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PARTICLES

213. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are called Particles.

In their origin Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions are either (1) case-forms, actual or extinct, or (2) compounds and phrases.

Particles cannot always be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions (§§ 219 and 222).


ADVERBS


DERIVATION OF ADVERBS

214. Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows:

a. From adjectives of the first and second declensions by changing the characteristic vowel of the stem to -ē: as, cārē, dearly, from cārus, dear (stem cāro-); amīcē, like a friend, from amīcus, friendly (stem amīco-).

Note.--The ending -ē is a relic of an old ablative in -ēd (cf. § 43. N. 1).

b. From adjectives of the third declension by adding -ter to the stem. Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems:—

  1. fortiter, bravely, from fortis (stem forti-), brave.
  2. ācriter, eagerly, from ācer (stem ācri-), eager.
  3. vigilanter, watchfully, from vigilāns (stem vigilant-).
  4. prūdenter, prudently, from prūdēns (stem prūdent-).
  5. aliter, otherwise, from alius (old stem ali-).

Note.--This suffix is perhaps the same as -ter in the Greek -τερος and in uter , alter . If so, these adverbs are in origin either neuter accusatives (cf.d) or masculine nominatives.

c. Some adjectives of the first and second declensions have adverbs of both forms (-ē and -ter). Thus dūrus, hard, has both dūrē and dūriter; miser, wretched, has both miserē and miseriter .

d. The neuter accusative of adjectives and pronouns is often used as an adverb: as, multum, much; facilĕ, easily; quid, why.

This is the origin of the ending -ius in the comparative degree of adverbs (§ 218): as, ācrius, more keenly (positive ācriter ); facilius, more easily (positive facilĕ ).

Note.--These adverbs are strictly cognate accusatives (§ 390).

e. The ablative singular neuter or (less commonly) feminine of adjectives, pronouns, and nouns may be used adverbially: as, falsō, falsely; citŏ ,

quickly (with shortened o ); rēctā ( viā ), straight (straightway); crēbrō, frequently; volgō, commonly; fortĕ, by chance; spontĕ, of one's own accord.

Note.--Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use: as, abundē, plentifully (as if from †abundus; cf. abundō, abound); saepĕ, often (as if from †saepis, dense, close-packed; cf. saepēs, hedge, and saepiō, hedge in).

215. Further examples of Adverbs and other Particles which are in origin case-forms of nouns or pronouns are given below. In some the case is not obvious, and in some it is doubtful.

  1. Neuter Accusative forms: nōn (for -oinom, later ūnum), not; iterum (comparative of i-, stem of is), a second time; dēmum (superlative of , down), at last.
  2. Feminine Accusatives: partim, partly. So statim, on the spot; saltim, at least (generally saltem ), from lost nouns in -tis (genitive -tis). Thus -tim became a regular adverbial termination; and by means of it adverbs were made from many noun- and verb-stems immediately, without the intervention of any form which could have an accusative in -tim: as, sēparātim, separately, from sēparātus, separate. Some adverbs that appear to be feminine accusative are possibly instrumental: as, palam, openly; perperam, wrongly; tam, so; quam, as.
  3. Plural Accusatives: as, aliās, elsewhere; forās, out of doors (as end of motion). So perhaps quia, because.
  4. Ablative or Instrumental forms: quā, where; intrā, within; extrā, outside; quī, how; aliquī, somehow; forīs, out of doors; quō, whither; adeō, to that degree; ultrō, beyond; citrō, this side (as end of motion); retrō, back; illōc (for † illō-ce ), weakened to illūc, thither. Those in -trō are from comparative stems (cf. ūls, cis , re-).
  5. Locative forms: ibi, there; ubi, where; illī , illī-c, there; peregrī ( peregrē ), abroad; hīc (for † -ce ), here. Also the compounds hodiē (probably for † hōdiē ), to-day; perendiē, day after to-morrow.
  6. Of uncertain formation: (1) those in -tus (usually preceded by i ), with an ablative meaning: as, funditus, from the bottom, utterly; dīvīnitus, from above, providentially; intus, within; penitus, within; (2) those in -dem, -dam, -: as, quidem, indeed; quondam, once; quandō (cf. dōnec ), when; (3) dum (probably accusative of time), while; iam, now.
216. A phrase or short sentence has sometimes grown together into an adverb (cf. notwithstanding, nevertheless, besides):—
  1. postmodo, presently (a short time after).
  2. dēnuō (for novō ), anew.
  3. vidēlicet (for vidē licet ), to wit (see, you may).
  4. nihilōminus, nevertheless (by nothing the less).

