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The admirable and prosperous voyage of the Worshipfull Master Thomas Candish of Trimley in the Countie of Suffolke Esquire, into the South sea, and from thence round about the circumference of the whole earth, begun in the yeere of our Lord 1586, and finished 1588. Written by Master Francis Pretty lately of Ey in Suffolke, a Gentleman employed in the same action.

WEE departed out of Plimmouth on Thursday the 2 . of July 1586. with 3. sayles, to wit, The Desire a ship of 120. tunnes, The Content of 60 tuns, and the Hugh gallant a barke of 40. tunnes: in which small Fleete were 123. persons of all sortes with all kinde of furniture and victuals sufficient for the space of two yeeres, at the charges of the worshipfull Master Thomas Candish of Trimley in the Countie of Suffolke Esquire, beeing our Generall.

On Tuesday the 26. of the same moneth, we were 45. leagues from Cape Finis terrae where wee mette with 5. sayles of Biskaynes comming from the Grande Bay in Newfound-land, as we supposed, which our Admirall shot at, and fought with them 3. houres, but wee tooke none of them by reason the night grew on.

The first of August wee came in sight of Forteventura, one of the Isles of the Canaries, about ten of the clocke in the morning.

On Sunday being the 7. of August, we were gotten as high as Rio del oro on the coast of Barbarie.

On Munday the 19. we fell with cape Blanco : but the winde blew so much at the North, that we could not get up where the Canters doe use to ride and fish: therefore wee lay off 6. houres West Southwest, because of the sand which lieth off the cape Southwest and by South.

The 15. day of the same moneth we were in the height of cape Verde by estimation 50. leagues off the same.

The 18. Sierra leona did beare East off us, beeing 45. leagues from us: and the same day the winde shifted to the Northwest, so that by the 20. day of the sayd moneth we were in 6. degrees 1/2 to the Northward, from the Equinoctiall line.

The 23. we put roome for Sierra leona, and the 25. day wee fell with the poynt on the South side of Sierra leona, which Master Brewer knew very well, and went in before with the Content which was Vice-admirall: and we had no lesse then 5. fathoms water when we had least, and had for 14. leagues in Southwest all the way running into the harbour of Sierra leona 16. 14. 12. 10 and 8. fathoms of water.

The 26. of the said moneth we put into the harborough, and in going in we had by the Southermost point when we had least 5. fathoms water faire by the rocke as it lieth at the said point, and after we came, 2 or 3. cables length within the said rocke, we never had lesse then 10. fathoms, untill wee came up to the roade, which is about a league from the poynt, borrowing alwayes on the South side untill you come up to the watering place, in which Baye is the best roade; but you must ride farre into the Baye , because there run marveilous great tydes in the offin, and it floweth into the road next of any thing at a Southeast and by East moone.

It is out of England to this place 930. leagues: which wee ranne from the 21. of July to the 26. of this moneth of August.

On Saturday being the 27. day there came 2. Negros aboord our Admiral from the shore, and made signes unto our Generall that there was a Portugal ship up within the harborough; so the Hugh Gallant beeing the Rereadmirall went up 3. or 4. leagues, but for want of a Pilot they sought no farther: for the harborough runneth 3. or 4. leagues up more, and is of a marveilous bredth and very dangerous, as we learned afterward by a Portugal .

On Sunday the 28. the Generall sent some of his company on shore, and there as they played and daunced all the forenoone among the Negros, to the end to have heard some good newes of the Portugal ship, toward their comming aboord they espied a Portugal which lay hid among the bushes, whom we tooke and brought away with us the same night: and he tolde us it was very dangerous going up with our boates for to seeke the ship that was at the towne. Whereupon wee went not to seeke her, because we knew he told us the trueth: for we bound him and made him fast, and so examined him. Also he told us that his ship was there cast away, and that there were two more of his company among the Negros: the Portugals name was Emmanuel, and was by his occupation a Calker, belonging to the Port of Portugal.

On Munday morning being the 29. day, our Generall landed with 70. men or thereabout, and went up to their towne, where we burnt 2. or 3. houses, and tooke what spoyle wee would, which was but litle, but al the people fled: and in our retiring aboord in a very litle plaine at their townes ende they shot their arrowes at us out of the woods, and hurt 3. or 4. of our men; their arrowes were poysoned, but yet none of our men miscaryed at that time, thanked be God. Their towne is marvellous artificially builded with mudde walles, and built round, with their yards paled in and kept very cleane as well in their streetes as in their houses. These Negros use good obedience to their king, as one of our men sayd, which was with them in pawne for the Negros which came first. There were in their towne by estimation about one hundred houses.

The first of September there went many of our men on shore at the watering place, and did wash shirts very quietly all the day: and the second day they went againe, and the Negros were in ambush round about the place: and the carpenter of the Admiral going into the wood to doe some speciall businesse, espied them by good fortune. But the Negros rushed out upon our men so suddenly, that in retiring to our boates, many of them were hurt: among whom one William Pickman a souldier was shot into the thigh, who plucking the arrow out, broke it, and left the head behinde; and he told the Chirurgions that he plucked out all the arrow, because he would not have them lance his thigh: whereupon the poyson wrought so that night, that hee was marveilously swollen, and all his belly and privie parts were as blacke as ynke, and the next morning he died, the peece of the arrow with the poyson being plucked out of his thigh.

The third day of the sayd moneth, divers of our fleete went up 4 myles within the harbour with our boate, and caught great store of fish, and went on shore and tooke Limmons from the trees, and comming aboord againe, saw two Buffes.

The 6. day we departed from Sierra leona, and went out of the harborough, and stayed one tide 3. leagues from the point of the mouth of the Harborough in 6. fathoms, and it floweth South Southwest.

On Wednesday being the 7. of the same moneth wee departed from one of the Isles of Cape Verde, alias the Isles of Madrabumba, which is 10. leagues distant from the poynt of Sierra leona: and about five of the clocke the same night we anchored 2. miles off the Iland in 6. fathoms water, and landed the same night, and found Plantans only upon the Ilande.

The 8. day one of our boats went out & sounded round about the Iland, & they passed through a sound at the west end of the Iland, where they found 5. fathoms round about the Iland, until they came unto the very gutte of the sound, and then for a cast or two they had but two fathoms, and presently after, 6. fathoms, and so deeper and deeper. And at the East ende of the Iland there was a towne, where Negros doe use at sometimes, as we perceived by their provision.

There is no fresh water on all the South side, as we could perceive, but on the North side three or foure very good places of fresh water: and all the whole Iland is a wood, save certaine litle places where their houses stand, which are invironed round about with Plantan-trees, whereof the fruit is excellent meat. This place is subject marveilous much to thunder, raine, and lightning in this moneth. I thinke the reason is, because the sunne is so neere the line Equinoctiall.

On Saturday the tenth wee departed from the sayde Iland about 3. of the clocke in the afternoone, the winde being at the Southwest.

The last of October running West Southwest about 24. leagues from Cape Frio in Brasile , we fell with a great mountaine which had an high round knoppe on the top of it standing from it like a towne, with two litle Ilands from it.

The first of November wee went in betweene the Iland of Saint Sebastian and the mayne land, and had our things on shore, and set up a Forge, and had our caske on shore: our coopers made hoopes, and so we remayned there untill the 23. day of the same moneth: in which time we fitted our things, built our Pinnesse, and filled our fresh water. And while our Pinnesse was in building, there came a Canoa from the river of Jenero, meaning to goe to S. Vincent, wherein were sixe naked slaves of the Countrey people, which did rowe the Canoa, and one Portugal . And the Portugal knewe Christopher Hare Master of the Admirall, for that Master Hare had bene at Saint Vincent in the Minion of London in the yeere 1581. And thinking to have John Whithal the Englishman which dwelleth at Saint Vincent come unto us, which is twentie leagues from this Harborough with some other, thereby to have had some fresh victuals, we suffered the Portugal to goe with a letter unto him, who promised to returne or send some answere within ten dayes, for that we told him we were Marchants, and would traffique with them: but we never received answere from him any more; and seeing that he came not according to appoyntment, our businesse being dispatched wee weyed anchor, and set sayle from S. Sebastian on the 23. of November.

The 16. day of December we fell with the coast of America in 47. degrees 1/3. the land bearing West from us about 6. leagues off: from which place we ran along the shore, untill we came into 48. degrees. It is a steepe beach all along.

