, who onely, as knowing most, can make best use thereof. So much in generall is here touched, as (I hope) may serve to refresh the memorie of this worthie enterprise in those whome it may concerne, and testifie your care and expence in following the same: that in a second age, when in time trueth shall have credite, and men wondering at the riches and strength of this place (which nature it selfe hath marvelously fortified, as her chiefe treasure-house) shall mourne and sigh to holde idle cicles, whilest others reape and gather in this harvest, it bee not sayde, that Sir Walter Ralegh was of all men living in his dayes, most industrious in seeking, most fortunate in attaining to the fulnesse of an inestimable publique good: if, knowing that for envie and private respectes, his labours were lessened, his informations mistrusted, his proffers not regarded, and the due honour of his deserts imparted to others: If (I say) seeing, knowing and bearing all this, hee with patience had persisted in so good a way in doing his Princesse, and countrey service; and had but perfected his first discoverie by sending a shippe or two for that purpose: for then surely all lets and doubts being remooved, and so large a kingdome, so exceeding rich, so plentiful of all things, as this by his discourse appeared to bee, being offered: no devises and vaine surmises could have taken place, no illusions could have prevailed: it had bene blindnesse and deafenesse in those, that being neere her Majestie doe spend their dayes in serving the common weale, not to see, and knowe in so weightie a matter: it had beene malicious obstinacie, impotencie of minde, and more then treason to the common wealth, the matter standing onely upon acceptance, to seeke either to foreslowe so fit an occasion, or forsake so generall a blessing. This (if) is nowe cut off through a singular and incomparable temper, in overcoming evile with good.

This your seconde discoverie hath not onely founde a free and open entrance into Raleana, which the Naturals call Orenoque: but moreover yeeldeth choyse of fourtie severall great rivers (the lesser I do not reckon) being for the most part with small vessels navigable for our marchants & others, that do now finde little profit in setting forth for reprisall, to exercise trade in. To such as shall be willing to adventure in search of them, I could propose some hope of gold mines, and certaine assurance of peeces of made golde, of Spleene-stones, Kidney-stones, and others of better estimate. But because our beleefe seemeth to bee mated in these greater matters, and a certaintie of smaller profits is the readiest inducement to quicken our weake hopes; I not going so farre as mine owne eyes might warrant mee, doe onely promise in the aforesayd rivers Brasil-wood, honey, cotton, Balsamum, and drugs to helpe to defray charges; and further, because without a beginning there can bee no continuance of these benefites unto our countrey to any that shall be the first undertakers hereof, I am gladly content to give such light and knowledge, as by conference with the Indians I have attained unto.

My selfe, and the remaine of my fewe yeeres, I have bequeathed wholly to Raleana, and all my thoughts live onely in that action. The prosecuting whereof is in it selfe just, profitable, and necessarie. Just, because it is intended for the defence of harmelesse people, who fearing thralldome and oppression, desire to protect themselves and their countrey under her Majesties tuition: Profitable, as may bee gathered not onely by many Spanish letters intercepted, but also by the proofes mentioned in the discourse of the first discoverie, and since that, by the Indians owne voluntarie relations: and lastly, by the provision that the Spaniards doe make to acquite us thereof. Necessarie it is, as being the onely helpe to put a bitte in the mouth of the unbrideled Spaniard; the onely way to enter into his treasurie of Nuevo Reyno, and Peru ; the onely meanes to animate the wronged Indians with our assistance to seeke revenge for the extreme murthers and cruelties, which they have endured, and to ruinate his naked cities in all those parts of the Inland; whose foundations have beene layd in the blood of their parents and ancesters.

The forces that the Spaniard hath already sent to Trinidad , to fortifie there, and keepe the passage of this river, are an evident argument that the king feareth and doubteth the sequele of this discoverie. For can it bee a small matter? Or hath hee so waste imployment for his men and shipping, that upon no ground, hee would send eight and twentie shippes, to keepe us onely from Tabacco? For what els that good is can Trinidad yeelde us? No doubtlesse, if the returne of Berreo his Campemaster with tenne of these shippes be compared with precedent advertisements concerning him: it will appeare more then probable, that the Guiana-golde waged these men and shipping: and that they are nowe more carefull to obtaine this place, then to keepe others, which they have already gotten, which note, except in matters of extraordinarie account, is not incident to their policie and proceedings. Againe, it cannot bee thought that either it was senselesse madnesse in the governours of Margarita, and the Caracas , to bring their states and lives in question, by seeking, contrarie to their kings order, to enter Guiana , and kill Berreo with his followers: or else the abundance of pearle in Margarita, and the golde mines in the Caracas , seeming matters of small account: Guiana onely was in their judgement, rich, plentifull, and able of it selfe to redeeme their trespasse and offence, howe great soever it should bee.