Note.--Other examples are: anteā , old antideā, before ( ante , probably ablative or instrumental); īlicō ( in locō ), on the spot, immediately; prōrsus, absolutely (prō vorsus, straight ahead); rūrsus ( re-vorsus ), again; quotannīs, yearly (quot annīs, as many years as there are); quam-ob-rem, wherefore; cōminus, hand to hand ( con manus ); ēminus, at long range ( ex manus ); nīmīrum, without doubt ( mīrum ); ob-viam (as in īre obviam, to go to meet); prīdem (cf. prae and -dem in i-dem ), for some time; forsan ( fors an ), perhaps (it's a chance whether); forsitan ( fors sit an ), perhaps (it would be a chance whether); scīlicet (†scī, licet), that is to say (know, you may; cf. ī-licet, you may go); āctūtum (āctū, on the act, and tum, then).


CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS

217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows:—

a. Adverbs of Place

1

Note.--The demonstrative adverbs hīc , ibi , istīc , illīc , and their correlatives, correspond in signification with the pronouns hīc , is, iste , ille (see § 146), and are often equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition: as, inde = ab , etc. So the relative or mterrogative ubi corresponds with quī ( quis ), ali-cubi with aliquis , ubiubi with quisquis , sī-cubi with sīquis (see §§ 147-151, with the table of correlatives in § 152).

hīc, here. hūc, hither. hinc, hence. hāc, by this way.
ibi, there. , thither. inde, thence. , by that way.
istīc, there. istūc, thither. istinc, thence. istā, by that way.
illīc, there. illūc, thither. illinc, thence. illā ( illāc ), by that way.
ubi, where. quō, whither. unde, whence. quā, by what way.
alicubi, somewhere. aliquō, somewhither, alicunde, from some- aliquā, by some way.
to) somewhere. where.
ibīdem, in the same eōdem, to the same indidem, from the eādem, by the same
place. place. same place. way.
alibī, elsewhere, in aliō, elsewhere, to aliunde, from an- aliā, in another
another place. another place. other place. way.
abiubi, wherever. quōquō, whitherso- undecunque, whence- quāquā, in whatever
ever. soever. way.
ubivīs, anywhere, quōvīs, anywhere, undique, from every quāvīs, by whatever
where you will. whither you will. quarter. way.
sĭcubi, if anywhere. sīquō, if anywhere sīcunde, if from any- sīquā, if anywhere.
anywhither). where.
<*>ēcubi, lest any- nēquō, lest any- nēcunde, lest from nēquā, lest any-
where. whither. anywhere. where.

ūsque, all the way to; usquam, anywhere; nusquam, nowhere; citrō, to this side; intrō, inwardly; ultrō, beyond (or freely, i.e. beyond what is required); porrō, further on.

quōrsum (for quō vorsum, whither turned?), to what end? hōrsum, this way; prōrsum, forward (prōrsus, utterly); intrōrsum, inwardly; retrōrsum, backward; sūrsum, upward; deorsum, downward; seorsum, apart; aliōrsum, another way.

b. Adverbs of Time

quandō, when? (interrogative); cum ( quom ), when (relative); ut, when, as; nunc, now; tunc ( tum ), then; mox, presently; iam, already; dum, while; iam diū , iam dūdum , iam prīdem, long ago, long since.

prīmum ( prīmō ), first; deinde ( posteā ), next after; postrēmum ( postrēmō ), finally; posteāquam , postquam, when (after that, as soon as).

umquam ( unquam ), ever; numquam ( nunquam ), never; semper, always.

aliquandō, at some time, at length; quandōque ( quandōcumque ), whenever; dēnique, at last.

quotiēns ( quotiēs ), how often; totiēns, so often; aliquotiēns, a number of times.

cotīdiē, every day; hodiē, to-day; herī, yesterday; crās, to-morrow; prīdiē, the day before; postrīdiē, the day after; in diēs, from day to day.