The 17. day of December in the afternoone we entred into an harborough, where our Admirall went in first: wherefore our Generall named the said harborough Port Desire: in which harborough is an Iland or two, where there is wonderful great store of Scales, and another Iland of birds which are grey guls. These Seales are of a wonderful great bignesse, huge, and monstrous of shape, and for the fore-part of their bodies cannot be compared to any thing better then to a lion: their head, and necke, and fore-parts of their bodies are full of rough haire: their feete are in maner of a finne, and in forme like unto a mans hand: they breed and cast every moneth, giving their yong milke, yet continually get they their living in the sea, and live altogether upon fish: their yong are marveilous good meate, and being boyled or rosted, are hardly to be knowen from lambe or mutton. The olde ones be of such bignesse and force, that it is as much as 4. men are able to doe to kill one of them with great cowlestaves: and hee must be beaten downe with striking on the head of him: for his body is of that bignesse that foure men could never kill him, but only on the head. For being shotte through the body with an Harquebuze or a Musket, yet he will goe his way into the sea, and never care for it at the present. Also the fowles that were there, were very good meate, and great store of them : they have burrowes in the ground like conies, for they cannot flie. They have nothing but downe upon their pinions: they also fish and feede in the sea for their living, and breede on shore.

This harborough is a very good place to trimme ships in, and to bring them on ground, and grave them in: for there ebbeth and floweth much water: therefore wee graved and trimmed all our ships there.

The 24. of December being Christmas Even, a man and a boy of the Rere-admirall went some fortie score from our ships into a very faire greene valley at the foote of the mountaines, where was a litle pitte or well which our men had digged and made some 2. or 3. dayes before to get fresh water: for there was none in all the Harborough; and this was but brackish: therefore this man and boy came thither to wash their linnen: and beeing in washing at the sayde Well, there were great store of Indians which were come downe, and found the sayd man and boy in washing. These Indians being divided on eche side of the rockes, shotte at them with their arrowes and hurt them both, but they fledde presently, beeing about fiftie or threescore, though our Generall followed them but with 16. or 20. men. The mans name which was hurt was John Garge, the boyes name was Lutch: the man was shot cleane through the knee, the boy into the shoulder: either of them having very sore wounds. Their arrowes are made of litle canes, and their heads are of a flint stone, set into the cane very artificially: they seldome or never see any Christians: they are as wilde as ever was a bucke or any other wilde beast: for wee followed them, and they ranne from us as it had bene the wildest thing in the worlde. Wee tooke the measure of one of their feete, and it was 18. inches long. Their use is when any of them dye, to bring him or them to the cliffes by the sea-side, and upon the toppe of them they burie them, and in their graves are buryed with them their bowes and arrowes, and all their jewels which they have in their life time, which are fine shelles which they finde by the sea side, which they cut and square after an artificiall maner: and all is layd under their heads. The grave is made all with great stones of great length and bignesse, being set all along full of the dead mans dartes which he used when he was living. And they colour both their darts and their graves with a red colour which they use in colouring of themselves.

The 28 of December we departed out of the Port of Desire, and went to an Iland which lieth 3. leagues to the Southward of it; where we trimmed our saved pengwins with salt for victual all that and the next day, and departed along the coast Southwest and by South.

The 30. day we fell with a rocke which lieth about 5. leagues from the land, much like unto Ediestone, which lieth off the sound of Plimouth, and we sounded, and had 8. fathoms rockie ground, within a mile thereof: the rocke bearing West Southwest. Wee went coasting along South Southwest, and found great store of Seales all along the coast. This rocke standeth in 48. degrees 1/2. to the Southward of the line.

The 2. day of Januarie wee fell with a very faire white Cape, which standeth in 51. degrees, and had 7. fathoms water a league off the land.

The third day of the foresayd moneth we fell with another great white cape, which standeth in 52. degrees and 45. minutes: from which Cape there runneth a lowe beach about a league to the Southward, and this beach reacheth to the opening of the dangerous Streight of Magellan, which is in divers places 5. or 6. leagues wide, and in two severall places more narrow. Under this Cape wee anchored and lost an anchor, for it was a great storme of foule weather, and lasted three dayes very dangerous.

The 6. day we put in for the Streights.

The 7. day betweene the mouth of the Streights and the narrowest place thereof, wee tooke a Spaniard whose name was Hernando, who was there with 23 Spaniards more, which were all that remayned of foure hundred, which were left there three yeeres before in these streights of Magellan, all the rest being dead with famine. And the same day wee passed through the narrowest of the Streights, where the aforesayd Spanyard shewed us the hull of a small Barke, which we judged to be a Barke called The John Thomas. It is from the mouth of the streights unto the narrowest of the Streights 14. leagues, and the course lieth West and by North. The mouth of the streights standeth in 52. degrees.

From the narrowest of the Streights unto Pengwin Iland is 10. leagues, and lyeth West Southwest somewhat to the Southward, where wee anchored the 8. day, and killed and salted great store of Pengwins for victuals.

The ninth day wee departed from Pengwin Ilande, and ranne South Southwest to King Philips citie which the Spaniards had built: which Towne or citie had foure Fortes, and every Fort had in it one cast peece, which peeces were buryed in the ground, the cariages were standing in their places unburied: wee digged for them and had them all. They had contrived their Citie very well, and seated it in the best place of the Streights for wood and water: they had builded up their Churches by themselves: they had Lawes very severe among themselves, for they had erected a Gibet, whereon they had done execution upon some of their company. It seemed unto us that their whole living for a great space was altogether upon muskles and lympits: for there was not any thing else to bee had, except some Deere which came out of the mountaines downe to the fresh rivers to drinke. These Spaniards which were there, were onely come to fortifie the Streights, to the ende that no other nation should have passage through into the South sea saving onely their owne : but as it appeared, it was not Gods will so to have it. For during the time that they were there, which was two yeeres at the least, they could never have any thing to growe or in any wise prosper. And on the other side the Indians oftentimes preyed upon them, untill their victuals grewe so short, (their store being spent which they had brought with them out of Spaine, and having no meanes to renew the same) that they dyed like dogges in their houses, and in their clothes, wherein we found them still at our comming, untill that in the ende the towne being wonderfully taynted with the smell and the savour of the dead people, the rest which remayned alive were driven to burie such things as they had there in their towne either for provision or for furniture, and so to forsake the towne, and to goe along the sea-side, and seeke their victuals to preserve them from sterving, taking nothing with them, but every man his harquebuze and his furniture that was able to cary it (for some were not able to cary them for weakenesse) and so lived for the space of a yeere and more with rootes, leaves, and sometimes a foule which they might kill with their peece. To conclude, they were determined to have travailed towards the river of Plate, only being left alive 23. persons, whereof two were women, which were the remainder of 4. hundred. In this place we watered and woodded well and quietly. Our Generall named this towne Port famine: it standeth in 53. degrees by observation to the Southward.

The 14. day we departed from this place, and ran South southwest, and from thence southwest unto cape Froward 5. leagues West Southwest, which Cape is the Southermost part of all the streights, and standeth in the latitude of 54. degrees. From which cape we ran West and by north 5. leagues, and put into a bay or Cove on the south side, which we called Muskle-Cove, because there were great store of them: we ridde therein 6. dayes, the wind being still Westerly.

The 21. day of Januarie we departed from Muskle-cove, and went Northwest and by West 10. leagues to a very faire sandie Bay on the North side, which our Generall called Elizabeth Baye, and as wee ridde there that night, one of our men dyed which went in the Hugh Gallant, whose name was Grey, a Carpenter by his occupation, and was buryed there in that Baye .

The 22. wee departed from Elizabeth Bay in the afternoone, and went about 2. leagues from that place, where there was a fresh water river, where our Generall went up with the ship-boate about three myles, which river hath very good and pleasant ground about it, and it is lowe and champion soyle, and so we saw none other ground els in all the Streights but that was craggie rocks and monstrous high hilles and mountaines. In this river are great store of Savages which wee sawe, and had conference with them: They were men-eaters, and fedde altogether upon rawe flesh, and other filthie foode: which people had preyed upon some of the Spaniardes before spoken of. For they had gotten knives and peeces of Rapiers to make dartes of. They used all the meanes they could possibly to have allured us up farther into the river, of purpose to have betrayed us, which being espyed by our Generall, hee caused us to shoote at them with our harquebuzes, whereby we killed many of them. So wee sayled from this river to the Chanell of Saint Jerome, which is 2 leagues off.

