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A discourse of the West Indies and South sea written by Lopez Vaz a Portugal , borne in the citie of Elvas , continued unto the yere 1587. Wherein among divers rare things not hitherto delivered by any other writer, certaine voyages of our Englishmen are truely reported: which was intercepted with the author thereof at the river of Plate, by Captaine Withrington and Captaine Christopher Lister, in the fleete set foorth by the right Honorable the Erle of Cumberland for the South sea in the yeere 1586.

FRANCIS DRAKE an Englishman being on the sea, and having knowledge of the small strength of the towne of Nombre de Dios, came into the harborough on a night with foure pinnesses, and landed an hundreth and fifty men: and leaving one halfe of his men with a trumpet in a fort which was there, hee with the rest entred the towne without doing any harme till hee came at the market place: and there his company discharging their calivers, and sounding their trumpets (which made a great noyse in the towne) were answered by their fellowes in the forte, who discharged and sounded in like maner. This attempt put the townesmen in such extreme feare, that leaving their houses, they fled into the mountaines, and there bethought themselves what the matter should be in the towne, remaining as men amazed at so sudden an alarme. But the Spaniards being men for the most part of good discretion joyned foureteene or fifteene of them together with their pieces, to see who was in the towne: and getting to a corner of the market-place they discovered the Englishmen, and perceiving that they were but a few, discharged their pieces at them; and their fortune was such, that they slew the trumpetter, and shot the captaine (whose name was Francis Drake) into the legge: who feeling himselfe hurt retired toward the Fort, where he had left the rest of his men: but they in the Fort sounded their trumpet, and being not answered againe, and hearing the calivers discharged in the towne, thought that their fellowes in the towne had bene slaine, and thereupon fled to their Pinnesses. Now Francis Drake (whom his men carried because of his hurt) when he came to the fort where he left his men and saw them fled, he and the rest of his company were in so great feare, that leaving their furniture behinde them, and putting off their hose, they swamme & waded all to their Pinnesses, and departed forth of the harbour, so that if the Spaniards had followed them, they might have slaine them all. Thus Captaine Drake did no more harme at Nombre de Dios, neither was there in this skirmish any more then one Spaniarde slaine, and of the Englishmen onely their Trumpetter, whom they left behind with his trumpet in his hand.

From hence the coast lieth all along till you come to Cartagena . Betweene Nombre de Dios and Cartagena is a great sound or gulfe, where the first Spaniardes that ever dwelt upon the firme land built and inhabited the towne of Dariene: howbeit they abode not long there, because of the unholesomenesse of the place.

But Captaine Drake being discontent with the repulse that the men of Nombre de Dios gave him, went with his Pinnesses into the said bay or sound of Dariene, where having conference with certaine Negros which were ranne away from their masters of Panama and Nombre de Dios, he was informed that at the very same time many mules were comming from Panama to Nombre de Dios laden with gold and silver. Upon this newes Francis Drake taking with him an hundred shot, and the said Negros, stayed in the way till the treasure came by, accompanied and guarded onely by those that drove the mules, who mistrusted nothing at all. When captaine Drake met with them, he tooke away their golde: but the silver he left behinde, because he could not carrie it over the mountaines. And two dayes after this he went to the house of crosses called by the Spaniards Venta de Cruzes, where all the merchants leave their goods, where hee slew sixe or seven of the marchants, but found neither gold nor silver, but great store of marchandize: and so he fired the said house, with all the goods, which were judged to be worth above two hundred thousand ducats. Thus not finding golde in this house to satisfie his minde, hee burned the marchants goods, and foorthwith recovered his Pinnesses : where fortune so favoured his proceedings, that he had not bene aboord halfe an houre, but there came to the sea side above three hundred souldiers, which were sent of purpose to take him: but God suffered him to escape their hands, to be a farther plague unto the Spaniards.

Also another Englishman named John Oxenham hearing what spoyle Captaine Drake had done upon that coast, made a voyage thither to enterprize the like. His ship was of burthen about an hundred and twentie tunnes, and he was accompanied with seventie persons: he had conference also with the foresaid Negros, but being advertized that the treasure was conducted by souldiers, he determined with himselfe to doe that which never any man before durst undertake to doe. For being most resolute of his purpose, and not looking nor forecasting what danger might ensue of this bold enterprize, he landed his men in the same place where Captaine Drake was, and hailing his ship to shore, cut downe boughes of trees, and covered his ship with them, and hid up his great ordinance in the ground. Thus leaving not one man in his ship, he tooke two small peeces of ordinance, and his calievers, and good store of victuals, with all other necessaries for his intended voyage. And he went with the Negros above twelve leagues up into the maine land, unto a river that runneth into the South sea: and by this river in a wood he cut downe timber, and built a Pinnesse, which was 45 foote long by the keele; which Pinnesse being finished, he went downe the river and passed into the South sea, carrying sixe Negros with him for his guides, and he arrived at the Iland of Pearles being 25 leagues distant from Panama. This Iland lieth in the South sea as they saile from Peru to Panama, and here he stayed ten dayes, before he could take any shipping, but at length there came a small barke from a place called Quito in Peru: this barke he tooke, and found in her 60000 pezos of golde, with much wine and bread: and not being content with this, he stayed a long while, before he would sende away his prize or any of his men. Shortly after he tooke another barke that came from Lima , wherein he found 100000 pezos of silver in barres, which being all aboord his Pinnesse, he shaped his course toward the river from whence he came: but before his departure he landed on the foresaid Iland to finde pearles, and went to a small towne of the Iland inhabited by Negros for the same purpose: where finding but small store, he returned to his Pinnesse, and comming neere unto the river he sent away his two prizes, and with his Pinnesse entered up the river. The Negros of the Iland of perles, so soone as the Englishmen were departed, posted in their Canoas to Panama, to signifie unto the Governour what they had done. Whereupon the Governour within two dayes after sent out foure barkes and an hundred souldiers, and Negros to rowe, the captaine of which souldiers was called Juan de Ortega: who went first to the Iland of pearles, & there had knowledge which way the Englishmen did take, and in pursuing them he met with the two prizes taken by the Englishmen, which tolde him that they were gone up the river. But when he was come to the enterance of the river, he knew not which way to take, because the river ranne into the sea by three mouthes, and not all at one. Therefore being determined with himselfe to passe up the greatest of the three, he saw comming downe with the streame many feathers of hens out of one of the lesser mouthes: which mouth he entered, and sayling foure dayes up the same, hee descryed the Englishmens pinnesse lying upon the sand, and comming to boord her, they found in her no more but sixe Englishmen, of which they killed one, and the other 5 fled, & having thoroughly ransacked the said pinnesse, they could finde nought in her, but victuals. The Spaniards seeing this, determined to seeke out the Englishmen by land, and leaving about twentie men to keepe their barks they marched with eightie shot up into the countrey, and halfe a league from the river they found a little house made with boughes, where the Englishmen had left all their treasure; which the Spaniards tooke and carried backe to their barkes, meaning not to follow the Englishmen any further; but the English captaine with all his men, and above 200 Negros followed the Spaniards unto the rivers side, and set upon them with great fury: howbeit the Spaniards lying behind the bushes did easily put the English to flight, and they tooke seven of them alive, and slewe eleven and five Negros so the Spaniards returned with the losse of two men and five or sixe hurt. Then they asked those Englishmen which they had taken prisoners, why they departed not with their treasure, having fifteene dayes libertie? They answered, that their captaine had commanded them to carry all that golde and silver unto the place where their ship was, and they were agreed to carry it, although they made three or foure journeys, for he promised to give them part of the treasure beside their wages, but the mariners would needes have it by and by: whereat the captaine being angry because they put so small trust in his word, would not suffer his saylers to carrie it, but said he would get Negros to serve his turne, and so these were the Negros aforesaid, whom he had brought to carry away the golde and silver: but by the way he met with the five Englishmen which fled from the pinnesse, who told him of the Spaniards; and then he made friends with all his men, and got the Negros to take his part: but having the overthrow, and his best men being slaine and taken prisoners, he thought to have returned to his ship, and so to have gone for England . The Spanish captaine having heard this discourse of the English prisoners, buried the dead bodies, embarking all things, and with the Englishmen and their pinnesse returned backe unto Panama. Thus was the Englishmens voyage overthrowen.