The sundry attemptes and overthrowes of the Spaniardes being men of power, and honourable place, in labouring threescore and three yeeres and upwardes, to inlarge the kingdome of Spaine with this mightie and great empire, doe plainely shewe, that they long time sought a path, where in one moneth a high way was found: that the losse of their lives witnesseth their desires, and the worthinesse of the thing, where to us the easinesse of obteining discrediteth the greatnes of the attempt: and that if now at the last they doe prevaile, they must holde by tyrannie that which they get by the sword; where then our returne nothing by the Indians is more wished for, nothing expected more earnestly.

Those objections, which have beene made by many seeming wise, and the impediments likely to arise, as they have supposed, are best answered by the unreprooved witnesse of those mens actions. Some have termed these discoveries fables, and fantasies, as if there had beene no such land or territorie : others allowing both of the place, and that such a kingdome or countrey is discovered, make conclusion, that if it had beene so rich as wee have supposed, that no doubt the king of Spaine would by this time have possessed it. But if they consider that the Spanish nation hath already conquered the two empires of Mexico and Peru , with so many other kingdoms and provinces: wee may very well answere, that his power is not infinite, and that hee hath done well for the time. And yet it is manifest, that this very empire hath beene by all those severall Spaniardes (the catalogue of whose names is by it selfe hereunto annexed) at sundry times undertaken, and never perfourmed. Howbeit, the world hath reason to admire their constancie, and their great labours, and wee may well blush at our owne idle, despairefull, and loytering dispositions, that can finde abilitie in another barren, and sterved nation, to possesse so much of the worlde, and can doe nothing but frame arguments against our selves, as unfit and powerlesse to possesse one province already discovered, and of which our nation hath assurance of the peoples love, and that all the Chieftaines and principals have vowed their obedience to her Majestie; the navigation being withall so short, dangerlesse, and free from infectious sickenesse. If doubt of perils might moderate the mindes of our men once mooved with steadfast hope, that golde shall bee the reward of their travels: it may easily bee perceived, that all those lets and hinderances that can any way bee alleaged, or wrested so much, as but to touch us, doe deepely and neerely concerne the Spanish king, and in a maner violently withold him from that, which hee notwithstanding carrieth with successe, whilest wee out of season do affect the bare stile, to be named men stayed and circumspect in our proceedings. It is reported, that Calanus the Indian threw downe before Alexander the great, a drie seare peece of leather, & then put his foot on one of the endes of it: the leather being trode downe at that side, rose on all parts else. By this the wise man did shewe unto him a figure and similitude of his kingdome, which being exceeding large, must of necessitie in all other parts, excepting the place of the kings residence, be alwayes full of stirs, tumults, and insurrections. The end afterwards confirmed, that this empire consisting of sundry nations, could not keepe it selfe from dissolution. No potentate living hath, or can have so faithfull and incorrupt counsellers, as bee the examples and histories of forepassed times and ages. Wee may therefore bee bolde to thinke that the Governours of the Spanish affaires should minde it, that their kings lustfull desire, and ambitious thoughts to establish over all Europe one lawe, one Lord, one religion, are built and erected on a dangerous ungrounded resolution: Con sidering that many of the neighbour kingdomes being of equall force in men, or greater than hee can make, are setled in a long continued estate, are entire within themselves, and hate to heare the voyce of a stranger. It is not unlikely that they in this case should lay before their king the fatall destinies of many worthies, that have beene constrained for wante of sufficient numbers of their naturall subjects, after many yeeres spent in the warres, to retire to their owne countreys, and have beene glad peaceably to holde their owne Signiories at home, resigning all that unto others, which they have gotten abroad by hard adventure, and much effusion of blood. The King of Spaine cannot but discerne, that his spacious empires and kingdomes being so many, and so farre divided one from another, are like the members of a monstrous bodie, tyed together with cables onely. For take away the traffique of unnecessarie commodities transported out of Spaine: those huge countreys of the Indies having no common linke of affinitie, lawe, language, or religion, and being of themselves able to maintaine themselves without forreine commerce, are not so simple, as not to knowe their owne strength, and to finde, that they doe rather possesse Spaniardes, then that they are possessed by them. Hee cannot bee ignorant that Spaine it selfe is on all sides environed with many puissant enemies, mightie and great princes, who knowing it to bee rich without men, confident without reason, proud