From the river of Saint Jerome about three or foure leagues, wee ranne West unto a Cape which is on the North side: and from that Cape unto the mouth of the Streights the course lyeth Northwest and by West, and Northwest. Betweene which place and the mouth of the Streights to the Southward we lay in Harborough untill the three and twentieth of Februarie, by reason of contrary windes and most vile and filthie fowle weather, with such rayne and vehement stormie windes which came downe from the mountaines and high hilles, that they hazarded the best cables and anchors that we had for to holde, which if they had fayled, wee had bene in great danger to have bene cast away, or at the least famished. For during this time, which was a full moneth, we fedde almost altogether upon muskles and limpits, and birds, or such as we could get on shore, seeking every day for them, as the fowles of the ayre doe, where they can finde foode, in continuall raynie weather.

There is at every myle or two myles ende an Harborough on both sides of the land. And there are betweene the river of Saint Jerome and the mouth of the Streights going into the South sea about 34. leagues by estimation. So that the length of the whole Streights is about 90. leagues. And the said mouth of the Streights standeth in the same height that the entrance standeth in when we passe out of the North sea , which is about 52. degrees and 2/3 to the Southward of the line.

The 24. day of February wee entred into the South sea: and on the South side of the going out of the Streights is a faire high Cape with a lowe poynt adjoyning unto it: and on the North side are 4. or 5. Ilands, which lye 6. leagues off the mayne, and much broken and sunken ground about them: by noone the same day wee had brought these Ilands East of us 5. leagues off; the winde being Southerly.

The first of March a storme tooke us at North, which night the ships lost the company of the Hugh Gallant, beeing in 49. 1/2 and 45. leagues from the land. This storme continued 3. or 4. dayes, and for that time we in the Hugh Gallant being separated from the other 2. ships, looked every houre to sinke, our barke was so leake, and our selves so dilvered and weakened with freeing it of water, that we slept not in three dayes and three nights.

The 15. of March in the morning the Hugh Gallant came in betweene the Iland of S. Mary and the mayne, where she met with the Admiral and the Content, which had rid at the Iland called La Mocha 2. dayes, which standeth in the Southerly latitude of 38 degrees: at which place some of our men went on shore with the Viceadmirals boate, where the Indians fought with them with their bowes and arrowes, and were marvellous warie of their Calivers. These Indians were enemies to the Spaniards, and belonged to a great place called Arauco, and tooke us for Spaniards, as afterward we learned.

This place which is called Arauco is wonderfull rich, and full of golde mynes, and yet could it not be subdued at any time by the Spaniards, but they always returned with the greatest losse of men. For these Indians are marvellous desperate and carelesse of their lives to live at their owne libertie and freedome.

The 15. day aforesayde in the afternoone wee weighed anchor, and ranne under the West side of Saint Marie Iland, where we ridde very well in 6. fathoms water, and very faire ground all that night.

The 16. day our General went on shore himselfe with 70. or 80. men every one with his furniture: there came downe to us certaine Indians with two which were the principals of the Iland to welcome us on shore, thinking we had bin Spaniards, for it is subdued by them: who brought us up to a place where the Spaniards had erected a Church with crosses & altars in it. And there were about this Church 2. or 3. store houses, which were full of wheate and barley ready threshed and made up in cades of strawe to the quantitie of a bushel of corne in every cade. The wheate and barly was as faire, as cleane, and every way as good as any we have in England . There were also the like cades ful of potato rootes, which were very good to eate, ready made up in the store houses for the Spaniards against they should come for their tribute. This Iland also yeeldeth many sorts of fruits, hogs, and hens. These Indians are held in such slavery by them, that they dare not eate a hen or an hogge themselves. But the Spaniards have made them all in that Iland Christians. Thus we fitted our selves here with corne asmuch as we would have, and as many hogges as we had salt to powder them withall, and great store of hennes, with a number of bags of Potato rootes, and about 500. dried dogge-fishes, and Guinie wheate, which is called Maiz. And having taken as much as we would have, yet we left marveilous great store behind us. Our General had the two principals of the Iland aboord our shippe, and provided great cheere for them, and made them merie with wine: and they in the ende perceiving us to bee no Spaniards, made signes, as neere as our Generall could perceive, that if wee would goe over unto the mayne land unto Arauco, that there was much Golde, making us signes, that we should have great store of riches. But because we could not understand them, our Generall made some haste, and within 2. or three dayes we furnished our selves.

The 18. day in the morning we departed from this place, and ran all that day Northnortheast about 10. leagues, and at night lay with a short sayle off and on the coast.

The 19. wee ranne in East Northeast with the land, and bare in with a place called The Conception, where wee anchored under an Iland, and departed the next morning without going on land.

The 20. wee departed from The Conception, and went into a litle Baye which was sandie, where we saw fresh water and cattell, but we stayed not there.

The 30. day we came into the Bay of Quintero, which standeth in 33. degrees & 50 minutes.

The said day presently after we were come unto an ancre in the Bay, there was a Neteherd or one that kept cattle which lay upon the point of the hill asleepe, which when he awaked and had espied three shippes which were come into the Bay, before wee could get on shore, he had caught an horse which was feeding by, and rode his way as fast as ever hee might: and our Generall with 30. shot with him went on shore. He had not bene on land one houre, but there came 3. horsemen with bright swords towards us so hard as they might ride, until they came within some twentie or thirtie score of us, and so stayed, and would come no neerer unto us: so our Generall sent unto them a couple of our men with their shotte, and one Fernando, which was the Spaniard that wee had taken up at the mouth of the Streights, which was one of the 400. that were sterved there. But the Spaniards would not suffer our men to come neere with their shot, but made signes that one of our men should come alone unto them: so the said Fernando the Spaniard went unto them, and our two men stood not farre from them. They had great conference, and in the end Fernando came backe from them, and told our Generall that he had parled with them for some victuals, who had promised as much as we would have. Our General sent him backe againe with another message and another shotte with him: and being come neere unto them, they would not suffer any more than one to approch them, whereupon our men let the Spaniard goe unto them alone himselfe: who being some good distance from them, they stayed but a small time together, but that the said Fernando leaped up behind one of them and rid away with them, for all his deepe and damnable othes which hee had made continually to our general and all his company never to forsake him, but to die on his side before he would be false. Our Generall seeing how he was dealt withall, filled water all that day with good watch, and caried it aboord: and night being come, he determined the next day to send into the countrey to find their towne, and to have taken the spoyle of it, and to have fired it if they could have found it.

The last of March Captaine Havers went up into the Countrey with 50. or 60. men with their shot and furniture with them, and we travailed 7. or 8. miles into the land: and as we were marching along, we espied a number of herdes of cattell, of kine and bullockes which were wonderfull wilde: we saw also great store of horses, mares and coltes which were very wilde and unhandled: there is also great store of hares and conies, and plenty of partriges and other wild foules. The countrey is very fruitful with faire fresh rivers all along full of wilde foule of all sorts. Having travailed so farre that we could goe no further for the monstrous high mountaines, we rested our selves at a very fayre fresh River running in and alongst faire lowe medowes at the foote of the mountaines, where every man drunke of the River, and refreshed themselves. Having so done, we returned to our Ships the likest way that we thought their Towne should bee: so wee travailed all the day long, not seeing any man, but we mette with many wilde dogges: yet there were two hundred horsemen abroad that same day by meanes of the Spaniard which they had taken the day before from us, who had tolde them that our force was but small, and that wee were wonderfully weake; who though they did espie us that day, yet durst they not give the on-sette upon us. For wee marched along in array, and observed good order, whereby wee seemed a great number more then we were, untill we came unto our ships that night againe.

The next day being the first of Aprill 1587, our men went on shoare to fill water at a pit which was a quarter of a mile from the waters side: and being earely hard at their businesse were in no readinesse. In which meane while there came powring downe from the hilles almost 200 horsemen, and before our people could returne to the rockes from the watering place, twelve of them were cut off, part killed, and part taken prisoners, the rest were rescued by our souldiers which came from the rocks to meete with them, who being but fifteene of us that had any weapons on shoare, yet we made the enemie retire in the end with losse of some foure and twentie of their men, after we had skirmished with them an houre.

The names of our men that were slaine were these.

Thomas Lucas of London, souldier.Out of the Admirall.
Richard Wheeler of London.
Robert Pitcher of Norffolke, souldier.
John Langston of Glocestershire.
William Kingman of Dorsetshire, souldier.
William Hilles of Cornewall.
1 William Byet of Weymouth. Killed out of the vice adm.
2 Laurence Gamesby, of Newcastle .
1 Henry Blackenals of Weymouth. Killed out of the Hugh Gallant.
2 William Stevens of Plymmouth, gunner.
3 William Pitte of Shereborne in Dorsetshire .
4 Humphrey Derricke of London.