Now so soone as the foure barkes and the pinnesse were arrived at Panama, the Governour of that place sent a messenger overland to Nombre de Dios, to advertise the townesmen, where the Englishmens ship lay: whereupon they of Nombre de Dios manned out foure ships and went into the bay of Dariene where the Englishmen had left their ship, which they tooke away with them to Nombre de Dios, with all her ordinance; so that the poore Englishmen were left in the mountaines very naked and destitute of all comfort: for the Spaniards had taken out of the foresayd house of boughes all their tooles & other necessaries, so that they could by no meanes have any succour: whereas otherwise they might have builded another pinnesse, and provided better for themselves to have returned for their owne countrey.

These newes comming to the eares of the Viceroy of Peru, he. thought it not convenient to suffer those fiftie Englishmen which were yet alive, to continue in the mountaines among the said Negros. Wherefore he sent a servant of his called Diego de Frees with 150 shot to seeke them, who at length found them making of Canoas to take some one small barke or other that sayled to and againe in the North sea , whereby they might the better shift for themselves: but before they had finished their pretended worke, the Spanish souldiers set upon them, and tooke fifteene of them that were sicke: but the rest fled, whom the Spaniards pursued among the mountaines, and in the end the Negros betraied them, and they were all taken and carried to Panama. Where the Justice asked the English captaine, whither he had the Queenes license, or the license of any other Prince or Lord? And he answered that he had none, but that he came of his owne proper motion. Which being knowen to the Justice, the Captaine and his companie were condemned and were all put to death at Panama, saving the Captaine himself, the Master, and the Pilot, and five boyes, which were caried to Lima , where the Captaine and the two other men were executed, but the boyes are yet living.

The king of Spaine having intelligence of these matters, sent 300 men of warre against those Negros who had assisted the Englishmen, which Negros before were slaves unto the Spaniards, and (as is aforesaide) fled from their masters into those mountaines, and so joyned themselves to the Englishmen, thinking by that meanes to be revenged of the Spaniards crueltie.

At the first comming of these three hundred souldiers they tooke many of the Negros, and did great justice on them according to the qualitie of their offences. But after a season the Negros grew wise and wary, and prevented the Spaniards so, that none of them could be taken. Whereof the king being advertised by his Captaines, as also how the countrey was full of mountaines and rivers, and very unhealthfull, insomuch that his souldiers died, he wrote unto his said Captaines to make an agreement with those Negros, to the ende the countrey might be in quiet. And so they came to agreement with the Captaines of the Negros, and all was appeased. Afterward the Negros inhabiting two places which the Spaniardes allotted unto them, the kings pardon was proclaimed unto all those which before the day of the proclamation thereof had runne from their Masters, upon condition that from that day forward, whatsoever other fugitive Negros should resort unto them, they should returne them home either dead or alive, if not, that they should pay for them. Upon these conditions, and to make all quiet in the moun taines, all things were concluded and agreed upon. So that now the Negros dwell in great townes, where they have Spaniardes for their teachers, and a Spaniard for their Judge, and with this they holde themselves very well contented, and are obedient unto their rulers.

The Spaniards since they conquered those parts have seene many Frenchmen on that coast, but never any Englishmen in that place, save those two onely which I have before mentioned. And although the Frenchmen have come strong, yet durst they never put foot on shore as the English did. But the king of Spaine hearing that Englishmen as well as Frenchmen beganne to haunt that coast, caused two gallies to be made and well appointed, to keepe the coast. The first yeere that they were made they tooke sixe or seven French ships. So soone as this was knowen there used fewe English or French men of warre to come on the coast, untill this yeere 1586. when as the aforesaid Francis Drake came with a strong fleete of about foure and twentie ships, and did such harme as is well knowen unto all Christendome. But (God sparing the king of Spaine life) hee will sufficiently provide to keepe his subjectes from the invasions of other Nations.

Now to go forward with our begunne discourse, the next towne upon this coast beyond Nombre de Dios is Cartagena : it standeth in a more healthfull place, and is a greater towne then the other, bordering upon a better countrey, which aboundeth with plentie of victuals, and having a very good port for the harbour of ships: and it is called Cartagena , because it resembleth very much the citie of Cartagena in Spaine. It containeth above foure hundred housholds. It is very rich by reason of the ships staying there, when they goe or come from Spaine. And if the ships chance to winter before they goe home into Spaine, then they lie at Cartagena . Also it is greatly enriched by the marchandize, which is there discharged to be carryed to the new kingdome of Granada , from which kingdome much golde is brought unto Cartagena . This new kingdome of Granada is two hundred leagues within the land: neither can they travel from Cartagena to this kingdome by land, because of the mountaines and standing waters, which lie in the way, so that they are faine to carry their goods up a river called The great river of Magdalen. They can goe with their barkes but two hundred leagues up this river; for although it be large and very deepe, yet there runneth so swift a current, that the barkes are constrained to discharge their goods at a place in the river called Branco de Malambo, into small canoas which rowe close by the shores side. In this river are great abundance of Crocodiles, so huge and terrible to behold, that such as never sawe them before are very fearefull at the first sight of them, for if a man chance to put his hand or foote into the water, they will streightway catch at them. In some places this river is very unhealthfull and full of noysome wormes; but the first place thereupon which the Spaniards doe inhabite called Mompox is exceeding healthfull. The countrey adjoyning upon this river they call The new kingdome of Granada , because the captaine called Cesada which first conquered the same, and inhabited there, was borne at Granada in Spaine: for it is the use of the Spanish captaines, when they have conquered any Province of the Indies, to call it after the name of the place where they themselves were borne. This new kingdome of Granada is very fruitfull, and bringeth forth much come & other victuals, and hath many gold-mines, and great quantitie of emeralds, wherof they send so many into Spaine, that now they are become little worth: but before these countreys were found, they were in great estimation. Here are also dwelling many of the Indian people so meeke and gentle of nature, that they are called flies. This land is very plaine and holesome, and the inhabitants are given to peace.

From this kingdome they travell to another countrey called La governacion de Popayan ; it is rich of golde, and withall very fruitfull, but fuller of mountaines then the new kingdome of Granada , and hath fewer Indians dwelling in it, but those that are there are full of courage and very valiant, which caused the Spaniardes to make great warre before they could overcome them. In this province there are 13 townes of Spaniards, and in The new kingdome of Granada there are nine townes of Spaniards.

From this countrey of Popayan they travell along till they come to the first inhabitants of Peru dwelling in a towne which joyneth upon the South sea called Quito . This towne I will leave any further to speake of till I come particularly to intreate of Peru. Onely I have spoken of the two foresaid Provinces, to the intent you might know, that there is a passage by land from Cartagena to Peru, which is about five hundred leagues through: so that besides the two hundred leagues which they goe up the river, the other three hundred leagues is a countrey well inhabited and without danger to travell in, insomuch that oftentimes postes are sent too and fro. But because it is so long a journey, marchants use not to travell that way, but when they are inforced so to doe. If any forren Nation should become Lordes of the South sea, the king of Spaine might have his treasure conveyed unto this towne of Cartagena from Peru, and so into Spaine. For in times past there being a rebellion in Peru made by the Spaniardes against their king, he sent his power to suppresse them through these Provinces. This I write onely for that I knowe some Englishmen have thought, that in taking the South sea, or Panama or Nombre de Dios from the king of Spaine, his treasure of Peru could not be conveyed unto him, and that the king could not succour Peru, if it wanted helpe. Howbeit I doe here most certainely assure you, that there be many wayes to Peru.

But now I will returne to my former discourse. Upon the seacoast of Tierra firma Eastward from Cartagena standeth a little towne called Santa Martha, betweene which towne and Cartagena the mightie river of Magdalen before named falleth into the sea with such a strong current, that by reason thereof it is knowen 20 leagues from the shore. Santa Martha is a very poore towne, because it hath often bene robbed by the Frenchmen, and hath no trade but with a fewe Indians that dwell thereabout. Here beginneth that wonderfull long ridge of high mountaines covered with snow, which streatching through many countreys, runneth along the kingdomes of Peru and Chili, and continueth to the very streights of Magellan. These mountaines are scene with snow upon their tops above thirtie leagues into the sea. At the foote of these wilde mountaines there is a valley called Tagrona, which is the richest place that is knowen thereabout: but because the countrey adjoyning is so mountainous, and the inhabitants so many and of so good a courage, shooting poysoned arrowes which are present death to such as are wounded with the same; therefore it lyeth as yet unconquered, notwithstanding it hath cost many Spanish captaines their lives.

