PARTICLES[*] 213. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are called Particles. In their origin Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions are either (1) case-forms, actual or extinct, or (2) compounds and phrases. Particles cannot always be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions (§§ 219 and 222).
DERIVATION OF ADVERBS[*] 214. Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows: [*] a. From adjectives of the first and second declensions by changing the characteristic vowel of the stem to -ē: as, cārē, dearly, from cārus, dear (stem cāro-); amīcē, like a friend, from amīcus, friendly (stem amīco-).[*] b. From adjectives of the third declension by adding -ter to the stem. Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems:—
- fortiter, bravely, from fortis (stem forti-), brave.
- ācriter, eagerly, from ācer (stem ācri-), eager.
- vigilanter, watchfully, from vigilāns (stem vigilant-).
- prūdenter, prudently, from prūdēns (stem prūdent-).
- aliter, otherwise, from alius (old stem ali-).
[*] Note.--These adverbs are strictly cognate accusatives (§ 390).[*] e. The ablative singular neuter or (less commonly) feminine of adjectives, pronouns, and nouns may be used adverbially: as, falsō, falsely; citŏ , quickly (with shortened o ); rēctā ( viā ), straight (straightway); crēbrō, frequently; volgō, commonly; fortĕ, by chance; spontĕ, of one's own accord.
[*] Note.--Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use: as, abundē, plentifully (as if from †abundus; cf. abundō, abound); saepĕ, often (as if from †saepis, dense, close-packed; cf. saepēs, hedge, and saepiō, hedge in).[*] 215. Further examples of Adverbs and other Particles which are in origin case-forms of nouns or pronouns are given below. In some the case is not obvious, and in some it is doubtful.
- Neuter Accusative forms: nōn (for nē-oinom, later ūnum), not; iterum (comparative of i-, stem of is), a second time; dēmum (superlative of dē, down), at last.
- Feminine Accusatives: partim, partly. So statim, on the spot; saltim, at least (generally saltem ), from lost nouns in -tis (genitive -tis). Thus -tim became a regular adverbial termination; and by means of it adverbs were made from many noun- and verb-stems immediately, without the intervention of any form which could have an accusative in -tim: as, sēparātim, separately, from sēparātus, separate. Some adverbs that appear to be feminine accusative are possibly instrumental: as, palam, openly; perperam, wrongly; tam, so; quam, as.
- Plural Accusatives: as, aliās, elsewhere; forās, out of doors (as end of motion). So perhaps quia, because.
- Ablative or Instrumental forms: quā, where; intrā, within; extrā, outside; quī, how; aliquī, somehow; forīs, out of doors; quō, whither; adeō, to that degree; ultrō, beyond; citrō, this side (as end of motion); retrō, back; illōc (for † illō-ce ), weakened to illūc, thither. Those in -trō are from comparative stems (cf. ūls, cis , re-).
- Locative forms: ibi, there; ubi, where; illī , illī-c, there; peregrī ( peregrē ), abroad; hīc (for † hī-ce ), here. Also the compounds hodiē (probably for † hōdiē ), to-day; perendiē, day after to-morrow.
- Of uncertain formation: (1) those in -tus (usually preceded by i ), with an ablative meaning: as, funditus, from the bottom, utterly; dīvīnitus, from above, providentially; intus, within; penitus, within; (2) those in -dem, -dam, -dō: as, quidem, indeed; quondam, once; quandō (cf. dōnec ), when; (3) dum (probably accusative of time), while; iam, now.
- postmodo, presently (a short time after).
- dēnuō (for dē novō ), anew.
- vidēlicet (for vidē licet ), to wit (see, you may).
- nihilōminus, nevertheless (by nothing the less).
[*] Note.--Other examples are: anteā , old antideā, before ( ante eā , probably ablative or instrumental); īlicō ( in locō ), on the spot, immediately; prōrsus, absolutely (prō vorsus, straight ahead); rūrsus ( re-vorsus ), again; quotannīs, yearly (quot annīs, as many years as there are); quam-ob-rem, wherefore; cōminus, hand to hand ( con manus ); ēminus, at long range ( ex manus ); nīmīrum, without doubt ( nī mīrum ); ob-viam (as in īre obviam, to go to meet); prīdem (cf. prae and -dem in i-dem ), for some time; forsan ( fors an ), perhaps (it's a chance whether); forsitan ( fors sit an ), perhaps (it would be a chance whether); scīlicet (†scī, licet), that is to say (know, you may; cf. ī-licet, you may go); āctūtum (āctū, on the act, and tum, then).
CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS[*] 217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows:— a. Adverbs of Place 1
|hīc, here.||hūc, hither.||hinc, hence.||hāc, by this way.|
|ibi, there.||eō, thither.||inde, thence.||eā, by that way.|
|istīc, there.||istūc, thither.||istinc, thence.||istā, by that way.|
|illīc, there.||illūc, thither.||illinc, thence.||illā ( illāc ), by that way.|
|ubi, where.||quō, whither.||unde, whence.||quā, by what way.|
|alicubi, somewhere.||aliquō, somewhither,||alicunde, from some-||aliquā, by some way.|
|ibīdem, in the same||eōdem, to the same||indidem, from the||eādem, by the same|
|alibī, elsewhere, in||aliō, elsewhere, to||aliunde, from an-||aliā, in another|
|another place.||another place.||other place.||way.|
|abiubi, wherever.||quōquō, whitherso-||undecunque, whence-||quāquā, in whatever|
|ubivīs, anywhere,||quōvīs, anywhere,||undique, from every||quāvīs, by whatever|
|where you will.||whither you will.||quarter.||way.|
|sĭcubi, if anywhere.||sīquō, if anywhere||sīcunde, if from any-||sīquā, if anywhere.|
|<*>ēcubi, lest any-||nēquō, lest any-||nēcunde, lest from||nēquā, lest any-|
d. Interrogative Particlesan, -ne, anne , utrum , utrumne , num, whether. nōnne , annōn, whether not; numquid , ecquid, whether at all. On the use of the Interrogative Particles, see §§ 332, 335.
e. Negative Particlesnōn, not (in simple denial); haud , minimē, not (in contradiction); nē, not (in prohibition); nēve , neu, nor; nēdum, much less. nē, lest; neque , nec, nor; nē ... quidem, not even. nōn modo ... vērum ( sed ) etiam, not only ... but also. nōn modo ... sed nē ... quidem, not only NOT ... but not even. sī minus, if not; quō minus ( quōminus ), so as not. quīn (relative), but that; (interrogative), why not? nē , nec (in composition), not; so in nesciō, I know not; negō, I say no (âiō, I say yes); negōtium, business († nec-ōtium ); nēmō (nē- and hemō, old form of homō), no one; nē quis, lest any one; neque enim, for ... not. For the use of Negative Particles, see § 325 ff. For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverbs, see § 320 ff.
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS[*] 218. The Comparative of Adverbs is the neuter accusative of the comparative of the corresponding adjective; the Superlative is the Adverb in -ē formed regularly from the superlative of the Adjective:— cārē, dearly (from cārus, dear); cārius, cārissimē. miserē (miser iter ), wretchedly (from miser, wretched); miserius, miserrimē. leviter (from levis, light); levius, levissimē. audācter (audāc iter ) (from audāx, bold); audācius, audācissimē. benĕ, well (from bonus, good); melius, optimē. malĕ, ill (from malus, bad); pêius, pessimē. [*] a. The following are irregular or defective:— diū, long (in time); diūtius, diūtissimē. potius, rather; potissimum, first of all, in preference to all. saepe, often; saepius, oftener, again; saepissimē. satis, enough; satius, preferable. secus, otherwise; sētius, worse. multum ( multō ), magis, maximē, much, more, most. parum, not enough; minus, less; minimē, least. nūper, newly; nūperrimē. temperē, seasonably; temperius.