After the losse of these men, wee rid in the roade, and watered in despight of them with good watch and ward, until the fift of the sayd moneth.

The fift day wee departed out of this bay of Quintero: and off from the bay there lyeth a little Iland about a league distant, whereon there are great store of penguins and other fowles; wherof we tooke to serve our turnes, and sailed away North and North and by West: for so lyeth the coast along in this place.

The fifteenth wee came thwart of a place which is called Morro moreno, which standeth in 23 degrees 1/2 and is an excellent good harborough: and there is an Iland which maketh it an harborough: and a ship may go in at either end of the Iland : here we went with our Generall on shore to the number of 30 men: and at our going on shore upon our landing, the Indians of the place came downe from the rockes to meete with us, with fresh water and wood on their backes. They are in marvellous awe of the Spaniards, and very simple people, and live marvellous savagely : For they brought us to their bidings about two miles from the harborough, where wee saw their women and lodging, which is nothing but the skin of some beast layd upon the ground: and over them in stead of houses, is nothing but five or sixe sticks layd acrosse, which stand upon two forkes with stickes on the ground and a fewe boughes layd on it. Their diet is raw fish, which stinketh most vilely. And when any of them die, they burie their bowes and arrowes with them, with their canoa and all that they have: for wee opened one of their graves, and saw the order of them. Their canoas or boates are marvellous artificially made of two skinnes like unto bladders, and are blowen full at one ende with quilles: they have two of these bladders blowen full, which are sowen together and made fast with a sinew of some wild beast; which when they are in the water swell, so that they are as tight as may bee. They goe to sea in these boates, and catch very much fish with them, and pay much of it for tribute unto the Spaniards: but they use it marvellous beastly.

The 23 in the morning we tooke a small barke which came out of Arica road, which wee kept and called The George: the men forsooke it, and went away with their boate. Our admirals pinnesse followed the boate, & the Hugh Gallants boate tooke the barke: our admirals pinnesse could not recover the boat before it got on shoare, but went along into the road of Arica, and layd aboord a great shippe of an hundreth tunnes riding in the road right afore the towne, but all the men and goods were gone out of it, onely the bare ship was left alone. They made three or foure very faire shots at the pinnesse as shee was comming in, but missed her very narrowly with a Minion shot which they had in the fort. Whereupon wee came into the road with the admirall and the Hugh Gallant: but the Content which was viceadmirall was behinde out of sight: by meanes whereof, and for want of her boate to land men withall wee landed not: otherwise if wee had bene together, our Generall with the companie would resolutely have landed to take the towne, whatsoever had come of it. The cause why the Content stayed behind was, that shee had found about 14 leagues to the Southward of Arica, in a place where the Spaniards had landed, a whole ships lading of botijas of wine of Castillia, whereof the sayd Content tooke into her as many as shee could conveniently carrie, and came after us into the road of Arica the same day. By this time wee perceived that the towne had gathered all their power together, and also conveyed all their treasure away, and buried it before wee were come neere the towne: for they had heard of us. Nowe because it was very populous with the ayde of one or two places up in the land, our Generall sawe there was no landing without losse of many men : wherefore hee gave over that enterprise. While wee rid in the road they shot at us, and our ships shot at them again for every shot two. Moreover, our pinnesse went in hard almost to the shoare, and fetched out another barke which rid there in despight of all their forts though they shot still at the pinnesse, which they could never hit. After these things our Generall sent a boate on shoare with a flag of truce to knowe if they would redeeme their great shippe or no; but they would not: for they had received speciall commandement from the viceroy from Lima , not to buy any shippe, nor to ransome any man upon paine of death. Our Generall did this in hope to have redeemed some of our men, which were taken prisoners on shoare by the horsemen at Quintero, otherwise hee would have made them no offer of parley.

The 25 riding stil in the said road, we spied a saile comming from the Southward, and our Generall sent out his pinnesse to meete her, with all our boates; but the towne made such signes from the hill with fires and tokens out of the watch-house, that before our pinnesse could get to them, they ran the barke on shoare two miles to the Southward of the towne; but they had small leasure to carrie any thing with them; but all the men skaped, among whom there were certaine friers : for wee sawe them in their friers weedes as they ran on shoare: many horsemen came from the towne to rescue them, and to carrie them away, otherwise wee had landed and taken or killed them. So wee went aboord the barke as she lay sunke, and fetched out the pillage: but there was nothing in it of any value, and came aboord our shippes againe the same night: and the next morning wee set the great shippe on fire in the road, and sunke one of the barkes, and carried the other along with us, and so departed from thence, and went away Northwest.

The 27 day wee tooke a small barke, which came from S. Iago neere unto Quintero, where wee lost our men first. In this barke was one George a Greeke, a reasonable pilot for all the coast of Chili. They were sent to the citie of Lima with letters of adviso of us, and of the losse of our men. There were also in the sayde barke one Flemming and three Spaniards: and they were all sworne and received the Sacrament before they came to sea by three or foure friers, that if wee should chance to meete them, they should throw those letters over boord: which (as wee were giving them chase with our pinnesse) before wee could fetch them up, they had accordingly throwen away. Yet our Generall wrought so with them, that they did confesse it: but hee was faine to cause them to bee tormented with their thumbes in a wrinch, and to continue them at severall times with extreme paine. Also hee made the old Flemming beleeve that hee would hang him; and the rope being about his necke hee was pulled up a little from the hatches, and yet hee would not confesse, chusing rather to die, then hee would bee perjured. In the end it was confessed by one of the Spaniards, whereupon wee burnt the barke, and carried the men with us.

The third of May wee came into a bay where are three little townes, which are called Paracca, Chincha, and Pisca, where some of us landed and tooke certaine houses, wherein was bread, wine, figs and hennes: but the sea went so high, that wee could not land at the best of the townes without sinking of our boats, and great hazard of us all. This place standeth in thirteene degrees and 2/3 to the Southward of the line.

The fift of May wee departed from this harbour, leaving the Content our viceadmirall within at an Iland of seales, by which meanes at that time wee lost her companie.

The ninth wee gave chase to a saile, namely, Our admirall, The Hugh Gallant, and The George which wee had taken before comming out of the roade of Arica; The Content which was our viceadmirall being still lost: but wee could not fetch it. The George made after it, but lost it that night.

The tenth day the Hugh Gallant (in which barke I Francis Pretie was) lost companie of our admirall.

The eleventh we which were in the Hugh Gallant put into a bay which standeth in 12 degrees 2/3, in which bay wee found a river of fresh water about eight of the clocke at night; and though we were but of small force, and no more but one barke and 18 men in it, yet wee went on shoare to fill water; where having filled one boates lading, while our boate was in going aboord, two or three of our companie which were on shoare, as they were going a little from the watering place with their furniture about them, espied where there were foure or five hundred bagges of meale on an heape covered with a fewe reedes. So that night we filled water and tooke as much meale as wee thought good: which fell out well for us that were then lost and stoode in neede of victuals: and by breake of day in the morning wee came aboord, and there stayed and rode untill the afternoone. In which meane time the towne seeing us ride there still, brought downe much cattell to the sea side to have intised us to come on shoare: but wee sawe their intent, and weyed anker and departed the twelft day.

The 13 day at night wee put into a bay which standeth in 9 degrees and 1/3, where wee sawe horsemen: and that night wee landed, namely, M. Bruer Captaine, my selfe Francis Pretie, Arthur Warford, John Way Preacher, John Newman, Andrew Wyght, William Gargefield, and Henry Hilliard. And we 8 onely, having every man his harquebuze and his furniture about him, marched three quarters of a mile along the sea side, where wee found a boate of five or sixe tunnes haled up drie on the shoare about a cables length from the water: and with extreme labour wee lanched the barke; when it was on flote, Captaine Bruer and I went in, while the rest of our companie were fetching their things: but suddenly it was readie to sinke: And the Captaine and I stoode up to the knees lading out water with our targets; but it sunke downe faster then wee were able to free it, insomuch as in the end wee had much adoe to save our selves from drowning. When wee were out, wee stood in great feare that our owne boate wherein wee came on shoare was sunke: for wee could no where see it. Howbeit the Captaine commanded them to keepe it off, for feare of the great surge that went by the shoare. Yet in the end wee spied it, and went aboord by two and two, and were driven to wade up to the arme-holes 60 paces into the sea before wee could get into the boate, by reason of the shoaldnesse: and then departed the foureteenth day in the morning.