Passing along the coast of Tierra firma to the East of Santa Martha, where is an other small towne of above an hundred houses called Rio de Hacha. This towne is somewhat rich by reason of the pearles which they get there. Also they have a trade with the Indians for some small quantitie of golde. From hence they goe along the coast to Cabo de la Vela, which because it is of the same propertie with Rio de Hacha before mentioned, I omit to speake of it. Upon this coast there is a lake or gulfe which openeth into the sea, at the mouth whereof they gather great store of pearles. Beyond this place there is another poore towne, which hath sixe or seven times beene spoyled by the Frenchmen. From hence there lyeth an high way to the newe kingdome of Granada , but it is above seven hundred leagues in length, this way is travelled very seldome, because the Indians will usually set upon the travellers. More up into the land the countrey lyeth plaine, and there is some golde, and a fewe townes inhabited with Spaniardes, whereof I have had but small notice, and therefore I let them passe. The next place of any account is the Iland of Margarita, where there are but fewe Spaniardes inhabitant. This Island of Margarita is very small, and lyeth foure leagues from the maine lande: it hath heretofore bene very rich of golde and pearles, and so would have continued till this present day, had it not beene spoyled by men of warre, because it standeth so farre from the maine land, notwithstanding they yet gather good store of pearles. Upon this Island are bred better horses and mules then in any other part of the Indies, therefore they carry them from hence to Peru, albeit they have great store of horses in Peru, but not so good. And because we have begunne to speake of the Iland of Margarita, you are to understand, that to the North of the foresaid coast of Tierra firma lie above seventie Hands being all very little, except Cuba , Hispaniola, and Boriquen, or Sant Juan de Puerto rico, which Ile of Boriquen, although it bee not very great, yet is it inhabited by the Spaniards. The other smaller Hands have bene inhabited by the Indians, and have had good store of gold, pearles, and emraldes; but the Spaniards have destroyed most of those Indians from off the earth, and in many of those Ilands there is nothing of any value, wherefore I have small cause to intreate any further of them. But Hispaniola is an Iland of great bignesse, and hath bene very full of people, and abounded with mines of golde and with pearles, but now all is wasted away. It was at the Spaniards first coming thither, as full of inhabitants as any place of that bignesse in the whole world, yet now there are none left: for they were men of so hard a heart, that they murthered themselves rather then they would serve the Spaniards: for being men under so small civill governement as they were, never was there any people knowen of so resolute and desperate mindes: for oftentimes a great number of them being together over night, they should be found all dead before the morning: such extreme hate did this brutish people beare against the Spaniards, that they chose rather to die the death, then to indure their insolencies. It happened on a time, that a Spaniard calling certaine Indians to worke in the mines (which labour of all others did most grieve them) they, rather then they would goe, offered to lay violent hands on themselves: which the Spaniard perceiving sayd unto them: seeing you will hang your selves rather then goe and worke, I likewise will hang my selfe and will beare you company, because I will make you worke in an other world: but the Indians hearing this, replied, we will willingly worke with you here, to the intent you may not goe with us into another world: so unwilling were they of the Spaniards companie. So that of all the inhabitantes of this Iland there were none that escaped death, save onely these fewe, which came to passe by the meanes of this one Spaniarde, otherwise they would have hanged themselves also. Some of these people are yet living, but very few. This Iland of Hispaniola is for the most part called The Ile of Sant Domingo, because the chiefe citie thereof is so called, which was the first citie in all the West Indies that was inhabited. There are in this citie above eight hundred fire-houses of good building inhabited by Gentlemen of great wealth. This Iland is unhealthfull, for it raineth here the most part of the yeere. The riches that now this Iland affordeth are sugar (for here are many Ingenios or sugar-houses) and great store of hides by reason of the abundance of cattell; there are copper mines also, which is the cause that they have such store of copper-money, for their gold mines be all exhausted, and the golde which they have commeth from other places. This Iland being (as is beforesaide) destitute of the first inhabitants, and the Spaniardes lacking men to worke in their Ingenios, and to looke unto their cattell, they were forced to bring Negros thither out of Guinea, where they have so increased, that the Iland is nowe as full of them, as it was of the naturall inhabitantes; so that the Spaniardes carrie Negros from this Iland to the maine lande and there sell them. The chiefest victuall that they have in this Iland, is a kinde of roote called Juca , which being eaten as it commeth new out of the ground is present death: but first they boyle it and after presse it, and the liquor that is strained therefrom is deadly poyson: howbeit this roote being pressed so dry, that there remaineth no moisture in it, they mingle and temper the same with water and so make cakes therof, which are very savory & good to eat, & this is all the bread which they have in those Ilands. There go from hence yerely into Spaine 7 or 8 ships at the least full fraighted with sugar & hides.

Neere unto Hispaniola lyeth another greater Iland called Cuba , it is like unto Hispaniola, although there is not so much sugar. The principall towne of this Ilande is called Havana , which hath an excellent harborough belonging thereunto. The townesmen are very rich by reason of the fleetes that come from Nueva Espanna, and Tierra firma which touch there; for the safeguarde of which fleetes and of the towne it selfe there is a castle built neere the said harborough kept with Spanish souldiers; neither is there any castle or souldiers in all the Ilands but onely here. There is also another Iland inhabited with Spaniards called Boriquen or Sant Juan de Puerto rico. It is but little, yet every way as plentifull as the other two are; and therefore I omit to speake thereof.

But now to prosecute my discourse of the port-townes upon the maine lande : Eastwarde and Southward from Margarita there are no townes inhabited by Spaniardes or Portugals, till you come to Fernambuck upon the coast of Brasil ; notwithstanding that betweene the sayd Iland and Fernambuck runneth the mightie river of Marannon, whereof (both because of the greatnesse and the riches contayned therein) I must needes make some relation, in regarde I have promised to speake of every place that is of any value in all the Indies. This river is one of the greatest in the world, and was first found when as the Spaniardes sought out the other coast: but none can passe up this river because of the greatnesse of the current which commeth downe, as also there are many shelves of sand lying in the mouth thereof: wherby it was long before the riches in and about this river were knowen, untill such time as the kingdome of Peru was conquered: at which time a Captaine called Gonsalo Pizarro passing thorough the countrey of Peru came at length into a lande which they named La Canela, because there groweth great store of Sinamome, but not altogether so good as that which commeth from the East Indies. The sayd Captaine proceeding farther into the countrey came at length to a mightie river, where he sawe the countrey people rowing in their Canoas, and bringing golde to buy and sell with the Spaniards. Captaine Pizarro seeing this, was desirous to finde out the ende of this river, but he could not travell by lande because of the high mountaines: wherefore he made a small Barke or Pinnesse to goe and discover from whence the saide Indians brought their golde, and sent in the saide Pinnesse a Captaine under him called Orellana, who with fiftie men went downe the river, but could not returne to their Generall Pizarro, because of the great current which was very strong against them, forcing them to passe along the river, and to enter into the Sea, and so they sayled on forwarde to the foresaide Ile of Margarita: but as they passed downe this river they found it well inhabited with Indians, which were possessed of great store of golde. These men with their Pinnesse were passing downe this river eight monethes, for the river lyeth very crooked, which maketh a long way by water, neither durst the Spaniardes ever lande, because they sawe the countrey so full of people, but they tooke many Canoas, wherein they had great store of victuals and some golde.

Now this Orellana comming unto Margarita with these good newes and riches, determined not to returne unto his Captaine Pizarro which sent him, but tooke his way from thence to the king of Spaine, and presented him with the golde that he brought out of the river: whereupon the king sent him with a fleete of shippes and sixe hundred men to inhabite the sayd river: but because of the great current and sholdes that are therein, hee left the most part of his men and shippes, and with those that remained he went unto certaine Ilandes hard by the river, and built him Pinnesses; but the countrey being very unhealthfull, himselfe and many of his men dyed, and the residue went every man which way pleased him best. The fame of this river was straightway spread through Spaine and Portugal , insomuch that a Gentleman of Portugall called Lewis de Melo asked license of Don Juan the third, then king of Portugall to goe and conquere the sayd river: for from the mouth of this river to the mouth of the river of Plate, is that part of America which the kings of Portugall (according to the partition made betweene them and the kings of Spaine) doe holde: so that the king of Portugall having this river in his part gave it to the saide Lewis de Melo to conquere: who taking tenne ships and eight hundred men (among which many were gentlemen) and comming to the mouth of this river, lost all the said ships saving two, in one of the which two was Lewis de Melo himselfe: also the most part of the men that were in the ships cast away were saved and got to the shore, and so went by lande to the Iland of Margarita; from whence they were dispersed throughout all the Indies.