and adventurous without meanes sufficient; may happily confederate to chastise him, as an insolent intruder, and disturber of all quietnesse; and going no further then Spaine it selfe, may even there shake the foundation of his long contrived devises, and in one acte redeeme the time, controll his aspiring humor, and breake the bandes in sunder that import servitude, and subversion to all the dominions of Christendome. Againe, his counsell may well informe him, that to dispeople and disable himselfe at home, in hope to obtaine Guiana , being a countrey strong of it selfe, and defended with infinite multitudes of Indian enemies, being rich, and by the inhabitants offered unto the English: his contempt towardes us would seeme so intollerable and despightfull, as might bee sufficient to provoke us, though otherwise wee had no such inclination; if hee unprovided of able helpes to effect it, should rest himselfe on a carelesse presumption, that wee cannot, wee dare not, wee will not stirre in a matter that promiseth us so great benefite, and may so highly offend him. Hee may bee perswaded, that to leave no other succour or safetie to his nakednesse, but the olde stale practise of spreading rumours, and giving out false intelligences of preparations to invade England , thereby to keepe us at home; or else of hyring and suborning some Machavellian under hande by secret conveyance, to stop the course of our proceedings; or lastly, of procuring some wilde outlaw to disquiet our tranquillitie; is but a poore, weake, and uncertaine stay to upholde his estate by. And yet setting such like driftes aside: what can bee imagined likely to hinder us from prevailing in Guiana , rather then him, whose disadvantage is to bee encombred with the selfe same, and manifolde more impediments, then can any way bee supposed, with good cause to impeach, or divorce us from so profitable an attempt? All this notwithstanding, if the Spanish king not being able to dissemble his desire, or beare the losse of this one kingdome; putting himselfe out of his strength at home, and exposing his people to the hazard of all casualties abroad, bee resolved, whatsoever shall happen, not to relinquish Guiana , but to keepe this one yron more in the fire, on no other assurance, but a peremptorie disdaine of prevention: If hee appeare so eagerly bent for Guiana , as if it were enacted for a lawe amongst themselves, Viis & modis to thrust for it, and not to heare, conceive, or beleeve any thing, that may diswade or deterre from the conquest thereof: it then appertaineth unto us, not to inforce those objections against our selves, which hee with lesse reason rejecteth as frivolous; since by howe much the more earnest hee is in following this purpose, by so much the lesse cause have wee to bee diverted from it. To such as shall bee willing further to wade in this argument; for brevities sake, I doe propose onely this bare assertion: that England and Guiana conjoyned, are stronger, and more easily defended, then if England alone should repose her selfe on her owne force, and powerfulnesse. The reasons that might bee inferred to prove this neede no rationall discourse: they are all intimated in the onely example of Spaine it selfe; which without the Indies is but a purse without money, or a painted sheath without a dagger. In summe: it seemeth unto me, that whereas the difficultie of performing this enterprise hath bene produced for a discouragement: it were a dull conceite of strange weakenes in our selves, to distrust our own power so much, or at least, our owne hearts and courages; as valewing the Spanish nation to be omnipotent; or yeelding that the poore Portugal hath that mastering spirit and conquering industrie, above us; as to bee able to seate himselfe amongst the many mightie princes of the East Indies, to frontire China , to holde in subjection the Philippinas, Zeilan, Calecut, Goa, Ormus, Mozambique , and the rest; the navigation being so tedious and full of perill: to suffer our selves to bee put backe for worthlesse cyphers, out of place, without account. All which Regions being nowe also by the late conquest of Portugall, entituled to the Spanish king: to whom the Colonies of those parts doe yet generally refuse to sweare fealtie and allegiance: and the care depending on him, not onely in governing them in the East, so farre off; but also of ordering and strengthening of those disunited, scattered, & ill guarded empires and provinces in the West: It might very well bee alleaged to the sayde Spanish king, that it were more wisedome for him to assure and fortifie some part of those already gotten, then to begin the conquest of Guiana , so farre separate from the rest of his Indies: in which hee hath had so many misfortunes, and against whom the naturall people are so impetuously bent, and opposed: were it not, that it exceedeth all the rest in abundance of gold, and other riches. The case then so standing, is it not meere wretchednesse in us, to spend our time, breake our sleepe, and waste our braines, in contriving a cavilling false title to defraude a neighbour of halfe an acre of lande : whereas here whole shires of fruitfull rich grounds, lying now waste for want of people, do prostitute themselves unto us, like a faire and beautifull woman, in the pride and floure of desired yeeres :