The 16 wee tooke with the Hugh Gallant, being but sixteene men of us in it, a great shippe which came from Guaianil, which was called The Lewis, and was of the burthen of three hundred tuns, having foure and twentie men in it, wherein was pilot one Gonsalvo de Ribas, whom wee carried along with us, and a Negro called Emmanuel. The shippe was laden with nothing but timber and victuals : wherefore wee left her seven leagues from the land very leake and ready to sinke in 7 degrees to the Southward of the line: wee sunke her boate and tooke away her foresaile and certaine victuals.

The 17 of May wee met with our admirall againe, and all the rest of our fleete. They had taken two ships, the one laden with sugar, molosses, maiz, Cordovanskinnes, montego de Porco, many packes of pintados, many Indian coates, and some marmalade, and 1000 hennes: and the other ship was laden with wheate-meale, and boxes of marmalade. One of these ships which had the chiefe marchandise in it, was worth twentie thousand pounds, if it had bene in England or in any other place of Christendome where wee might have solde it. Wee filled all our ships with as much as wee could bestow of these goods: the rest wee burnt and the ships also; and set the men and women that were not killed on shoare.

The 20 day in the morning wee came into the road of Paita, and being at an anker, our Generall landed with sixtie or seventie men, skirmished with them of the towne, and drave them all to flight to the top of the hill which is over the towne, except a few slaves and some other which were of the meaner sort, who were commanded by the governours to stay below in the towne, at a place which is in building for a fort, having with them a bloodie ensigne, being in number about one hundred men. Nowe as wee were rowing betweene the ships and the shoare, our gunner shot off a great peece out of one of the barkes, and the shot fel among them, and drave them to flie from the fort as fast as they might runne, who got them up upon an hill, and from thence shot among us with their small shot. After wee were landed and had taken the towne, wee ran upon them, and chased them so fiercely up the hilles for the space of an houre that wee drave them in the ende away perforce, and being got up the hilles, wee found where they had layd all their stuffe which they had brought out of the towne, and had hidden it there upon the mountaines. We also found the quantitie of 25 pounds weight in silver in pieces of eight rials, and abundance of houshold stuffe and storehouses full of all kinde of wares: but our Generall would not suffer any man to carrie much cloth or apparell away, because they should not cloy themselves with burthens: for hee knew not whether our enemies were provided with furniture according to the number of their men: for they were five men to one of us: and wee had an English mile and an halfe to our ships. Thus wee came downe in safetie to the towne, which was very well builded, and marvellous cleane kept in every streete, with a townehouse or Guild hall in the middest, and had to the number of two hundred houses at the least in it. Wee set it on fire to the ground, and goods to the value of five or sixe thousand pounds: there was also a barke riding in the roade which wee set on fire, and departed, directing our course to the Iland of Puna.

The 25 day of May wee arrived at the Iland of Puna, where is a very good harbour, where wee found a great shippe of the burthen of 250 tunnes riding at an anker with all her furniture, which was readie to bee haled on ground: for there is a speciall good place for that purpose. Wee sunke it, and went on shoare where the lord of the Iland dwelt, which was by the waters side, who had a sumptuous house marvellous well contrived with very many singular good roomes and chambers in it: and out of every chamber was framed a gallerie with a stately prospect into the sea on the one side, and into the Iland on the other side, with a marvellous great hall below, and a very great storehouse at the one ende of the hall, which was filled with botijas of pitch and bash to make cables withall : for the most part of the cables in the South sea are made upon that Iland. This great Casique doth make all the Indians upon the Iland to worke and to drudge for him: and hee himselfe is an Indian borne, but is married to a marvellous faire woman which is a Spaniard, by reason of his pleasant habitation and of his great wealth.

This Spanish woman his wife is honoured as a Queene in the Iland, and never goeth on the ground upon her feete: but holdeth it too base a thing for her: But when her pleasure is to take the ayre, or to goe abroad, shee is alwayes carried in a shadowe like unto an horse-litter upon foure mens shoulders, with a veile or canopie over her for the sunne or the winde, having her gentlewomen still attending about her with a great troope of the best men of the Iland with her. But both shee and the lorde of the Iland with all the Indians in the towne were newly fled out of the Iland before wee could get to an anker, by reason wee were becalmed before wee could get in, and were gone over unto the maine lande, having carried away with them to the summe of 100000 crownes, which wee knew by a captaine of the Iland an Indian, which was left there with some other upon the Iland under him, whom wee had taken at sea as wee were comming into the road, being in a balsa or canoa for a spie to see what wee were.

The 27 our General himselfe with certaine shot and some targettiers went over into the maine unto the place where this foresayde Indian captaine which wee had taken had tolde us that the Casique, which was the lord of all the Iland, was gone unto, and had caried all his treasure with him: but at our comming to the place which wee went to lande at, wee found newly arrived there foure or five great balsas, which were laden with plantans, bags of meale, and many other kinds of victuals. Our Generall marvelled what they were and what they meant, asking the Indian guide and commanding him to speake the trueth upon his life: being then bound fast, hee answered being very much abashed, as well as our companie were, that hee neither knewe from whence they should come, nor who they should bee: for there was never a man in any one of the balsas: and because hee had told our Generall before, that it was an easie matter to take the sayd Casique and all his treasure, and that there were but three or foure houses standing in a desert place and no resistance, and that if hee found it not so, hee should hang him. Againe being demaunded to speake upon his life what hee thought these Balsas should bee, hee answered that hee coulde not say from whence they should come, except it were to bring 60 souldiers, which hee did heare were to go to a place called Guaiaquil, which was about 6 leagues from the saide yland, where two or three of the kings shippes were on the stocks in building, where are continually an hundred souldiers in garisons who had heard of us, and had sent for sixtie more for feare of burning of the shippes and towne. Our Generall not any whit discouraged either at the sight of the balsas unlooked for, or for hearing of the threescore souldiers not untill then spoken of, with a brave courage animating his companie in the exployte, went presently forward, being in the night in a most desert path in the woods, untill such time as hee came to the place; where, as it seemed, they had kept watch either at the waters side, or at the houses, or else at both, and were newly gone out of the houses, having so short warning, that they left the meate both boyling and rosting at the fire and were fledde with their treasure with them, or else buried it where it could not bee found, being also in the night. Our companie tooke hennes and such things as wee thought good, and came away.

The 29 day of May our Generall went in the shipboate into a little Iland there by, whereas the sayd Casique which was the lord of Puna, had caused all the hangings of his chambers, which were of cordovan leather all guilded over, and painted very faire and rich, with all his houshold stuffe, and all the ships tackling which was riding in the road at our comming in, with great store of nailes, spikes of yron, and very many other things to be conveyed: all which wee found, and brought away what our Generall thought requisite for the ships businesse.

This Iland is very pleasant for all things requisite, and fruitful: but there are no mines of gold nor silver in it. There are at the least 200 houses in the towne about the Casiques pallace, and as many in one or two townes more upon the Iland, which is almost as bigge as the Ile of Wight in England . There is planted on the one side of the Casiques house a faire garden, with all herbes growing in it, and at the lower end a well of fresh water, and round about it are trees set, whereon bombasin cotton groweth after this maner: The tops of the trees grow full of cods, out of which the cotton groweth, and in the cotton is a seede of the bignesse of a pease, and in every codde there are seven or eight of these seedes: and if the cotton bee not gathered when it is ripe, then these seedes fall from it, and spring againe.

There are also in this garden fig-trees which beare continually, also pompions, melons, cucumbers, radishes, rosemarie and thyme, with many other herbes and fruits. At the other end of the house there is also another orchard, where grow orenges sweete and sower, limmons, pomegranates and lymes, with divers other fruits.

There is very good pasture ground in this Iland; and withall many horses, oxen, bullockes, sheepe very fat and faire, great store of goates which be very tame, and are used continually to bee milked. They have moreover abundance of pigeons, turkeys, and ducks of a marvellous bignesse.

There was also a very large and great church hard by the Casiques house, whither hee caused all the Indians in the land to come and heare masse: for he himselfe was made a Christian when he was maried to the Spanish woman before spoken of, and upon his conversion he caused the rest of his subjects to be Christened. In this church was an high altar with a crucifixe, and five belles hanging in the nether end thereof. We burnt the church and brought the belles away.

By this time wee had haled on ground our admirall, and had made her cleane, burnt her keele, pitched and tarred her, and had haled her on flote againe. And in the meane while continually kept watch and ward in the great house both nightand day.