Thus these two fleetes of shippes being so unfortunately cast away, never durst any Captaine afterward attempt by sea to conquer the sayde river. Howbeit from the kingdome of Nueva Granada before mentioned there have gone two or three Captaines by land to discover it, for a rumour went over all the countrey of the great riches contained in this river; whereupon the Spaniards named it El Dorado, that is to say, The golden river. It is thought that God will not have this river to be knowen, for that one Captaine by lande had most of his people slaine by those of the countrey, and others for want of victuals returned. So that none of all these came to any plaine discovery, till a few yeeres past a Captaine of the countrey of Navarre called Pedro de Orzua, who went from Peru almost the same way that Gonsalo Pizarro had before discovered, and was accompanied with about some seven hundred Spaniards, it being a great marvell how he could get so many, amongst whom were many Gentlemen and old souldiers of Peru, who caused divers mutinies and insurrections, as hereafter I will more at large declare, which mutinous souldiers were the cause of their captaines death. Howbeit with all these men captaine Pedro de Orzua came unto the head of the said river: but you must understand, that this river is nourished not onely with the waters and freshets that come from the mountaines of Peru, but also by all the rivers betweene the Equinoctiall and sixteene degrees of Southerly latitude, which fall thereinto and cause it to be so great. Nowe at the head of this river the sayde Captaine Pedro de Orzua made fifteene Pinnesses with many Canoas, wherein he caried above two thousand Indians to helpe him, with many horses and other provision, as meaning to inhabite there: for it was not possible for him to carry all his provision by lande, because the mountaines be very great, there being also betweene them many small rivers which fall into this great river above twentie leagues out of the land. So this captaine having all his things in good order went downe the river with his whole company, and at length came from among the mountaines to a plaine countrey where the Indians dwelt; and there he held a councell, determining in the same place to build a towne and to fortifie it very strongly, to the end he might leave all his stuffe there, and such men as were not souldiers. And so they began to build the said towne, and wrought upon it all the winter: where because it raineth much, and withall is very hot, sicknes and want of victuals began to prevaile amongst them, wherupon the souldiers fell a murmuring among themselves. For comming out of Peru, which is one of the fruitfullest & richest countries of the world, they were more inclined to have their fill of bread and meat then to apply their bodies to labour: which was the cause that albeit the countrey in which they now were, was exceeding fruitfull, and that they saw with their eyes most evident apparances of golde, & also that up into the countrey it seemed to be much better; yet for all this they murmured & would needes returne for Peru from whence they came. In the company of these men there was a souldier of Biskay called Lopez de Agira, a very little man of bodie & lame of one of his legs, but very valiant and of good experience in the warres. This man having bene one of the principall mutiners in Peru, could not here give over his old wont, but asked his fellow-souldiers, what they went to seeke for in those wild deserts whither they were brought: For (said he) if you seeke riches, there are enough in Peru, and there is bread, wine, flesh, and faire women also; so that it were better to conquer that, and to take it out of the handes of the Spaniardes, and that it were no hard enterprize, because all the souldiers and poore men of Peru would turne unto them, and that that were a better course, then to goe and conquere the savage people in those mountaines: so that once having the government of Peru, the king of Spaine should be inforced to agree with them: if not (sayd he) we shall not lacke them that will succour us, to have the riches of Peru. By these perswasions he brought many souldiers to be of his minde, and conspired also with a young gentleman of Sivill called Don Fernando de Gusman (who was in love with a young woman which the captaine Pedro de Orzua had, and therefore did the sooner agree unto the wicked intent of Agira ) to murther the captaine. Who on a night being asleepe in his bed, the said conspirators and their faction entered into his bed-chamber, and there stabbed him with their daggers; which being done, they slew also all the Captaines that were his friends, and therewithall made a great out-cry, saying, God save the king, God save the king: whereupon all the campe was in an uprore. Then Lopez de Agira made unto the souldiers a long oration, and got them all to consent unto him, some by force, and some because they durst not say to the contrary, and others of their good will, and so in the end they all agreed unto his determined purpose. Then made they Fernando de Gusman their head, & Agira was made a captaine. This done, because the people should the better hold their opinion, he did as great a villany as ever any Spaniard committed: for he made an altar, wheron he and all the souldiers renounced their service unto the king of Spaine, & so as people without a king, chose the said Don Fernando to be their king, and did homage unto him. These matters being thus finished they consulted among themselves which should be the best way for them to goe to Peru? For they could not goe up the river, by which they came downe, in regarde of the strong current, and going backe overland they should be very weake for want of horsemen: wherefore they determined to goe downe the river. Then saide Lopez de Agira, that they would carry nothing with them but the pinnesses & souldiers which should fight, and that it were best to leave behind them all the Indians which they brought from Peru, with the women and the sicke men. Whereunto the Generall Don Ferdinando would not agree, because he knew that when they were gone the people of the country would kill them all. Lopez de Agira hearing this, and longing to be chiefe governour himselfe, tooke unto him 30 of his owne countreymen of his disposition, and on the sudden slew Don Fernando, whom not many dayes before he had sworne to obey: & now by his subtill practises, being withall eloquent in his talke, he caused the souldiers to appoint himselfe their governour, & made them beleeve that all the cruelties committed were for their saveguard: neither did the tyrannie of this wretched man here ende. He was borne in Biskay a countrey neere unto France, wherefore I beleeve him rather to have beene a Frenchman then a Spaniard, for that in the heart of a Spaniard could not be so much crueltie as this man shewed. Now being readie to goe his way, he determined not to carry with him any gentlemen or persons of qualitie, and therefore he slew all such persons; and then departing onely with the common souldiers, he left behind him all the Spanish women and sicke men, with all other creatures. If I should rehearse all the cruell murthers of this wicked man one by one, I should be over tedious unto you. Onely in fewe words I say, that this man proceeded downe the river, having with him onely foure hundred men: but before he passed the river, and was come to Margarita, he had no more left but two hundred and thirty men, for the rest hee had put to death, and left on shore among the people of the countrey: all which tyranny he used, because he ever stood in feare of his life : for had he seene at any time but two souldiers talking together, he would streight suspect that they were conspiring of his death, and therefore he used the practises abovesaide. And he never went any way, but that hee had in his company thirtie Biscaines of his owne will and minde readie to execute his cruell purposes.

As these souldiers with their Captaine came downe the river, they sawe many Canoas with golde in them passing too and fro, and people on both sides of the river, and in their passage many times they landed, and got good store of golde and victuals. Now also did they finde that to be true which Orellana had reported, namely that there were Amazones, that is to say, women that fight in the warres with bowes and arrowes: but these women fight to aide their husbands, and not by themselves alone without the companie of men, as Orellana reported. There were of these women upon divers partes of this river, who seeing the Spaniardes fighting with their husbandes came in to succour them, and shewed themselves more valiant then their husbandes; for which cause it was named, The river of Amazones. The Spaniardes intent was onely to passe downe the river, neither sought they at all to discover the Inland, and yet they tooke good store of golde, putting it into one of their Pinnesses, where Lopez de Agira himselfe was embarked, which Pinnesse at the mouth of the river was cast away, but he himselfe escaped, because he had not as yet fulfilled his bloodie minde. And when he was come to the Ilande of Margarita, the Governour thereof supposing he had beene one of the kings loyall captaines, received him with pinnesses, and brought good store of victuals unto him. But he putting the sayd Governour immediatly to death, landed on the Iland, and tooke it and two shippes that were there, and constrained likewise an hundred and fiftie men, which he there found, to goe with him, besides others that went voluntarily, carrying from thence good store of victuales, and many horses also. And then he returned to the maine land, saying, that with his small forces hee would subdue the whole Indias: imagining belike that all the olde souldiers and poore people, at the first sight of him, would turne to his side and take his part. Howbeit he was foulely deceived: for before he had marched two dayes journey up into the land, the Governour of Nueva Granada came against him with a power of men: but Lopez de Agira hoping that other souldiers would have joyned themselves unto him, whereby his strength might have beene the more, was quite frustrate of his expectation : for even his owne men left him, and tooke part with the kings Captaine. Nowe seeing himselfe thus left destitute of his souldiers, and voide of all helpe, he committed a more unnaturall bloodie act then ever Nero the tyrant did, for he murthered his owne daughter being but sixteene yeeres of age, which he had brought with him out of Peru: the cause why he killed her was, that she might not become a concubine to villaines, nor be called the daughter of a traytor: and these words he used unto her, so soone as he had given her her deaths wound: but before he could finish this cruell act, the souldiers came upon him, and cut him in pieces, also his daughter died of her wound in that place.