nōndum, not yet; necdum, nor yet; vixdum, scarce yet; quam prīmum, as soon as possible; saepe, often; crēbrō, frequently; iam nōn, no longer.

c. Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause

quam, how, as; tam, so; quamvīs, however much, although; paene, almost; magis, more; valdē, greatly; vix, hardly.

cūr , quārē, why; ideō , idcircō , proptereā, on this account, because; , therefore; ergō, itaque , igitur, therefore.

ita , sīc, so; ut ( utī ), as, how; utut , utcumque, however.


d. Interrogative Particles

an, -ne, anne , utrum , utrumne , num, whether.

nōnne , annōn, whether not; numquid , ecquid, whether at all.

On the use of the Interrogative Particles, see §§ 332, 335.


e. Negative Particles

nōn, not (in simple denial); haud , minimē, not (in contradiction); , not (in prohibition); nēve , neu, nor; nēdum, much less.

, lest; neque , nec, nor; ... quidem, not even.

nōn modo ... vērum ( sed ) etiam, not only ... but also.

nōn modo ... sed ... quidem, not only NOT ... but not even.

minus, if not; quō minus ( quōminus ), so as not.

quīn (relative), but that; (interrogative), why not?

, nec (in composition), not; so in nesciō, I know not; negō, I say no (âiō, I say yes); negōtium, business († nec-ōtium ); nēmō (- and hemō, old form of homō), no one; quis, lest any one; neque enim, for ... not.

For the use of Negative Particles, see § 325 ff.

For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverbs, see § 320 ff.


COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

218. The Comparative of Adverbs is the neuter accusative of the comparative of the corresponding adjective; the Superlative is the Adverb in -ē formed regularly from the superlative of the Adjective:—

cārē, dearly (from cārus, dear); cārius, cārissimē.

miserē (miser iter ), wretchedly (from miser, wretched); miserius, miserrimē.

leviter (from levis, light); levius, levissimē.

audācter (audāc iter ) (from audāx, bold); audācius, audācissimē.

benĕ, well (from bonus, good); melius, optimē.

ma, ill (from malus, bad); ius, pessimē.

a. The following are irregular or defective:—

diū, long (in time); diūtius, diūtissimē.

potius, rather; potissimum, first of all, in preference to all.

saepe, often; saepius, oftener, again; saepissimē.

satis, enough; satius, preferable.

secus, otherwise; sētius, worse.

multum ( multō ), magis, maximē, much, more, most.

parum, not enough; minus, less; minimē, least.

nūper, newly; nūperrimē.

temperē, seasonably; temperius.

Note.--In poetry the comparative mage is sometimes used instead of magis .


PREPOSITIONS

219. Prepositions were not originally distinguished from Adverbs in form or meaning, but have become specialized in use. They developed comparatively late in the history of language. In the early stages of language development the cases alone were sufficient to indicate the sense, but, as the force of the case-endings weakened, adverbs were used for greater precision (cf. § 338). These adverbs, from their habitual association with particular cases, became Prepositions; but many retained also their independent function as adverbs.

Most prepositions are true case-forms: as, the comparative ablatives extrā, īnfrā, suprā (for †exterā, †īnferā, †superā), and the accusatives circum , cōram , cum (cf. § 215). Circiter is an adverbial formation from circum (cf. § 214. b. N.); praeter is the comparative of prae , propter of prope .2 Of the remainder, versus is a petrified nominative (participle of vertō ); adversus is a compound of versus; trāns is probably an old present participle (cf. in-trā-re ); while the origin of the brief forms ab , ad , , ex , ob , is obscure and doubtful.

220. Prepositions are regularly used either with the Accusative or with the Ablative.

a. The following prepositions are used with the Accusative:—

ad, to. circiter, about. intrā, inside.
adversus, against. cis , citrā, this side. iūxtā, near.
adversum, towards. contrā, against. ob, on account of.
ante, before. ergā, towards. penes, in the power of.
apud, at, near. extrā, outside. per, through.
circā, around. īnfrā, below. pōne, behind.
circum, around. inter, among. post, after.

praeter, beyond. secundum, next to. ultrā, on the further side.
prope, near. suprā, above. versus, towards.
propter, on account of. trāns, across.

b. The following prepositions are used with the Ablative:—3

ā, ăb , abs, away from, by. ē, ex, out of.
absque, without, but for. prae, in comparison with.
cōram, in presence of. prō, in front of, for.
cum, with. sine, without.
, from. tenus, up to, as far as.

c. The following may be used with either the Accusative or the Ablative, but with a difference in meaning:—

in, into, in. sub, under.
subter, beneath. super, above.