The second day of June in the morning, by and by after breake of day, every one of the watch being gone abroad to seeke to fetch in victuals, some one way, some another, some for hennes, some for sheepe, some for goats, upon the sudden there came down upon us an hundred Spanish souldiers with muskets and an ensigne, which were landed on the other side of the Iland that night, and all the Indians of the Iland with them, every one with weapons and their baggage after them: which was by meanes of a Negro , whose name was Emmanuel, which fled from us at our first landing there. Thus being taken at advantage we had the worst: for our companie was not past sixteene or twentie; whereof they had slaine one or two before they were come to the houses: yet we skirmished with them an houre and an half: at the last being sore overcharged with multitudes, we were driven down from the hill to the waters side, and there kept them play a while, until in the end Zacharie Saxie, who with his halberd had kept the way of the hill, and slaine a couple of them, as hee breathed himselfe being somewhat tired, had an honourable death and a short: for a shot strooke him to the heart: who feeling himselfe mortally wounded cryed to God for mercie, and fell downe presently dead. But soone after the enemie was driven somewhat to retire from the bankes side to the greene: and in the ende our boate came and carried as many of our men away as could goe in her, which was in hazard of sinking while they hastened into it: And one of our men whose name was Robert Maddocke was shot through the head with his owne peece, being a snap-hance, as hee was hasting into the boate. But foure of us were left behinde which the boate could not carrie: to wit, my selfe Francis Pretie, Thomas Andrewes, Steven Gunner, and Richard Rose: which had our shot readie and retired our selves unto a cliffe, untill the boate came againe, which was presently after they had carried the rest abourd. There were sixe and fortie of the enemies slaine by us, whereof they had dragged some into bushes, and some into olde houses, which wee found afterward. Wee lost twelve men in maner following.

1 Zacharie Saxie,Slaine by the enemie.
2 Neales Johnson,
3 William Geirgifield,
4 Nicolas Hendie,
5 Henry Cooper,
1 Robert Maddocke, killed with his peece.
2 Henry Mawdly, burnt.
1 Edward the gunners man, drowned.
2 Ambrose the musitian,
1 Walter Tilliard,taken prisoners.
2 Edward Smith,
3 Henry Aselye,

The selfe same day being the second of June, we went on shoare againe with seventie men, and had a fresh skirmish with the enemies, and drave them to retire, being an hundred Spaniards serving with muskets, and two hundred Indians with bowes, arrowes and darts. This done, wee set fire on the towne and burnt it to the ground, having in it to the number of three hundred houses: and shortly after made havocke of their fieldes, orchards and gardens, and burnt foure great ships more which were in building on the stockes.

The third of June the Content which was our viceadmirall was haled on ground, to grave at the same place in despight of the Spaniards: and also our pinnesse which the Spaniards had burned, was new trimmed.

The fift day of June wee departed out of the roade of Puna, where wee had remained eleven dayes, and turned up for a place which is called Rio dolce, where wee watered: at which place also wee sunke our rere-admirall called The Hugh Gallant for want of men, being a barke of fortie tunnes.

The tenth day of the same moneth wee set the Indians on shoare, which we had taken before in a balsa as we were comming into the road of Puna.

The eleventh day wee departed from the sayd Rio dolce.

The twelft of June wee doubled the Equinoctial line, and continued our course Northwarde all that moneth.

The first of Julie wee had sight of the coast of Nueva Espanna, being foure leagues distant from land in the latitude of ten degrees to the Northward of the line.

The ninth of Julie wee tooke a new ship of the burthen of 120 tunnes, wherein was one Michael Sancius, whom our Generall tooke to serve his turne to water along the coast: for hee was one of the best coasters in the South sea. This Michael Sancius was a Provensal, borne in Marseils, and was the first man that tolde us newes of the great ship called The Santa Anna, which wee afterward tooke comming from the Philippinas.

There were sixe men more in this new shippe : we tooke her sailes, her ropes, and firewood, to serve our turnes, set her on fire, and kept the men.

The tenth we tooke another barke which was going with advise of us and our ships all along the coast, as Michael Sancius tolde us: but all the companie that were in the barke were fledde on shoare. None of both these ships had any goods in them. For they came both from Sonsonate in the province of Guatimala; the new shippe, for feare we should have taken her in the road, and the barke, to carrie newes of us along the coast; which barke also wee set on fire.

The 26 day of July wee came to an anker at 10 fathoms in the river of Copalita, where wee made account to water. And the same night wee departed with 30 men in the pinnesse, and rowed to Aguatulco, which is but two leagues from the aforesayd river; and standeth in 15 degrees 40 minutes to the Northward of the Equinoctial line.

The 27 in the morning by the breake of day wee came into the roade of Aguatulco, where wee found a barke of 50 tunnes, which was come from Sonsonate laden with cacaos and anile which they had there landed: and the men were all fled on shoare. Wee landed there, and burnt their towne, with the church and custome-house which was very faire and large: in which house were 600 bags of anile to dye cloth; every bag whereof was worth 40 crownes, and 400 bags of cacaos: every bag whereof is worth ten crownes. These cacaos goe among them for meate and money. For 150 of them are in value one rial of plate in ready payment. They are very like unto an almond, but are nothing so pleasant in taste: they eate them, and make drink of them. This the owner of the shippe tolde us. I found in this towne before wee burnt it, a flasket full of boxes of balme. After we had spoyled and burnt the towne, wherein there were some hundred houses, the owner of the shippe came downe out of the hilles with a flag of truce unto us, which before with the rest of all the townesmen was run away at our first comming; and at length came abourd our pinnesse upon Captaine Havers worde of safe returne. We carried him to the river of Copalita where our shippes rode: and when hee came to our Generall, hee caused him to bee set on shoare in safetie the same night, because hee came upon the captaines word.

The 28 day we set saile from Copalita, because the sea was so great there, that wee could not fill water, and ran the same night into the roade of Aguatulco.

The 29 our Generall landed and went on shoare with thirtie men two miles into the woods, where wee tooke a Mestizo, whose name was Michael de Truxillo, who was customer of that towne, and wee found with him two chambers full of his stuffe : wee brought him and his stuffe abourd. And whereas I say he was a Mestizo, it is to be understood that a Mestizo is one which hath a Spaniard to his father and an Indian to his mother.

The second day of August, we had watered, and examined the said Mestizo, and set him on shore againe and departed from the port of Aguatulco the same night, which standeth as I sayd before in 15 degrees and 40 minuts to the Northward of the lyne. Here wee overslipped the haven of Acapulco , from whence the shippes are set foorth for the Philippinas.

The foure and twentieth day of August, our Generall with 30 of us went with the pinnesse unto an haven called Puerto de Natividad, where wee had intelligence by Michael Sancius that there should bee a pinnesse, but before wee could get thither the sayde pinnesse was gone to fish for pearles 12 leagues farther, as we were informed by certaine Indians which we found there. We tooke a mullato in this place, in his bedde, which was sent with letters of advise concerning us along the coast, of Nueva Galicia, whose horse wee killed, tooke his letters, left him behinde, set fire on the houses, and burnt two newe shippes of 200 tunnes the piece, which were in building there on the stockes, and came abourd of our shippes againe.

The sixe and twentie day of August, wee came into the bay of S. Iago, where wee watered at a fresh River, along which river many plantans are growing: here is great abundance of fresh fish. Heere also certaine of our companie dragged for pearles and caught some quantitie.

The second of September wee departed from Sant Iago at foure of the clocke in the evening. This bay of Sant Iago standeth in nineteene degrees and eighteene minuts to the Northward of the lyne.

The 3 of September wee arrived in a little bay a league to the Westwarde off Port de Natividad called Malacca , which is a very good place to ride in: and the same day about twelve of the clocke our Generall landed with thirtie men or there about, and went up to a towne of Indians which was two leagues from the road, which towne is called Acatlan: there were in it about 20 or 30 houses and a Church, which we defaced and came abourd againe the same night. All the people were fled out of the towne at the sight of us.

The fourth of September, wee departed from the roade of Malacca , and sayled along the coast.

The 8 we came to the roade of Chaccalla, in which bay there are two litle houses by the waters side. This bay is 18 leagues from the Cape de los Corrientes.

The 9 in the morning our Generall sent up Captaine Havers with fortie men of us before day, and Michael Sancius being our guide, wee went unto a place about two leagues up into the countrey in a most villainous desart path through the woods and wildernesse: and in the ende we came to a place where wee tooke three housholders with their wives and children and some Indians, one carpenter which was a Spaniard, and a Portugall, wee bound them all and made them to come to the sea side with us.