If wee doe but consider, howe unhappily Berreo his affaires, with his assistants have of late yeeres, in our owne knowledge succeeded: who can say, if the hand of the Almighty be not against them, and that hee hath a worke in this place, in stead of Papistrie, to make the sincere light of his Gospell to shine on this people? The effecting whereof shall bee a royall crowne of everlasting remembrance to all other blessings, that from the beginning the Lorde hath plentifully powred on our dread Soveraigne, in an eminent and supreme degree of all perfection. If the Castilians, pretending a religious care of planting Christianitie in those partes, have in their doings preached nought els but avarice, rapine, blood, death, and destruction to those naked, & sheep-like creatures of God; erecting statues and trophees of victorie unto themselves, in the slaughters of millions of innocents: doeth not the crie of the poore succourlesse ascend unto the heavens? Hath God forgotten to bee gracious to the workemanship of his owne hands? Or shall not his judgements in a day of visitation by the ministerie of his chosen servant, come on these bloodthirstie butchers, like raine into a fleece of wooll? Aliquando manifesta; aliquando occulta; semper justa sunt Dei judicia.

To leave this digression, It is fit onely for a prince to begin, and ende this worke: the maintenance and ordering thereof requireth soveraigne power, authoritie, and commaundement. The river of Raleana giveth open and free passage, any provision that the Spaniard can make to the contrary notwithstanding, (for once yeerely the landes neere the river be all drowned) to convey men, horse, munition, and victuall for any power of men that shall be sent thither.

I doe speake it on my soules health, as the best testimonie, that I can in any cause yeelde to averre a trueth, that having nowe the second time beene in this countrey, and with the helpes of time and leisure well advised my selfe upon all circumstances to bee thought on; I can discerne no sufficient impediment to the contrary, but that with a competent number of men, her Majestie may to her and her successours enjoy this rich and great empire: and having once planted there, may for ever (by the favour of God) holde and keepe it, Contra Iudaeos & Gentes. Subjects, I doubt not, may through her Majesties gracious sufferance, joyning their strength together, invade, spoyle, and overrunne it, returning with golde and great riches. But what good of perpetuitie can followe thereof? Or who can hope that they will take any other course then such, as tendeth to a private and present benefite; considering that an Empire once obtained, is of congruitie, howe, and wheresoever the charge shall growe, to bee annexed unto the crowne? The riches of this place are not fit for any private estate: no question, they will rather proove sufficient to crosse and countervaile the Spaniard his proceedings in all partes of Christendome, where his money maketh way to his ambition.

If the necessitie of following this enterprise doth nothing urge us, because in some case better a mischiefe, then an inconvenience: let the conveniencie thereof somewat moove us, in respect both of so many Gentlemen, souldiers, and younger brothers, who, if for want of employment they doe not die like cloyed cattell in ranke easefulnesse; are enforced for maintenance sake, sometimes to take shamefull and unlawfull courses: and in respect of so many handycraftsmen having able bodies, that doe live in cleannesse of teeth and povertie. To sacrifice the children of Belial unto the common weale, is not to defile the lande with blood, because the lawe of God doeth not prohibite it, and the execution of justice requireth it to bee so: but yet if the waterboughes, that sucke and feede on the juice, and nourishment that the fruitefull branches should live by, are to bee cut downe from the tree, and not regarded: luckie and prosperous bee that right hande, that shall plant and possesse a soyle, where they may fructifie, increase, and growe to good: thrise honourable and blessed bee the memorie of so charitable a deede, from one generation to another.