Thus have you heard the miserable ende of this bloodie caitife: in regarde of whose treacherous and mischievous dealing the king would never since suffer this river to bee throughly discovered; so that the riches and treasure of the said river remaine unknowen even untill this present day.

Now leaving to discourse any longer of this river of Marannon, all the coast betweene the saide river and the river of Plate, is called The coast of Brasill, taking that name from a kinde of wood in the same countrey, called Brasill-wood, whereof there is great store in those partes. This coast of Brasill was first discovered by Pedro Alvarez Cabral, in the second voyage which the king of Portugall caused to be made to the East Indies: and the foresayde Pedro Alvarez tooke possession of this land for the king of Portugall: whereupon the king Don Emanuel hearing newes thereof sent presently shippes to discover the whole countrey, and found it to be part of America otherwise called The West Indies: for which cause there grewe some controversie betweene him and the king of Spaine: but being kinsmen and great friends one to another, they agreed in the end, that the king of Portugall should holde all the countrey that he had discovered, the which was (as I have said) from the river of Marannon to the river of Plate; albeit the Spaniards affirme, that it stretcheth no further then the Iland of Santa Catelina; whereupon there have risen many controversies betweene the Portugales and Spaniardes, which have cost many men their lives.

There came into the said river of Plate in the yeere 1587 two English ships and a Pinnesse of the right Honourable the Earle of Cumberland, which were bound for the streights of Magellan, and ankored ten leagues within the said river before a little Iland lying hard by another called Seal-Iland. On which Iland the Captaine of one of the ships called Christopher Lister, and his whole company landing, found the king of Portugales armes graven on a rocke by the sea side; which are thought to have beene there engraven by one Martin Alonso de Souza, who was sent by the king Don Emanuel to discover this coast. Therefore I thinke the Portugales have reason for that which they alleage concerning the extension of the said coast of Brasil . Wherfore the king of Portugall gave this land to diverse of his gentlemen to inhabite. Most of the naturall inhabitants of this countrey are very rude, and goe starke naked both men and women, and are man-eaters; for which cause they make warres one against another to get men to eate; they are stout and good bow-men. The first place inhabited on this coast beyonde the river of Marannon is called Fernambuck so named by the Indians, but in Portugall it is called Villa de Olinda. Before you come to this place there is a port called Parajua, unto which port not many yeeres past the Frenchmen hearing of the troubles which were then in Portugall resorted, and built there a fort; whereunto certaine French ships made yeerely voyages to lade Brasillwood. But they of Fernambuck, with the helpe of the Spaniardes, went and burnt five French shippes within the port, and tooke the fort it selfe, and the Frenchmen that were there fled part into the mountaines, and part of them were slaine; so that since that time the Spaniardes have inhabited there till this present. Nowe to returne to Fernambuck inhabited by a Portugall Captaine called Duarte Coelio, it is the greatest towne in all that coast, and hath above three thousand houses in it, with seventie Ingenios for sugar, and great store of Brasill-wood and abundance of cotton, yet are they in great want of victuals: for all their victuals come either from Portugall or from some places upon the coast of Brasill. The harbour of this towne is a barred harbour, and fit onely for small barkes: this place belongeth as yet unto the sonne of Duarte Coelio. Beyond this towne lyeth the Cape of Sant Augustin, and next thereunto is the river of Sant Francisco, which is a great river. Betweene this river and Baya it is all a wildernesse inhabited with cruell salvages, for whomsoever they take they kill and eate him. The towne of Bayha belongeth to the king, and therefore the governour of all the coast keepeth his residence in the same, as also the bishop. It containeth 1000 houses, & 40 Ingenios for sugar, and hath much cotton, but no Brasillwood at all. The sea runneth up into the countrey here 14 or 15 leagues, where they get some yeres good store of Amber-griese. Here is great plentie of victuals, and although the countrey be hot, yet is it healthfull, & the aire holesome. The next towne upon the coast called As Ilhas, or The Iles, is but a small towne, containing not above 150 houses, and but three Ingenios for sugar. Most of the inhabitants are labouring men, which use to carry victuals in their small barkes unto Fernambuck: their Lord is called Lucas Giraldo.

The next place unto this is called Puerto Seguro: it consisteth of 4 small townes, which containe not in all above 300 houses. The inhabitants of this towne also live by carrying of victuals along the coast; and the towne it selfe belongeth to the Duke de Avero. Hard by this port begin the sholdes which they call Abrolhos; and these sholdes lie above 25 leagues into the sea.

The next habitation of Christians beyond these sholdes is Espirito Santo which consisteth of two townes, both of them contayning about 300 houses: and they belong to a gentleman called Vasques Fernandes de Coutinho.

From hence you passe along the coast to the river ot Jenero, which hath about three hundred houses. In this place the Frenchmen first inhabited, whose Captaine was called Monsieur de Villegagnon. The said Captaine made here a fort, and planted good ordinance thereon, and laded every yeere great store of Brasill-wood from hence, and had great frei ndship with the salvage people, who did him good service, by reason whereof the Frenchmen reaped much benefite out of this countrey. But the king of Portugall sent out a power against the Frenchmen, who first tooke the French shippes by sea, and then landed and besieged the fort, and at length tooke it, and the Captaine thereof: unto whom, because he was a gentle person, and never hurt the Portugales, they gave thirtie thousand ducats for his ordinance, and for all other things that were in the fort, and so sent him for France. Since which time the Portugales have inhabited this river. There are at this present onely two Ingenios, but great store of Brasill-wood, with plentie of victuals.

From this river of Jenero they passe along the coast to Sant Vincente, which hath 4 townes, the greatest whereof is called Santos , and consisteth of foure hundred houses, there are also three Ingenios. A fewe yeeres past there came two English ships into this harbour which were going for the Streights of Magellan. Who being in this port, there came thither three of the king of Spaines ships, and fought with the Englishmen, but the Englishmen sunke one of their ships, and therefore the king commanded a fort to be made, to the ende that no English shippes that were bound for the streights of Magellan should victuall there, the which fort standeth on the mouth of the harbour. This countrey belongeth to a Gentleman called Martin Alonso de Souza: this is the last inhabited place upon all the coast of Brasill. This coast of Brasill is very full of mountaines, and hath much raine falling upon it, for which cause they cannot goe from towne to towne by land: all the habitations of this countrey are by the sea side. From Sant Vincente the coast is all mountainous, till you come to the Ile of Santa Catelina, and from this Iland till you come even to the straights of Magellan, the coast is very plaine and without woods.