Our Generall made their wives to fetch us Plantans, Lymmons, and Oranges, Pine-aples and other fruites whereof they had abundance, and so let their husbandes depart, except Sembrano the Spanish Carpenter, and Diego the Portugal ; and the tenth day wee departed the roade.

The twelfth day wee arrived at a little Island called the Isle of Sant Andrewe, on which there is great store of fowle and wood: where wee dryed and salted as many of the fowles as we thought good: wee also killed there abundance of seales, and Iguanos which are a kinde of Serpents, with foure feete, and a long sharpe tayle, strange to them which have not scene them; but they are very good meate. Wee ridde here untill the seventeenth day, at which time wee departed.

The 24 day wee arrived in the roade of Massatlan, which standeth in 23 degrees 1/2, just under the Tropicke of Cancer: It is a very great river within, but it is barred at the mouth: and upon the North side of the barre without, is good fresh water: but there is very evill filling of it; because at a lowe water it is shoald halfe a mile off the shoare. There is great store of fresh fish in that bay: and good fruites up into the countrey, whereof wee had some, though not without danger.

The seven and twentieth day of September, wee departed from the roade of Massatlan and ran to an island which is a league to the Northward the sayd Massatlan, where wee trimmed our ships and new built our pinnesse: and there is a litle island a quarter of a league from it, on which are seales: where a Spanish prisoner, whose name was Domingo, being sent to wash shirtes with one of our men to keep him, made a scape, & swam to the maine, which was an English mile distant: at which place we had seen 30 or 40 Spaniards & Indians, which were horsemen, and kept watch there, which came from a towne called Chiametla, which was 11 leagues up into the countrey, as Michael Sancius told us. We found upon the island where we trimmed our pinnesse, fresh water by the assistance of God in that our great neede by digging two or three foote deepe in the sande, where no water nor signe of water was before to be perceived. Otherwise we had gone backe 20 or 30 leagues to water: which might have bene occasion that we might have missed our prey wee had long wayted for. But God raysed one Flores a Spaniard, which was also a prisoner with us, to make a motion to digge in the sands. Now our Generall having had experience ones before of the like, commanded to put his motion in practise, and in digging three foote deepe wee found very good and fresh water. So we watered our ships, and might have filled a thousand tunnes more, if we had would.

We stayed in this island untill the 9 day of October, at which time we departed at night for the cape of S. Lucar, which is on the West side of the point of California .

The 14 of October we fell with the cape of S. Lucar, which cape is very like the Needles at the isle of Wight; and within the said cape is a great bay called by the Spaniards Aguada Segura: into which bay falleth a faire fresh river, about which many Indians use to keepe: wee watered in the river and lay off and on from the saide cape of S. Lucar untill the fourth of November, and had the windes hanging still Westerly.

The 4 of November the Desire and the Content, wherein were the number of Englishmen onely living, beating up and downe upon the headland of California , which standeth in 23 degrees and 2/3 to the Northward, betwene seven and 8 of the clocke in the morning one of the company of our Admirall which was the trumpeter of the ship going up into the top espied a sayle bearing in from the sea with the cape, whereupon hee cryed out with no small joy to himselfe and the whole company, A sayle, A sayle, with which cheerefull word the master of the ship and divers others of the company went also up into the maine top, who perceiving the speech to be very true gave information unto our Generall of these happy newes, who was no lesse glad then the cause required: whereupon he gave in charge presently unto the whole company to put all things in readines, which being performed we gave them chase some 3 or 4 houres, standing with our best advantage and working for the winde. In the afternoone we gat up unto them, giving them the broad side with our great ordinance and a volee of small shot, and presently layed the ship aboord, whereof the king of Spaine was owner, which was Admiral of the south sea, called the S. Anna, & thought to be 700 tunnes in burthen. Now as we were ready on their ships side to enter her, being not past 50 or 60 men at the uttermost in our ship, we perceived that the Captaine of the said ship had made fights fore and after, and layd their sailes close on their poope, their mid ship, with their fore castle, and having not one man to be seene, stood close under their fights, with lances, javelings, rapiers, & targets, & an innumerable sort of great stones, which they threw overboord upon our heads and into our ship so fast and being so many of them, that they put us off the shippe againe, with the losse of 2 of our men which were slaine, & with the hurting of 4 or 5. But for all this we new trimmed our sailes, and fitted every man his furniture, and gave them a fresh encounter with our great ordinance and also with our small shot, raking them through and through, to the killing and maiming of many of their men. Their Captaine still like a valiant man with his company stood very stoutely unto his close fights, not yeelding as yet: Our General encouraging his men a fresh with the whole noyse of trumpets gave them the third encounter with our great ordinance and all our small shot to the great discomforting of our enemies raking them through in divers places, killing and spoiling many of their men. They being thus discomforted and spoiled, and their shippe being in hazard of sinking by reason of the great shot which were made, wherof some were under water, within 5 or 6 houres fight set out a flagge of truce and parled for mercy, desiring our Generall to save their lives and to take their goods, and that they would presently yeeld. Our Generall of his goodnes promised them mercy, and willed them to strike their sayles, and to hoyse out their boate and to come aboord: which newes they were ful glad to heare of, and presently strooke their sailes, hoysed their boat out, and one of their cheife marchants came aboord unto our Generall: and falling downe upon his knees, offered to have kissed our Generals feete, and craved mercie: our General most graciously pardoned both him and the rest upon promise of their true dealing with him and his company concerning such riches as were in the shippe: and sent for the Captaine and their Pilote, who at their comming used the like duetie and reverence as the former did. The Generall of his great mercy & humanitie, promised their lives and good usage. The sayd Captaine and Pilote presently certified the Generall what goods they had within boord, to wit, an hundreth and 22 thousand pezos of golde : and the rest of the riches that the ship was laden with, was in silkes, sattens, damasks, with muske & divers other marchandize, and great store of al maner of victuals with the choyse of many conserves of all sortes for to eate, and of sundry sorts of very good wines. These things being made knowne to the Generall by the aforesaide Captaine and Pilote, they were commanded to stay aboord the Desire, and on the 6 day of November following wee went into an harbour which is called by the Spaniards, Aguada Segura, or Puerto Seguro.

Here the whole company of the Spaniardes, both of men and women to the number of 190 persons were set on shore: where they had a fayre river of fresh water, with great store of fresh fish, foule, and wood, and also many hares and conies upon the maine land. Our generall also gave them great store of victuals, of garuansos, peason, and some wine. Also they had all the sailes of their shippe to make them tents on shore, with licence to take such store of plankes as should bee sufficient to make them a barke. Then we fell to hoysing in of our goods, sharing of the treasure, and alotting to every man his portion. In devision whereof the eight of this moneth, many of the company fell into a mutinie against our Generall, especially those which were in the Content, which neverthelesse were after a sort pacified for the time.

On the 17 day of November, which is the day of the happy Coronation of her Majestic, our Generall commanded all his ordinance to be shot off, with the small shot both in his owne shippe where himselfe went, and also in the Content, which was our Vice-admirall. This being done, the same night we had many fireworkes and more ordinance discharged, to the great admiration of all the Spaniards which were there: for the most part of them had never scene the like before.

This ended, our Generall discharged the Captaine, gave him a royall reward, with provision for his defence against the Indians and his company, both of swords, targets, pieces, shot and powder to his great contentment: but before his departure, he tooke out of this great shippe two yong lads borne in Japon , which could both wright and reade their owne language, the eldest being about 20 yeers olde was named Christopher, the other was called Cosmus, about 17 yeeres of age, both of very good capacitie. He tooke also with him out of their ship, 3 boyes borne in the isles of Manilla, the one about 15, the other about 13, and the yongest about 9 yeeres old. The name of the eldest was Alphonso, the second Anthony de Dasi, the third remaineth with the right honourable the Countesse of Essex . He also tooke from them, one Nicholas Roderigo a Portugall, who hath not onely bene in Canton and other parts of China , but also in the islands of Japon being a countrey most rich in silver mynes, and hath also bene in the Philippinas.