In and sub , when followed by the accusative, indicate motion to, when by the ablative, rest in, a place:

  1. vēnit in aedīs, he came into the house; erat in aedibus, he was in the house.
  2. disciplīna in Britanniā reperta atque inde in Galliam trānslāta esse exīstimātur, the system is thought to have been discovered in Great Britain and thence brought over to Gaul.
  3. sub īlice cōnsederat, he had seated himself under an ilex.
  4. sub lēgēs mittere orbem, to subject the world to laws (to send the world under laws).

221. The uses of the Prepositions are as follows:—

  1. Ā, ab, away from,4 from, off from, with the ablative. a. Of place: as,ab urbe profectus est, he set out from the city.

    b. Of time: (1) from: as,ab hōrā tertiā ad vesperam, from the third hour till evening; (2) just after: as,ab magistrātū, after [holding] that office.

    c. Idiomatic uses: ā reliquīs differunt, they differ from the others; ā parvulīs, from early childhood; prope ab urbe, near (not far from) the city; līberāre ab, to set free from; occīsus ab hoste (periit ab hoste), slain by an enemy; ab hāc parte, on this side; ab êius, to his advantage; ā pūblicā, for the interest of the state.

  2. Ad, to, towards, at, near, with the accusative (cf. in, into). a. Of place: as,ad urbem vēnit, he came to the city; ad merīdiem, towards the south; ad exercitum, to the army; ad hostem, toward the enemy; ad urbem, near the city.

    b. Of time: as,ad nōnam hōram, till the ninth hour.

    c. With persons: as,ad eum vēnit, he came to him.

    d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia dēscendunt, they resort to punishment; ad haec respondit, to this he answered; ad tempus, at the [fit] time; adīre ad rem pūblicam, to go into public life; ad petendam pācem, to seek peace; ad latera, on the flank; ad arma, to arms; ad hunc modum, in this way; quem ad modum, how, as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hōc, besides; omnēs ad ūnum, all to a man; ad diem, on the day.

  3. Ante, in front of, before, with the accusative (cf. post, after). a. Of place: as,ante portam, in front of the gate; ante exercitum, in advance of the army.

    b. Of time: as,ante bellum, before the war.

    c. Idiomatic uses: ante urbem captam, before the city was taken; ante diem quīntum (a.d.v.) Kal., the fifth day before the Calends; ante quadriennium, four years before or ago; ante tempus, too soon (before the time).

  4. Apud, at, by, among, with the accusative. a. Of place (rare and archaic): as,apud forum, at the forum (in the marketplace).

    b. With reference to persons or communities: as,apud Helvētiōs, among the Helvetians; apud populum, before the people; apud aliquem, at one's house; apud , at home or in his senses; apud Cicerōnem, in [the works of] Cicero.

  5. Circā, about, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, circiter). a. Of place: templa circā forum, the temples about the forum; circā habet, he has with him (of persons).

    b. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers): circā eandem hōram, about the same hour; circā īdūs Octōbrīs, about the fifteenth of October; circā decem mīlia, about ten thousand.

    c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. ): circā quem pūgna est, with regard to whom, etc.; circā deōs neglegentior, rather neglectful of (i.e. in worshipping) the gods.

  6. Circiter, about, with the accusative. a. Of time or number: circiter īdūs Novembrīs, about the thirteenth of November; circiter merīdiem, about noon.

  7. Circum, about, around, with the accusative. a. Of place: circum haec loca, hereabout; circum Capuam, round Capua; circum illum, with him; lēgātiō circum īnsulās missa, an embassy sent to the islands round about; circum amīcōs, to his friends round about.

  8. Contrā, opposite, against, with the accusative. contrā Ītaliam, over against Italy; contrā haec, in answer to this.

    a. Often as adverb: as,haec contrā, this in reply; contrā autem, but on the other hand; quod contrā, whereas, on the other hand.