PREPOSITIONS[*] 219. Prepositions were not originally distinguished from Adverbs in form or meaning, but have become specialized in use. They developed comparatively late in the history of language. In the early stages of language development the cases alone were sufficient to indicate the sense, but, as the force of the case-endings weakened, adverbs were used for greater precision (cf. § 338). These adverbs, from their habitual association with particular cases, became Prepositions; but many retained also their independent function as adverbs. Most prepositions are true case-forms: as, the comparative ablatives extrā, īnfrā, suprā (for †exterā, †īnferā, †superā), and the accusatives circum , cōram , cum (cf. § 215). Circiter is an adverbial formation from circum (cf. § 214. b. N.); praeter is the comparative of prae , propter of prope .2 Of the remainder, versus is a petrified nominative (participle of vertō ); adversus is a compound of versus; trāns is probably an old present participle (cf. in-trā-re ); while the origin of the brief forms ab , ad , dē , ex , ob , is obscure and doubtful. [*] 220. Prepositions are regularly used either with the Accusative or with the Ablative. [*] a. The following prepositions are used with the Accusative:—
|ad, to.||circiter, about.||intrā, inside.|
|adversus, against.||cis , citrā, this side.||iūxtā, near.|
|adversum, towards.||contrā, against.||ob, on account of.|
|ante, before.||ergā, towards.||penes, in the power of.|
|apud, at, near.||extrā, outside.||per, through.|
|circā, around.||īnfrā, below.||pōne, behind.|
|circum, around.||inter, among.||post, after.|
|praeter, beyond.||secundum, next to.||ultrā, on the further side.|
|prope, near.||suprā, above.||versus, towards.|
|propter, on account of.||trāns, across.|
|ā, ăb , abs, away from, by.||ē, ex, out of.|
|absque, without, but for.||prae, in comparison with.|
|cōram, in presence of.||prō, in front of, for.|
|cum, with.||sine, without.|
|dē, from.||tenus, up to, as far as.|
|in, into, in.||sub, under.|
|subter, beneath.||super, above.|
- vēnit in aedīs, he came into the house; erat in aedibus, he was in the house.
- disciplīna in Britanniā reperta atque inde in Galliam trānslāta esse exīstimātur, the system is thought to have been discovered in Great Britain and thence brought over to Gaul.
- sub īlice cōnsederat, he had seated himself under an ilex.
- sub lēgēs mittere orbem, to subject the world to laws (to send the world under laws).
- Ā, ab, away from,4 from, off from, with the ablative. a. Of place: as,ab urbe profectus est, he set out from the city. b. Of time: (1) from: as,ab hōrā tertiā ad vesperam, from the third hour till evening; (2) just after: as,ab eō magistrātū, after [holding] that office. c. Idiomatic uses: ā reliquīs differunt, they differ from the others; ā parvulīs, from early childhood; prope ab urbe, near (not far from) the city; līberāre ab, to set free from; occīsus ab hoste (periit ab hoste), slain by an enemy; ab hāc parte, on this side; ab rē êius, to his advantage; ā rē pūblicā, for the interest of the state.
- Ad, to, towards, at, near, with the accusative (cf. in, into). a. Of place: as,ad urbem vēnit, he came to the city; ad merīdiem, towards the south; ad exercitum, to the army; ad hostem, toward the enemy; ad urbem, near the city. b. Of time: as,ad nōnam hōram, till the ninth hour. c. With persons: as,ad eum vēnit, he came to him. d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia dēscendunt, they resort to punishment; ad haec respondit, to this he answered; ad tempus, at the [fit] time; adīre ad rem pūblicam, to go into public life; ad petendam pācem, to seek peace; ad latera, on the flank; ad arma, to arms; ad hunc modum, in this way; quem ad modum, how, as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hōc, besides; omnēs ad ūnum, all to a man; ad diem, on the day.
- Ante, in front of, before, with the accusative (cf. post, after). a. Of place: as,ante portam, in front of the gate; ante exercitum, in advance of the army. b. Of time: as,ante bellum, before the war. c. Idiomatic uses: ante urbem captam, before the city was taken; ante diem quīntum (a.d.v.) Kal., the fifth day before the Calends; ante quadriennium, four years before or ago; ante tempus, too soon (before the time).
- Apud, at, by, among, with the accusative. a. Of place (rare and archaic): as,apud forum, at the forum (in the marketplace). b. With reference to persons or communities: as,apud Helvētiōs, among the Helvetians; apud populum, before the people; apud aliquem, at one's house; apud sē, at home or in his senses; apud Cicerōnem, in [the works of] Cicero.
- Circā, about, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, circiter). a. Of place: templa circā forum, the temples about the forum; circā sē habet, he has with him (of persons). b. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers): circā eandem hōram, about the same hour; circā īdūs Octōbrīs, about the fifteenth of October; circā decem mīlia, about ten thousand. c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. dē ): circā quem pūgna est, with regard to whom, etc.; circā deōs neglegentior, rather neglectful of (i.e. in worshipping) the gods.
- Circiter, about, with the accusative. a. Of time or number: circiter īdūs Novembrīs, about the thirteenth of November; circiter merīdiem, about noon.