Having proceeded thus farre, it will not be amisse to speake somewhat of the river of Plate, which is one of the greatest rivers in all the world: for at the mouth it is above five and twentie leagues from land to land: and the Spaniards have gone up in it above sixe hundred leagues, and could not attaine to the head thereof. The first Spaniard that entered this river, and inhabited the same was called Solis, who passed up 100 leagues into it, and called it by the name of Rio de la Plata, that is to say, The river of silver, because of the fine and cleare water that is in it, for I have not heard of any silver that ever was found there. The saide Solis returned into Spaine, without any further search into this river: howbeit another Captaine called Sebastian Cabota went up this river 150 leagues, and built a fort, which fort standeth untill this present: where leaving his ships, he went higher up the river in smal Pinnesses, and all along as he went he found many Indians: but finding neither gold nor silver, nor ought else of any great value, he returned to his ships, and sayled for Spaine. Not many yeeres after a certaine Gentleman called Don Pedro de Mendoza furnished forth a great fleete of ships, wherein were shipped a thousand men, fortie mares, and twentie horses, with all other creatures to inhabite this river: and comming thither he went up into the countrey to see what riches he could there finde, leaving all his stuffe, cattle, and provision at a place called Buenos Ayeres, so named in regard of the freshnesse of the ayre, and the healthfulnesse of his men, during their abode there: this place was eightie leagues within the river, and here he landed first: at this place the river is above seven leagues broad, and very low land on both sides without trees. This river is very often subject to great and sudden stormes, so that with a storme this Don Pedro lost eight of his ships, and in the rest he returned for Spaine, saying to his men, that he would goe seeke victuals, and so left the greater part of them behinde. In his way homeward he died, and the poore men which he left behind him, for the most part of them died for hunger also, because in that place there were very few Indians, and therefore but small store of victuals, onely they lived by hunting of Deere, and by fishing. Of all the men that Don Pedro left behind him there were but two hundred remaining alive, who in the ship boates went higher up the river, leaving in the place called Buenos Ayeres their mares and horses: but it is a wonder to see, that of thirty mares and seven horses which the Spaniards left there, the increase in fortie yeeres was so great, that the countrey is 20 leagues up full of horses; whereby a man may conjecture the goodnesse of the pasture, and the fruitfulnesse of the soile. The Spaniards that went up this river passed three hundred leagues, and found the countrey ful of Indians: who had great plenty of victuals, among whom the Spaniards dwelt as their friends, and the Indians bestowed their daughters in mariage upon them, and so they dwelt altogether in one towne, which the Spaniards called La Ascension, and it standeth on the North side of the river. The foresaid Spaniardes were twentie yeres in this place, before any newes of their inhabiting upon this river was brought into Spaine: but waxing olde, and fearing that when they were dead, their sons which they had begotten in this countrey being very many, should live without the knowledge of any other Christians: they determined among themselves to build a ship, and to sende newes into Spaine with letters unto the king of all things that had passed among them, upon that river. These newes being brought to the king, he sent three ships, with a Bishop and certaine Priests, and Friers, and more men and women to inhabite, with all kind of cattell, when this succour was come, they inhabited in two places more on the North side of the river, and travelled three hundred leagues beyond the Ascension; but finding neither gold nor silver, they returned backe againe unto the Ascension. The people are so multiplyed in this citie, that now it is one of the greatest in all the Indias, and containeth above two thousand houses. The countrey adjoyning is exceeding fruitfull, abounding with all kinds of victuals, & with sugar and cotton. From this citie of Ascension 150 leagues towards the mouth of the river standeth another towne which they call Santa Fe, on the South side of the said river, from which towne there lyeth an open high way leading into the land of Peru, so that when I come to intreat of Peru I wil speake of this way, and declare who first found it. Also five yeeres past they have inhabited anew the towne of Buenos Ayres on the South side of the river, to the end they might have trade from the coast of Brasill, but their fortune was such, that the very first time they went to Brasill, and would have returned againe to the river of Plate, they were taken by two ships of England that were going for the streights of Magellan.

The coast along from this river to the streights of Magellan hath not bene perfectly discovered, either by sea or lande, saving onely certaine portes which they have found, sayling to the streights. Wherefore passing them over, I will here intreat of the saide streights, and declare who was the first finder of them, as likewise what was the cause why they were sought for. The Portugales therefore having first found and conquered the East Indies, and discovered the coast of China , with the Ilands of the Malucos, (all which places abound with gold, precious stones, silkes, and other rich commodities) and bringing home the foresaide riches in their ships into Portugall: there grewe by this meanes great envie betweene the Portugales and their neighbours the Spaniardes; insomuch that the Councell of Spaine saide unto the Emperour Charles the fift being then their king, that the Portugales would be Lordes of all the riches of the world. Upon which words beganne a controversie betweene the Emperour and the king of Portugall: but they being great friends before, and also kinsmen, agreed immediatly to part the whole world betweene them, in such wise as I for my part could never understand the certaintie thereof. The world being thus divided, a Portugal-gentleman called Fernando Magellanes born in a place of Portugall called Punta de la barte, being of a good house, & very wel seene in cosmographie, and an excellent Pilot, as also being offended with Don Emanuel his Sovereigne, departed out of Portugall into Spaine, and affirmed to the Councell of Spaine, that the Isles of the Malucos were in that part of the worlde which was allotted to the king of Spaine, and that he would finde a shorter way thither then the Portugales tooke, and layed before them such infallible reasons, that the Councell giving credite unto his wordes, sent him to sea with five ships and 400 men all very well appointed. With these five ships setting saile from S. Lucar, he came to the coast of Brasill, where at that time two places were inhabited by Portugales, and so sayling on along that coast he passed by the river of Plate, which river was discovered a little before by Solis . And notwithstanding many stormes, and great mutinies among his companie, he came at length unto 48 degrees, to the Southwards of the river of Plate: where he found an harbour, which he named Puerto de Sant Julian, and wintered there: and there also he hanged 5 men, and put on shore a Priest, because they would have made the company to stand against their captaine, and so to have returned backe againe. But in the end having pacified his men, he put to sea, and within 5 dayes after he found the streights, which by him were so much desired: but before he entered the said streights there befell such a mutinie in one of his ships, that the same ship returned backe againe. And so himselfe with the other foure ships entering the streights, one of the said foure with all the men therein was cast away at the very enterance : which losse notwithstanding he proceeded on with the other three ships, and passing many troubles and dangers in this long discovery, ceased not to prosecute his intended voyage. This discovery was at the first thought very profitable unto the Spaniards, but of late it hath prooved very hurtfull unto them by meanes of certaine coasters which have sayled the selfe same course. These streights stand in 52 degrees and a halfe of Southerly latitude. Also here is to be noted, that it is colder to the Southward of the line then to the Northward: in such wise, that in forty degrees to the Southward the colde is more sharpe, then in fiftie degrees to the North : experience doth alwaies shew the same: for it is as colde even in the streights of Magellan, as it is in sixty degrees of Northerly latitude. Howbeit the colde is not the cause why navigators frequent not the same, but the Westerly and Southerly windes, which blowe most furiously on that coast, and that oftentimes out of the very mouth of the streightes, and so continue for the most part of the yeere. Also there runneth sometimes such a strong current, that if the winde and it goe all one way, the cables cannot holde, neither can the ship withstand the force thereof. For which cause, and also for that there is no harbour, till you be passed 30 leagues into the said streights, most part of the ships that have gone thither have indured many troubles before they could come to the streights, and being come to the mouth thereof they have bene hindered by the current and winde, and so have beene put backe againe. And to the end you may understand the truth, I will declare unto you all the shippes that have past through the said streights, since Magellan first found them, unto this present yeere of 1586, when I have once ended my discourse of Magellan his owne voyage. Nowe you are by the way to understande, that the North side of the enterance of these streights is plaine lande without any wood or trees: here are likewise some Indians though not many, yet are they very mightie men of bodie of ten or eleven foot high, and good bow-men, but no man-eaters, neither have they any victuals, but such as they get by hunting and fishing; they cover their bodies with the skinnes of beasts that they kill, to defend them from the colde: neither was there ever to this day any silver or golde found among them or in their countrey. These Streights (they say) extend in length from East to West about an hundred and twentie leagues. At the middle of these streights on the North side are many mountaines covered with snow, which mountaines stretch from thence along the frontiers of Chili, Peru, and Nuevo reino de Granada , even unto the shore of the North sea at Santa Martha, as I have before signified. It is a wonder to behold the exceeding heigth of these mountaines, and the way which they continue covered with snow, for even under the Equinoctiall line they have as much snowe upon their tops as in 52 degrees. Also it is worthy the remembrance, that all this countrey towarde the South sea is very fruitfull, and the people very discreete and gentle: but all the coast towardes Brasill upon the North sea is poore, whereas never yet was found any commoditie of account, and the people themselves are very cruell and salvage; for the will of God is, that good and civill men should inhabite fruitfull countries. And for the better understanding hereof you must note, that all the land lying betweene the said ridge of mountaines and the South sea is called by the names of Chili, Peru, and Nuevo reino de Granada , which are the best and richest countreys in all the world: and most part of the land from the said mountaines to the North sea is called Brasill, being a mountainous countrey, where as yet was never found either golde or silver. From the said mountaines in the middle of the streights the land riseth high, till you come to the end of the streights where you enter into the South sea, in which place next the South sea the streights are very dangerous, by reason of the sholdes & rocks that lie on the North side. Thus Magellan after he had entered the South sea, within 60 dayes came to the Iles of the Malucos, without touching at any land untill he came thither: and so seeking there to lade his ships at an Iland inhabited by Moores, he was by them treacherously slaine. Now the Spaniards being too few for the managing of all three ships, because many of them were dead, partly with sicknes, and partly with the hardnesse of the voiage, determined to abandon one of their said ships, and so manned the other two: which two being laden with spices and other riches knew not what course they were best to take: howbeit at length it was determined, that one of these two ships should go for Nueva Espanna, and the other for the cape of Buena Esperanza, and so for Spaine. The ship that went for Spaine was called The Victorie, the Pilot whereof was a Biscain named Juan Sebastian del Cano, to whom the king gave great rewardes, and appointed him the globe for his armes, whereon was written : Primus omnium circunde disti me; that is, thou art the first man that ever sayled about me.