  9. Cum, with, together with, with the ablative. a. Of place: as,—vāde mēcum, go with me; cum omnibus impedīmentīs, with all [their] baggage.

    b. Of time: as,—prīmā cum lūce, at early dawn (with first light).

    c. Idiomatic uses: māgnō cum dolōre, with great sorrow; commūnicāre aliquid cum aliquō, share something with some one; cum malō suō, to his own hurt; cōnflīgere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy; esse cum tēlō, to go armed; cum silentiō, in silence.

  10. , down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from; ex, out of). a. Of place: as, caelō dēmissus, sent down from heaven; nāvibus dēsilīre, to jump down from the ships.

    b. Figuratively, concerning, about, of: 5 as,cōgnōscit Clōdī caede, he learns of the murder of Clodius; cōnsilia bellō, plans of war.

    c. In a partitive sense (compare ex), out of, of: as,ūnus plēbe, one of the people.

    d. Idiomatic uses: multīs causīs, for many reasons; quā causā, for which reason; imprōvīsō, of a sudden; industriā, on purpose; integrō, anew; tertiā vigiliā, just at midnight (starting at the third watch); mēnse Decembrī nāvigāre, to sail as early as December.

  11. Ex, ē, from (the midst, opposed to in ), out of, with the ablative (cf. ab and ). a. Of place: as,ex omnibus partibus silvae ēvolāvērunt, they flew out from all parts of the forest; ex Hispāniā, [a man] from Spain.

    b. Of time: as,ex diē quīntus, the fifth day from that (four days after); ex hōc diē, from this day forth.

    c. Idiomatically or less exactly: ex cōnsulātū, right after his consulship: ex êius sententiā, according to his opinion; ex aequō, justly; ex imprōvīsō, unexpectedly; ex tuā , to your advantage; māgnā ex parte, in a great degree; ex equō pūgnāre, to fight on horseback; ex ūsū, expedient; ē regiōne, opposite; quaerere ex aliquō, to ask of some one; ex senātūs cōnsultō, according to the decree of the senate; ex fugā, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it); ūnus ē fīliīs, one of the sons.

  12. In, with the accusative or the ablative.
  13. Īnfrā, below, with the accusative. a. Of place: as,ad mare īnfrā oppidum, by the sea below the town; īnfrā caelum, under the sky.

    b. Figuratively or less exactly: as,—īnfrā Homērum, later than Homer; īnfrā trēs pedēs, less than three feet; īnfrā elephantōs, smaller than elephants; īnfrā īnfimōs omnīs, the lowest of the low.

  14. Inter, between, among, with the accusative.
    1. inter et Scīpiōnem, between myself and Scipio; inter ōs et offam, between the cup and the lip (the mouth and the morsel); inter hostium tēla, amid the weapons of the enemy; inter omnīs prīmus, first of all; inter bibendum, while drinking; inter loquuntur, they talk together.
  15. Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative. a. Literally: (1) of motion (archaic): as,ob Rōmam, towards Rome (Ennius); ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of). (2) Of place in which, before, in a few phrases: as,ob oculōs, before the eyes.

    b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, balancing one thing against another): as,ob mulierem, in pay for the woman; ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of (a similar mercantile idea), for: as,ob eam causam, for that reason; quam ob rem (quamobrem), wherefore, why.

  16. Per, through, over, with the accusative. a. Of motion: as,—per urbem īre, to go through the city; per mūrōs, over the walls.

    b. Of time: as,—per hiemem, throughout the winter.

    c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments: as,—per hominēs idoneōs, through the instrumentality of suitable persons; licet per , you (etc.) may for all me. Hence, stat per , it is through my instrumentality; so, per , in and of itself.

    d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions: as,—per iocum, in jest; per speciem, in show, ostentatiously.

  17. Prae, in front of, with the ablative. a. Literally, of place (in a few connections): as,prae portāre, to carry in one's arms; prae ferre, to carry before one, (hence figuratively) exhibit, proclaim ostentatiously, make known.

    b. Figuratively, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English for): as,prae gaudiō conticuit, he was silent for joy.

    c. Of comparison: as,prae māgnitūdine corporum suōrum, in comparison with their own great size.