- Circum, about, around, with the accusative. a. Of place: circum haec loca, hereabout; circum Capuam, round Capua; circum illum, with him; lēgātiō circum īnsulās missa, an embassy sent to the islands round about; circum amīcōs, to his friends round about.
- Contrā, opposite, against, with the accusative. contrā Ītaliam, over against Italy; contrā haec, in answer to this. a. Often as adverb: as,haec contrā, this in reply; contrā autem, but on the other hand; quod contrā, whereas, on the other hand.
- Cum, with, together with, with the ablative. a. Of place: as,—vāde mēcum, go with me; cum omnibus impedīmentīs, with all [their] baggage. b. Of time: as,—prīmā cum lūce, at early dawn (with first light). c. Idiomatic uses: māgnō cum dolōre, with great sorrow; commūnicāre aliquid cum aliquō, share something with some one; cum malō suō, to his own hurt; cōnflīgere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy; esse cum tēlō, to go armed; cum silentiō, in silence.
- Dē, down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from; ex, out of). a. Of place: as,dē caelō dēmissus, sent down from heaven; dē nāvibus dēsilīre, to jump down from the ships. b. Figuratively, concerning, about, of: 5 as,cōgnōscit dē Clōdī caede, he learns of the murder of Clodius; cōnsilia dē bellō, plans of war. c. In a partitive sense (compare ex), out of, of: as,ūnus dē plēbe, one of the people. d. Idiomatic uses: multīs dē causīs, for many reasons; quā dē causā, for which reason; dē imprōvīsō, of a sudden; dē industriā, on purpose; dē integrō, anew; dē tertiā vigiliā, just at midnight (starting at the third watch); dē mēnse Decembrī nāvigāre, to sail as early as December.
- Ex, ē, from (the midst, opposed to in ), out of, with the ablative (cf. ab and dē). a. Of place: as,ex omnibus partibus silvae ēvolāvērunt, they flew out from all parts of the forest; ex Hispāniā, [a man] from Spain. b. Of time: as,ex eō diē quīntus, the fifth day from that (four days after); ex hōc diē, from this day forth. c. Idiomatically or less exactly: ex cōnsulātū, right after his consulship: ex êius sententiā, according to his opinion; ex aequō, justly; ex imprōvīsō, unexpectedly; ex tuā rē, to your advantage; māgnā ex parte, in a great degree; ex equō pūgnāre, to fight on horseback; ex ūsū, expedient; ē regiōne, opposite; quaerere ex aliquō, to ask of some one; ex senātūs cōnsultō, according to the decree of the senate; ex fugā, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it); ūnus ē fīliīs, one of the sons.
- In, with the accusative or the ablative.
- With the accusative, into (opposed to ex ). a. Of place: as,—in Ītaliam contendit, he hastens into Italy. b. Of time, till, until: as,—in lūcem, till daylight. c. Idiomatically or less exactly: in merīdiem, towards the south; amor in (ergā, adversus） patrem, love for his father; in āram cōnfūgit, he fled to the altar (on the steps, or merely to); in diēs, from day to day; in longitūdinem, lengthwise; in lātitūdinem patēbat, extended in width; in haec verba iūrāre, to swear to these words; hunc in modum, in this way; ōrātiō in Catilīnam, a speech against Catiline; in perpetuum, forever; in pêius, for the worse; in diem vīvere, to live from hand to mouth (for the day).
- With the ablative, in, on, among. In very various connections: as,—in castrīs, in the camp (cf. ad castra, to, at, or near the camp); in marī, on the sea; in urbe esse, to be in town; in tempore, in season; in scrībendō, while writing; est mihi in animō, I have it in mind, I intend; in ancorīs, at anchor; in hōc homine, in the case of this man; in dubiō esse, to be in doubt.
- Īnfrā, below, with the accusative. a. Of place: as,ad mare īnfrā oppidum, by the sea below the town; īnfrā caelum, under the sky. b. Figuratively or less exactly: as,—īnfrā Homērum, later than Homer; īnfrā trēs pedēs, less than three feet; īnfrā elephantōs, smaller than elephants; īnfrā īnfimōs omnīs, the lowest of the low.
- Inter, between, among, with the accusative.
- Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative. a. Literally: (1) of motion (archaic): as,ob Rōmam, towards Rome (Ennius); ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of). (2) Of place in which, before, in a few phrases: as,ob oculōs, before the eyes. b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, balancing one thing against another): as,ob mulierem, in pay for the woman; ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of (a similar mercantile idea), for: as,ob eam causam, for that reason; quam ob rem (quamobrem), wherefore, why.