And albeit this voyage was so long and troublesome as is before mentioned, yet many others have attempted the same. And the next that sought to passe the said streights of Magellan were two ships of Genoa , which comming as farre as the mouth of the streights were by a mightie storme driven backe againe, and one of them, whose master was called Pancaldo, put into the river of Plate, and was cast away about Buenos Aeres, where to this day part of the said ship is to be scene, and some of the men are yet living in the river among the Spaniards: and the other ship returned to Genoa againe.

Also there was a bishop of Placencia in Spaine, who coveting riches, set foorth a fleet of foure sailes, to passe the streights, and so to goe for the Malucos : and getting license of the Emperour he sent his said 4 ships towards the streights which had very faire windes till they came thither: but being entered 20 leagues within the streights, a storme of Westerly windes tooke them, & drove 3 of them on shore, & the fourth backe into the sea, which (the storme being past) returned into the streights to seeke for his consorts, & found many men going on the shores side, but the ships were beaten all to pieces. So they on land called unto the ship; but the captaine therof, considering that his ship was but little, & that he had but small store of victuals, would not go to them on shore, but proceeded on his voyage, & passed the streights. And because he was alone he would not saile to the Malucos, but went for the coast of Peru to the citie of Lima , where the ship remaineth unto this day. The men of the other three ships, which were left in the streights being to the number of two hundred and fiftie (whose Captaine being kinsman to the bishop of Placencia was called Queros) were never heard of untill this present day, it being fortie yeres since they were left there. A yeare after this, certaine marchants of the Groine in Galicia set foorth other three ships, which ships also came to the streights mouth, where one of them was cast away with all the men, and the other two returned for Spaine.

Also I have had intelligence of certaine Portugall ships, which being come to the mouth of the Streights lost two of their Pinnesses which they sent to discover the land, and then returned back. And after these, two French ships were sent from the river of Jenero by Monsieur de Villegagnon, but being come to the latitude of 45. degrees, they were driven backe by a storme of contrary winds. After all this the governour of Chili called Don Garcia de Mendoza sonne to the Marques of Cannette determining to discover the sayd Streights from the South sea, sent from Chili two ships under the conduct of a captaine called Latherelio : but the danger to seeke these Streights by the South sea is more then by the North sea , because all the stormes of the North sea come from the land, but in the South sea all the windes and stormes come off the sea, and force the ships to run upon the leeshore, insomuch that the sayd two ships were cast away in fiftie degrees.

The seeking of these Streights of Magellan is so dangerous, and the voyage so troublesome, that it seemeth a matter almost impossible to be perfourmed, insomuch that for the space of thirty yeeres no man made account thereof; untill of late one Francis Drake an Englishman (of whom I have before spoken) seeing hee could doe no good on the maine lande of the West Indies to benefite himselfe, because of the galleys of Cartagena that kept the coast, determined to seeke the Streights of Magellan, and to passe into the South sea. And so having provided two ships and three pinnesses in England , he proceeded on his voyage, and comming to the Islandes of Cape Verde tooke a Portugal shippe laden with wine, the Pilot whereof beeing a Portugal called Nuno da Sylva, hee caried along with him, who was a great helpe and furtherance unto him in his voyage. And this which I shall here say, I had in writing of the Portugall pilot himselfe.

From the Islands of Cape Verde the sayd Francis Drake sailed unto Port Sant Julian, where he wintered : and there also hee put to death a gentleman of his company, because hee would have returned home. This port I take to bee accursed, for that Magellan likewise put some to death there for the like offence.

This Francis Drake putting out of the sayd port, entred the Streights, and within twelve dayes gotte into the South sea. And two dayes after there arose such a storme of Westerly windes (which are usuall in those parts) that he lost his pinnesse, and his Viceadmirall master John Winter was. driven backe againe into the Streights, who passing many dangers returned home into England . But Francis Drake himselfe ranne with this storme into seven and fifty degrees of Southerly latitude, where hee found an Island with a good harborough, and fresh water, and stayed at the same Island two moneths to repayre his ships: and then, the weather beeing faire, he proceeded on his voyage, and came to the coast of Chili to an Island called La Mocha; where hee went on shore, and talked with the Indians: but when hee would have returned unto his boate they shotte their arrowes at him, and killed two of his men, and hee himselfe was wounded in the face.

Going from thence hee passed by the towne of Concepcion not knowing the place, and so to Valparizo which is the port of Sant Iago, where hee found a ship laden with a kind of victuals and wine, and had in her besides threescore thousand pezos of gold, every pezo being worth eight shillings sterling: and taking this ship with him hee went from thence to another port called Coquimbo : where seeing many cattell on. the land, he sent presently some of his men with calievers to kill of the sayd cattell: but being espied of the Spaniards that dwelt in the towne, they sent twelve horsemen to see what they were that killed their cattell, for they knew them not: and comming neere unto them, the Englishmen fled to their boates, but the horsemen overtooke one of them who had a halbard in his hand, whom the Spaniards thought to have taken: but hee with his halbard killing one of their horses was himselfe runne through with a lance, and so the Spaniards carried him dead with them into the towne. The next day the newes came to Sant Iago, that they were Englishmen, and how they had taken the shippe out of the harbour of Valparizo: whereupon they of Sant Iago sent a Post by land to give warning unto them of Peru. Howbeit by reason that the countrey betweene this place and Peru is not inhabited for the space of two hundreth leagues, and many huge and colde mountaines covered with snowe lie in the way, the Poste was so long in perfourmance of this journey, that captaine Drake was upon the coast of Peru a moneth before the sayd Poste came thither: neither could they send any newes by sea, because they were destitute of shipping.

Captaine Drake departing from Coquimbo sayled to another porte not inhabited, where he set up a pinnesse. And going from thence, the next place where he touched was a porte upon the coast of Peru called los Pescadores : and there hee landed, and in one of the fishermens houses found of a Spaniards three thousand pezos of silver in little barres.