  18. Praeter, along by, by, with the accusative. a. Literally: as,praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of); praeter oculōs, before the eyes.

    b. Figuratively, beyond, besides, more than, in addition to, except: as,praeter spem, beyond hope; praeter aliōs, more than others; praeter paucōs, with the exception of a few.

  19. Prō, in front of, with the ablative.
    1. sedēns prō aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of Castor; prō populō, in presence of the people. So prō rōstrīs, on [the front of] the rostra;prō contiōne, before the assembly (in a speech).
    a. In various idiomatic uses: prō lēge, in defence of the law; prō vitulā, instead of a heifer; prō centum mīlibus, as good as a hundred thousand; prō ratā parte, in due proportion; prō hāc vice, for this once; prō cōnsule, in place of consul; prō vīribus, considering his strength; prō virīlī parte, to the best of one's ability; prō tuā prūdentiā, in accordance with your wisdom.

    Propter, near, by, with the accusative.
    1. propter sedet, he sits next you. Hence, on account of (cf. all along of): as,propter metum, through fear.
  20. Secundum ,6 just behind, following, with the accusative. a. Literally: as,īte secundum mē (Plaut.), go behind me; secundum lītus, near the shore; secundum flūmen, along the stream (cf. secundō flūmine, down stream).

    b. Figuratively, according to: as,secundum nātūram, according to nature.

  21. Sub, under, up to, with the accusative or the ablative.
    • Of motion, with the accusative: as,sub montem succēdere, to come close to the hill. a. Idiomatically: sub noctem, towards night; sub lūcem, near daylight; sub haec dicta, at (following) these words.

    • Of rest, with the ablative: as,sub Iove, in the open air (under the heaven, personified as Jove); sub monte, at the foot of the hill. a. Idiomatically: sub eōdem tempore, about the same time (just after it).

    Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, the ablative).
    1. subter togam (Liv.), under his mantle; but,subter lītore (Catull.), below the shore.
    Super,7 with the accusative or the ablative.
    Suprā, on top of, above, with the accusative.
    1. suprā terram, on the surface of the earth. So also figuratively: as,—suprā hanc memoriam, before our remembrance; suprā mōrem, more than usual; suprā quod, besides.
    Tenus (postpositive), as far as, up to, regularly with the ablative, sometimes with the genitive (cf. § 359. b).
    • With the ablative: Taurō tenus, as far as Taurus; capulō tenus, up to the hilt.
    • With the genitive: Cumārum tenus (Fam. 8.1.2), as far as Cumae.

      Note 1.--Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective pronoun, making an adverbial phrase: as, hāctenus, hitherto; quātenus, so far as; hāc hāctenus, so much for that (about this matter so far).

      Note 2.--Tenus was originally a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusative (§ 397. a).

  22. Trans, across, over, through, by, with the accusative. a. Of motion: as,trāns mare currunt, they run across the sea; trāns flūmen ferre, to carry over a river; trāns aethera, through the sky; trāns caput iace, throw over your head.

    b. Of rest: as,trāns Rhēnum incolunt, they live across the Rhine.

  23. Ultrābeyond (on the further side), with the accusative.
  1. cis Padum ultrāque, on this side of the Po and beyond; ultrā eum numerum, more than that number; ultrā fidem, incredible; ultrã modum, immoderate.

Note 3.--Some adverbs appear as prepositions: as, intus , īnsuper (see § 219).

For Prepositions in Compounds, see § 267.

1 All these adverbs were originally case-forms of pronouns. The forms in -bi and -ic are locative, those in -ō and -ūc, -ā and -āc, ablative (see § 215); those in -inc are from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle -ce added (thus illim, illin-c ).

2 The case-form of these prepositions in -ter is doubtful.

3 For palam etc., see § 432.

4 Ab signifies direction from the object, but often towards the speaker; compare , down from, and ex, out of.

5 Of originally meant from (cf. off).

6 Old participle of sequor .

7 Comparative of sub .

hide References (7 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (7):
    • Cicero, Letters to his Friends, 8.1.2
    • Vergil, Aeneid, 9.61
    • Caesar, Civil War, 2.10
    • Cicero, De Legibus, 2.65
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 19
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 58
    • Curtius, Historiarum Alexandri Magni, 8.4
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