To conclude, your lordship hath payd for the discoverie and search, both in your owne person, and since by mee. You have framed it, and moulded it readie for her Majestie, to set on her seale. If either envie or ignorance, or other devise frustrate the rest, the good which shall growe to our enemies, and the losse which will come to her Majestie and this kingdome, will after a fewe yeeres shewe it selfe. Wee have more people, more shippes, and better meanes, and yet doe nothing. The Spanish king hath had so sweete a taste of the riches thereof, as notwithstanding that hee is lorde of so many empires and kingdomes already, notwithstanding his enterprises of France and Flanders , notwithstanding that hee attended this yeere a home invasion: yet hee sent twentie eight saile to Trinidad , whereof tenne were for that place and Guiana , and had some other shippes ready at Cadiz , if the same had not beene by my Lordes her Majesties Generals and your Lordship set on fire.

A Table of the names of the Rivers, Nations, Townes, and Casiques or Captaines that in this second voyage were discovered

  Rivers. Nations. Townes. Captains.  

Arowari great.

    1 These are enemies to the Iaos, their money is of white and greene stones. They speake the Tivitivas language; so likewise doe the nation of the Arricari, who have greater store of those moneyes then any others.

Iwaripoco very great. Mapurwanas,
    2 Here it was as it seemeth, that Vincent Pinzon the Spaniard had his Emeralds. In one of these two rivers certain Frenchmen that suffred shipwrack some 2. or 3. yeres since, doe live.
3 Maipari great. Arricari.     3. 4. 5. These with the other two seeme to bee branches of the great river of Amazones. When wee first fell with land, wee were, by ye Indians report, but 1. dayes journey from the greatest river, that is on that coast.

Caipurogh great. Arricurri.


Arcooa great.


Waipoco great.

    6 The first mountaines that appeare within lande, doe lie on the East side of this river. From the mouth thereof, the inhabitants doe passe with their canoas in 20. dayes to the salte lake, where. Manoa standeth. The water hath many Cataracts like Caroli, but that they are of greater distance one from another: where it falles into the sea, hils do inclose it on both sides.
7 Wanari. Charibes.      

Capurwacka great Charibes.

9 Cawo great. Iaos. Icomana. Wareo.  

Wia great.

Wiaco, Ch.
Parammona, great.


10 The freshet shoots out into the sea, with great force: the sea doth here sometimes campe high, and breake, as if it were full of rocks: but in proofe it is nothing els but the pride & force of the tydes. In this bay, & round about, so far as the mountaines do extend there is great store of Brasill wood, some of it bearing farre darker colour then other some. Here are also many sortes of other good woods.

Caiane g.
Gowateri a great iland.
Wiaco. Ch.

Canawi. g.


12 Macuria. Piraos. Ch.      


14 Manmanuri. Ipaios. Ch.     14 These speake the language of the Indians of Dominica. They are but few, but very cruel to their enemies. For they bind, and eat them alive peecemeale. This torment is not comparable to the deadly paine that commeth of hurts, or woundes, made by those arrowes that are invenomed with the juice of ye herbe Wapototo. These Indians because they eate them whome they kill, use no poyson. The sea coast is nowhere populous, for they have much wasted themselves, in mutuall warres. But now in all parts so farre as Orenoque, they live in league and peace.
15 Cureey. Shebaios.      



Musswara. great. Ocapanio.



Waritappi. great. Carinamari.





20 Mawarpari. Arwaccas. Awaricana. Mahahonero.  

Amonna very great. Charibes.

Iaremappo. very great.   21. Neere the head of this river, Capeleppo falleth out of the plaines, and runneth into the Sea with Curitini. Some of the Guianians live in this river.
22 Marawini. g. Paracuttos.      
23 Owcowi.        
24 Wiawiami.        
25 Aramatappo.        
26 Wiapo.        
27 Macuruma.        
28 Carapi.        
29 Uraca.