From hence he went to another port called Arica , which being the next towne to Chili that the Spaniards have in all Peru, containeth an hundreth houses: and this is the porte where they discharge their merchandize that passe from Lima to Potossi, and to all other cities within the land, and likewise at this place they were woont to embarke all the silver which they caried for Panama. At this port of Arica he found a ship that had in her thirteene thousand pezos of silver, which having taken out, he burned the sayd ship, and after thought to have landed, but seeing both horsemen and footemen on shore hee would not, but proceeded on his voyage. Since captaine Drake was at this porte they carie their silver by land to Lima , and lade no more treasure here, but onely discharge the merchants goods that come from Spaine hither. Also they have built a forte at this place for the better safety of the inhabitants, and have planted it with ten pieces of Ordinance, and every summer there lie in garison an hundred souldiers besides the townesmen. From hence he sayled to another porte called Chuli: in which port was a ship that had three hundred thousand pezos of silver in barres: but they had sent horsemen from Arica to give advertizement of Drakes being on the coast, which newes came but two houres to the towne before his arrivall at the sayd porte: whereupon the Master of the shippe having no leisure to carie his silver on shore, was forced to throwe it into the sea in sixe fadome water, where his ship road, and so to runne on shore in the shippes boate. And captaine Drake comming aboord the ship was told by an Indian, that the Master had throwen the silver overboord. Wherfore seeing that newes began to run of him from towne to town he stayed not here, but ran along the coast: and because he would have no lets, he cast off the ship which he had taken at Sant Iago, with never a man in her, which ship was never heard of after. And so without staying any where he shaped his course for Lima , and comming to the harborough of Lima called El Callao, being two leagues distant from Lima it selfe, (for Lima standeth up into the land) hee arrived there one day, before the newes of him was brought to Lima , and found the men in the ships without suspicion. And as hee entred into the port, there came in also a ship from Panama laden with merchandize, and hee sent his pinnesse to take her: but the men forsaking the ship betooke them to their boate, and went on shore: and as the Englishmen followed the boat, a Spaniard that was therein shot a piece, and slew one of captaine Drakes men in the pinnesse. Wherefore hee followed the boat no farther, but went with his pinnesse into the harbour among fourteene saile of ships that lay there, in all which ships there was not a man that had so much as a sword or a piece to molest him, wherefore hee did with lesse feare go from ship to ship, asking them if there were any ships gone for Panama; for he knew wel, that the ships which goe for Panama care both silver & gold, neither sought he for any thing else, for there were marchandize enough for him in those ships, if hee had bene desirous to have had the same. So they told him that three dayes past there was a ship gone for Panama which caried all the merchants silver thither. Whereupon he presently set saile towards Panama; for when hee came into this port it was about midnight, so that the Spaniards could not see what ships he had. At last the newes came to Lima unto the Viceroy of Peru, that there were enemies in the harbor, but they knew not what they were. Wherefore the Viceroy & all the people were in great feare, lest some Spaniards had made a mutinie, and put themselves in armes: and so the next morning himselfe accompanied with 2000 horsemen & footmen came from the citie down to the waters side, and finding some of the Englishmens arrowes that were shot at the boat, out of which their man was slain, they knew them to be Englishmen: and then they were al in quiet, seeing it was but one ship, for as yet the ship lay becalmed 3 dayes before the towne. Whereupon they forthwith provided 2 ships with 200 men in them, to boord captain Drake or els to burne his ship; and after the ships went 2 small pinnesses, because that if any of the ships should be sunke, they might save the men. But it was a day & a halfe before these things could be made ready, & in the end going foorth they found ye English ship still becalmed, & the calme was such, that the Spaniards could not come at them. The same night, the wind blowing a fresh gale, the Spaniards returned into the harbour, and captaine Drake set forward to Panama. The cause of the Spaniards returne was, for that they had no Ordinance, nor victuals to tarry any longer out. Then the Viceroy caused sixe pieces of Ordinance to bee made, neither could hee make any more, in regard of the shortnesse of time: so with these pieces of Ordinance, and three shippes, and two hundred and fifty men in them hee sent after captaine Drake; who after hee had winde stayed no where, nor tooke any ships at all, notwithstanding hee met with many comming from Panama laden with merchandize, but still hee inquired after the shippe that was gone to Panama before him: of which ship he had sight about the cape of Sant Francisco, the Master wherof was a Biskaine, called Juan de Anton: who seeing this ship of the Englishmens, thought that the Viceroy of Peru had sent him some message, and therefore strooke all his sailes : but so soone as hee might discerne the shippe somewhat better, hee would then faine have gone his way, for hee knew that it was none of that coast, and then hee began to hoise his sailes, but could by no meanes get from Captaine Drake because hee was within the reach of his great Ordinance, for the Spaniards not having so much as a rapier to defend themselves, were soone constrained to yeelde. There were in this shippe above eight hundred and fifty thousand pezos of silver, and forty thousand pezos of gold, all which silver and golde was customed; but what store of treasure they had besides uncustomed I knowe not, for many times they cary almost as much more as they pay custome for; otherwise the king would take it from them, if they should be knowen to have any great summe; wherefore every shippe carieth his bill of custome, that the king may see it. All this treasure that captaine Drake tooke was merchants and other mens goods, saving one hundred and eighty thousand pezos of the kings. He had also out of this ship good store of victuals with other necessaries, which were to bee caried for Panama and was five dayes taking out of such things as hee needed. This done, he sayled from hence to the coast of Nueva Espanna without going to Panama. Surely this was a great plague of God justly inflicted upon us for our sinnes: for the taking of these ships is an especiall cause of all the dangerous warres that are likely to ensue betweene Spaine and England .

Now the ships that were sent by the Viceroy of Peru from Lima after Francis Drake, arrived at Cape Sant Francisco twenty dayes after hee had taken the foresayd shippe,, and had intelligence by a ship comming from Panama, which they met at the sayd cape, that Francis Drake had taken the ship with silver, and was not gone for Panama. Whereupon the captaine of the three ships thinking that captaine Drake had bene gone for the Streights of Magellan, directed his course that way to seeke him.

Captaine Drake carried from the coast of Peru eight hundreth sixty sixe thousand pezos of silver, which is as much as eight hundred sixty sixe quintals, at 100 pound weight the quintal, every quintal being worth one thousand and two hundreth ducats of Spaine; all which summe amounteth to a million and thirtie nine thousand and two hundreth ducats. Besides this silver hee caried away a hundred thousand pezos of gold, that is ten quintals, each quintal being valued at a thousand five hundreth Spanish ducats, which last summe amounteth to an hundreth and fifty thousand ducats : over and besides the treasure in the sayd ship which was uncustomed (the value whereof I cannot learne) consisting of pearles, precious stones, reals of plate, and other things of great worth.

With all this purchase he sayled toward Nueva Espanna; and at an Island lying before that coast called The Island of Cano hee discharged all things out of his shippe and graved her, and remained there ten dayes. From thence hee went along the coast of Nueva Espanna, where hee tooke certaine ships laden with spices, silkes, and velvets, but no golde nor silver, for there was none to bee had on this coast. And here at Guatulco he set on shore his Portugal-pilot, which he tooke at one of the Islands of Cape Verde. But what course he kept from this coast till he came into England I know not of certainety, and therefore I will not meddle therewithall.

The foresayd three ships which were sent in pursuit of captaine Drake, returned backe againe to Lima without doing of ought. All which notwithstanding, the Viceroy of Peru determined to send two ships to the Streights of Magellan, either to meete with captaine Drake there, or else to see if they could fortifie the sayd Streights against such ships as might afterward attempt to passe through the same. And albeit this was thought a most dangerous voyage, and impossible to be perfourmed, by reason of the sholds on that side of the Streights, yet sent he forth the two said ships. The Admirall being a ship of an hundreth tunnes, and the other of eighty tunnes, & having one hundreth and twenty men in them both, sayled from Lima under the conduct of Pedro Sarmiento, who was then accompted the best navigator in all Peru. These ships after their departure touching on the coast to take in victuals, were nine moneths before they came to the latitude of the Streights, and there were they encountred with a cruel storme: but Pedro Sarmiento being a man of good courage, bare in with the land in this storme, & in a night hee was put into the streits, not knowing how nor which way; and the other ship running farther into the sea, sayled to 58 degrees of Southerly latitude. The storme being past, this other shippe found many Islands neere unto the main land, and so returned with faire weather all along the shore, neither could they find any other way to enter the Streights, but onely that which Magellan discovered: notwithstanding that others affirme the contrary, saying that the Streights be full of Islands to the Southwards: but they may be deceived, for if there be any other Streight, it is beyond 58 degrees, and hath never bene scene of any man : for this ship was farthest to the Southwards of all that ever I heard of: for Francis Drake being driven by tempest no farther then 57 degrees could not know so much as this other; which ship from hence returned backe to Lima . But Pedro Sarmiento entred the Streights, where his men falling into a mutinie would have returned to Lima ; whereupon hanging one of them he proceeded on his voyage for Spaine. Where being arrived, he told the king that there were two narrow places in the Streights where he might build a forte, and that there was a very good countrey abounding with great store of riches and other necessaries, and very well inhabited with Indians. Upon whose wordes, and for that there were more ships making ready in England to passe the sayd Streights, the king sent Diego Flores de Valdez with 23 ships and 3500 men, and a new governour to Chili with five hundred old souldiers newly come out of Flanders . These ships had the hardest hap of any that ever went out of Spaine since the Indias were first discovered: for that before they could get cleere of the coast of Spaine, a storme tooke them, and cast away five of them, and above eight hundred men, and the residue of the fleete put into Cadiz . Notwithstanding which hard successe, the king sent them word that they should proceede: and so they did with sixteene sailes only, for two other of their ships were so shaken with the storme, that they could not goe foorth. In these sixteene saile of ships Pedro Sarmiento was sent to be governour in the Streights: he caried with him all kind of artificers, to build forts, and other necessaries, with great store of Ordinance and munition. This fleete because it set late foorth, wintered on the coast of Brasil in the river of Jenero. Winter being past, they set sayle from hence, and about the height of 42 degrees they had such a storme, that Diego Flores was faine to beate it up and downe about 22 dayes; in which storme was sunke one of his best ships, and in her three hundred men and twenty women that went to inhabite the streights, and most part of the munition that should have bene left in the streights were all cast away. In the ende the storme grew so intollerable, that the ships not being able to endure it any longer were constrained to put backe againe unto an Island called Santa Catelina: and there he found a barke wherein were certaine friers going for the river of Plate, which friers told him of two great English ships and a pinnesse that had taken them, but tooke nothing from them, nor did them any harme, but onely asked them for the king of Spaines ships. Now Diego Flores supposing that these English ships would go to the streights, was himselfe determined to go to the streights also, though it was in the moneth of February; and choosing tenne shippes of the fifteene that were left, he sent three of the residue that were old and shaken with the storme (wherein he put all the women and sicke men that were in the fleete) backe againe to the river of Jenero; leaving the other two shippes, whi