- Per, through, over, with the accusative. a. Of motion: as,—per urbem īre, to go through the city; per mūrōs, over the walls. b. Of time: as,—per hiemem, throughout the winter. c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments: as,—per hominēs idoneōs, through the instrumentality of suitable persons; licet per mē, you (etc.) may for all me. Hence, stat per mē, it is through my instrumentality; so, per sē, in and of itself. d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions: as,—per iocum, in jest; per speciem, in show, ostentatiously.
- Prae, in front of, with the ablative. a. Literally, of place (in a few connections): as,prae sē portāre, to carry in one's arms; prae sē ferre, to carry before one, (hence figuratively) exhibit, proclaim ostentatiously, make known. b. Figuratively, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English for): as,prae gaudiō conticuit, he was silent for joy. c. Of comparison: as,prae māgnitūdine corporum suōrum, in comparison with their own great size.
- Praeter, along by, by, with the accusative. a. Literally: as,praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of); praeter oculōs, before the eyes. b. Figuratively, beyond, besides, more than, in addition to, except: as,praeter spem, beyond hope; praeter aliōs, more than others; praeter paucōs, with the exception of a few.
Prō, in front
of, with the ablative.
- sedēns prō aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of Castor; prō populō, in presence of the people. So prō rōstrīs, on [the front of] the rostra;prō contiōne, before the assembly (in a speech).
- Propter, near, by, with the accusative.
- Secundum ,6 just behind, following, with the accusative. a. Literally: as,īte secundum mē (Plaut.), go behind me; secundum lītus, near the shore; secundum flūmen, along the stream (cf. secundō flūmine, down stream). b. Figuratively, according to: as,secundum nātūram, according to nature.
Sub, under, up
to, with the accusative or the ablative.
- Of motion, with the accusative: as,sub montem succēdere, to come close to the hill. a. Idiomatically: sub noctem, towards night; sub lūcem, near daylight; sub haec dicta, at (following) these words.
- Of rest, with the ablative: as,sub Iove, in the open air (under the heaven, personified as Jove); sub monte, at the foot of the hill. a. Idiomatically: sub eōdem tempore, about the same time (just after it).
- Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, the ablative).
- Super,7 with the accusative or the ablative.
- With the accusative, above, over, on, beyond, upon. a. Of place: super “vāllum praecipitārī” (Iug. 58) , to be hurled over the rampart; super “laterēs coria indūcuntur” (B.C. 2.10) , hides are drawn over the bricks; super “terrae tumulum statuī” (Legg. 2.65) , to be placed on the mound of earth; super “Numidiam” (Iug. 19) , beyond Numidia. b. Idiomatically or less exactly: vulnus super vulnus, wound upon wound; super “vīnum” (Q. C. 8.4) , over his wine.
- With the ablative,
concerning, about (the only use
with this case in prose).
- hāc super rē, concerning this thing; super tālī rē, about such an affair; litterās super tantā rē exspectāre, to wait for a letter in a matter of such importance. a. Poetically, in other senses: līgna super focō largē “repōnēns” (Hor. Od. 1.9.5) , piling logs generously on the fire; nocte super mediā (Aen. 9.61), after midnight.
- Suprā, on top of, above, with the accusative.
Tenus (postpositive), as far as,
up to, regularly with the ablative, sometimes with the
genitive (cf. § 359. b).
- With the ablative: Taurō tenus, as far as Taurus; capulō tenus, up to the hilt.
- With the genitive: Cumārum tenus (Fam. 8.1.2), as far as Cumae.
[*] Note 1.--Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective pronoun, making an adverbial phrase: as, hāctenus, hitherto; quātenus, so far as; dē hāc rē hāctenus, so much for that (about this matter so far).
[*] Note 2.--Tenus was originally a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusative (§ 397. a).
- Trans, across, over, through, by, with the accusative. a. Of motion: as,trāns mare currunt, they run across the sea; trāns flūmen ferre, to carry over a river; trāns aethera, through the sky; trāns caput iace, throw over your head. b. Of rest: as,trāns Rhēnum incolunt, they live across the Rhine.
- Ultrābeyond (on the further side), with the accusative.
- cis Padum ultrāque, on this side of the Po and beyond; ultrā eum numerum, more than that number; ultrā fidem, incredible; ultrã modum, immoderate.