Hee tooke also from them a Spaniard whose name was Thomas de Ersola, which was a very good Pilote from Acapulco and the coast of Nueva Espanna unto the islands of Ladrones , where the Spaniardes doe put in to water, sayling betweene Acapulco and the Philippinas: in which isles of Ladrones , they finde fresh water, plantans, and potato rootes: howbeit the people be very rude and heathens. The 19 day of November aforesaid, about 3 of the clock in the afternoone, our Generall caused the kings shippe to be set on fire, which having to the quantitie of 500 tunnes of goods in her we saw burnt unto the water, and then gave them a piece of ordinance and set sayle joyfully homewardes towardes England with a fayre winde, which by this time was come about to Eastnortheast: and night growing neere, we left the Content a sterne of us, which was not as yet come out of the road. And here thinking she would have overtaken us, we lost her companie and never saw her after. Wee were sayling from this haven of Aguada Segura in California unto the iles of Ladrones the rest of November, and all December, and so forth until the 3 of Januarie 588, with a faire winde for the space 45 dayes: and we esteemed it to be between 17 and 18 hundred leagues. The 3 day of January by sixe of the clocke in the morning wee had sight of one of the islands of Ladrones called the island of Guana, standing in 13 degrees 2/3 toward the North, and sayling with a gentle gale before the winde, by 1 or 2 of the clocke in the afternoone, wee were come up within 2 leagues of the island, where we met with 60 or 70 sailes of canoas full of Savages, who came off to sea unto us, and brought with them in their boates plantans, cocos, potato rootes, and fresh fish, which they had caught at sea, and helde them up unto us for to truck or exchange with us; which when we perceived, we made fast little pieces of old iron upon small cords and fishing lines, and so vered the iron unto their canoas, and they caught hold of them and tooke off the iron, and in exchange of it they would make fast unto the same line either a potato roote, or a bundle of plantans, which we haled in: and thus our company exchanged with them until they had satisfied themselves with as much as did content them: yet we could not be rid of them. For afterward they were so thicke about the ship, that it stemmed & brake 1 or 2 of their canoas: but the men saved themselves being in every canoa 4, 6, or 8 persons all naked & excellent swimmers and divers. They are of a tawny colour & marveilous fat, & bigger ordinarily of stature then the most part of our men in England , wearing their haire marveilous long; yet some of them have it made up and tyed with a knot on the crowne, & some with 2 knots, much like unto their images which wee saw them have carved in wood, and standing in the head of their boates like unto the images of the devill. Their canoas were as artificially made as any that ever wee had seene : considering they were made and contrived without any edge-toole. They are not above halfe a yard in bredth and in length some seven or eight yardes, and their heades and sternes are both alike, they are made out with raftes of canes and reedes on the starrebordside, with maste and sayle: their sayle is made of mattes of sedges, square or triangle wise: and they saile as well right against the winde, as before the winde: These Savages followed us so long, that we could not be ridde of them: untill in the end our General commanded some halfe dozen harquebuzes to be made ready; and himselfe strooke one of them and the rest shot at them: but they were so yare and nimble, that we could not discerne whether they were killed or no, because they could fall backward into the sea and prevent us by diving.

The 14 day of January lying at hull with our ship all the middle watch, from 12 at night until foure in the morning, by the breake of day wee fell with an headland of the isles of the Philippinas, which is called Cabo del Spirito Santo which is of very great bignes and length, high land in the middest of it, and very low land as the Cape lyeth East and West, trending farre into the sea to the westward. This cape or island is distant from the ile of Guana, one of the Ladrones , 310 leagues. We were in sayling of this course eleven dayes with skant windes and some foule weather, bearing no sayle two or three nights. This island standeth in 13 degrees, and is a place much peopled with heathen people, and all woodie through the whole land: and it is short of the chiefest island of the Philippinas called Manilla about 60 leagues. Manilla is well planted and inhabited with Spaniards to the number of sixe or seven hundred persons: which dwell in a towne unwalled, which hath 3 or 4 small blocke houses, part made of wood, and part of stone beeing indeede of no great strength: they have one or two small Gallies belong to the towne. It is a very rich place of golde and many other commodities; and they have yeerely trafficke from Acapulco in Nueva Espanna, and also 20 or 30 shippes from China and from the Sanguelos, which bring them many sorts of marchandize. The marchants of China and the Sanguelos are part Moores and part heathen people. They bring great store of gold with them, which they trafficke and exchange for silver, and give waight for waight. These Sanguelos are men of marvellous capacitie in devising and making all maner of things, especially in all handle craftes and sciences: and every one is so expert, perfect, and skilfull in his facultie, as fewe or no Christians are able to goe beyond them in that which they take in hand. For drawing & embrodering upon satten, silck, or lawne, either beaste, fowle, fish or worme, for livelines and perfectnes, both in silke, silver, gold, & pearle, they excell. Also the 14 day at night wee entred the streights betweene the island of Luzon, & the island of Camlaia.

The fifteenth of January wee fell with an island called Capul, and had betwixt the sayd island and another island but an narrowe passage, and a marveilous rippling of a very great tyde with a ledge of rockes lying off the poynt of the island of Capul: and no danger but water ynough a fayre bredth off: and within the point a fayre bay and a very good harborough in foure fathomes water hard aboord the shore within a cables length. About 10 of the clocke in the morning wee came to an anker.

Our shippe was no sooner come to an anker, but presently there came a canoa rowing aboord us, wherein was one of the chief Casiques of the island whereof there be seven, who supposing that we were Spaniardes, brought us potato rootes, which they call camotas, and greene cocos, in exchange whereof we gave his company pieces of linnen to the quantitie of a yard for foure Cocos, and as much linnen for a basket of potato rootes of a quart in quantitie; which rootes are very good meat, and excellent sweete either rosted or boyled.

This Casiques skinne was carved and cut with sundry and many strakes and devises all over his body. We kept him still aboord and caused him to send those men which brought him aboord backe to the island to cause the rest of the principals to come aboord: who were no sooner gone on shore, but presently the people of the island came downe with their cocos and potato rootes, and the rest of the principals likewise came aboord and brought with them hennes and hogges: and they used the same order with us which they doe with the Spaniardes. For they tooke for every hog (which they cal Balboye) eight rials of plate, and for every henne or cocke one riall of plate. Thus we rode at anker all that day, doing nothing but buying rootes, cocos, hennes, hogges, and such things as they brought, refreshing our selves marveilously well.

The same day at night beeing the fifteenth of January 1588, Nicolas Roderigo the Portugal, whom wee tooke out of the great Santa Anna at the Cape of California, desired to speake with our General in secret: which when our General understood, he sent for him, & asked him what he had to say unto him. The Portugal made him this answer, that although he had offended his worship heretofore, yet nowe hee had vowed his faith and true service unto him, and in respect thereof he neither could nor would conceale such treason as was in working against him and his company: and that was this. That the Spaniard which was taken out of the great sant Anne for a Pilote, whose name was Thomas de Ersola, had written a letter, and secretly sealed it and locked it up in his cheste, meaning to convey it by the inhabitants of this island to Manilla, the contents whereof were: That there had bene two English ships along the coast of Chili, Peru , Nueva Espanna, and Nueva Galicia, and that they had taken many shippes and marchandize in them, and burnt divers townes, and spoiled all that ever they could come unto, and that they had taken the kings ship which came from Manilla and all his treasure, with all the marchandize that was therein; and had set all the people on shore, taking himselfe away perforce. Therefore he willed them that they should make strong their bulwarks with their two Gallies, and all such provision as they could possibly make. He farther signified, that wee were riding at an island called Capul, which was at the end of the island of Manilla, being but one shippe with small force in it, and that the other ship, as he supposed, was gone for the North-west passage, standing in 55 degrees: and that if they could use any meanes to surprize us being there at an anker, they should dispatch it: for our force was but small, and our men but weake, and that the place where we roade was but 50 leagues from them. Otherwise if they let us escape, within fewe yeeres they must make account to have their towne besieged and sacked with an armie of English. This information being given, our Generall called for him, and charged him with these things, which at the first he utterly denyed: but in the ende, the matter being made manifest and knowen of certaintie by especiall tryall and proofes, the next morning our General willed that he should be hanged: which was accordingly performed the 16 of January.

We roade for the space of nine dayes about this island of Capul, where we had diverse kindes of fresh victuals, with excellent fresh water in every bay, and great store of wood. The people of this island go almost all naked and are tawny of colour. The men weare onely a stroope about their wastes, of some kinde of linnen of their owne weaving, which is made of plantan leaves, and another stroope comming from their backe under their twistes, which covereth their privie parts, and is made fast to their girdles at their navels.

These people use a strange kinde of order among them, which is this. Every man and man-childe among them hath a nayle of Tynne thrust quite through the head of his privie part, being split in the lower ende and rivetted, and on the head of the nayle is as it were a crowne: which is driven through their privities when they be yong, and the place groweth up againe, without any great paine to the child: and they take this nayle out and in, as occasion serveth: and for the truth thereof we our selves have tak