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ANDEMATUNUM (Langres) Haute-Marne, France.

Gallo-Roman city a few km from the sources of the Maine on a sturdy scarped spur overlooking the Langres plateau, which acts as a mole dividing the waters of the Saône, the Rhône, the Meuse, and the Seine. Andematunum was also the meeting-point of several pre-Roman roads running E-W and N-S, and the center of the powerful civitas of the Lingones.

It has a long history of human habitation: Neolithic flints and axes and Bronze Age weapons (hatchet, dagger, knives) mark a continuity that fades somewhat in the Iron Age. Nevertheless it is generally admitted that the Lingones, appearing at the time of the conquest to be loyal allies of Caesar, had established themselves on the plateau long before, and had their center in the oppidum of Langres. Their advantageous position after the Roman road network was built, and their privileged status as a federal city (granted them by Caesar) favored the building of a large city. At first part of Belgica, then of Germania Superior, and finally of Lugdunensis Prima, Andeinatunuin was one of the leading cities of E Gaul.

An open city in the Early Empire, Andematunum probably extended a little way beyond the present-day ramparts to the S, but not as far as Saint-Geosme. Some elements of the city plan have been located, but the density of the modern town prevents its complete recovery. The Rue Diderot, however, may lie along the original cardo. The 3d c. invasions brought about some retrenchment on the N and middle sections of the spur, and the hasty erection of a surrounding wall, with many reused blocks. This wall was probably duplicated in the 5th c. by another wall enclosing a wider area. Four gates, more or less modified in the Middle Ages, gave access to the city: to the S, two gates known as the Porte de Moab and Porte au Pain; to the N the so-called Longe-Porte, a few traces of which remain; and to the W the Porte du Marché. This last is the only one preserved, although it is built into the present-day rampart (20 m long; preserved ht. 10.7 m; ht. to the arch soffit 7.95 m). The gate has Corinthian pilasters set between two arches whose archivolts consist of three unequal bands; above is a frieze of arms. The upper section is missing. The date, which is debated, seems to be before the 3d c. The monument probably is a so-called triumphal arch, subsequently included in the Late Empire circuit wall as, it is generally agreed, the Longe-Porte was also.

Inscriptions, blocks from monumental architecture, colossal statues, and various other finds indicate that the site contained many public monuments such as temples, a theater, and baths, but none of these has yet been located with certainty. On the other hand four necropoleis have been found: to the N, on the hillside, to the NE, to the S below the present-day Citadel, and the fourth to the E. Chance finds of mosaics, bas-reliefs, statuettes, inscriptions, thousands of coins, and a considerable quantity of pottery attest the density and prosperity of the settlement. Moreover the wealthy residential quarter, discovered several km from the city on the Baume plateau along with a necropolis filled with grave gifts, should probably be considered in connection with Andematunum.

Excavations at the foot of the present-day rampart at the modern Porte des Auges have recently uncovered a huge complex: three main buildings arranged around a large rectangular courtyard, and also some structures aligned parallel to a road; the walls of these latter structures still stand in places over 4 in high. So far the purpose of the different parts of this complex has not been determined, but the abundant pottery finds and coins indicate an early date, the first half of the 1st c. A.D. This date agrees with the evidence of hundreds of potters' stamps uncovered in chance finds: here the 1st c. is, on the average, four times more frequently represented than the 2d c. Terra sigillata comes from Arezzo (a few samples), but mainly from La Graufesenque and sometimes Lezoux, far more often than from E workshops. Similarly, the most numerous coins are those from the Early Empire, particularly the reign of Augustus.

Most of the finds uncovered at Langres are in local collections: the Musée des Antiquités Nationales at St. Gerinain-en-Laye, the Musée du Breuil, and especially the Musée Saint-Didier at Langres have important collections, notably of sculptures and inscriptions.


S. Migneret, Précis de I'histoire de Langres (1835); Luquet, Antiquités de Langres (1838); R. Mowat, RA 16, 2 (1890) 33, 61; A. Blanchet, Mél d'archéologie gallo-romaine I (1893); A. Roserot, Dictionnaire topographique du Département de la Haute-Marne (1903); G.Drioux, Bacth (1932-33) 671ff; (1936-37) 481; (1941-42) 429; id., Bull. Soc. d'Étude des Sciences Naturelles de la Haute-Marne (1924) 266; (1933) 712, and later issues; P. Ballet, La Haute-Marne antique (1971) 167-74; E. Frézouls, Gallia 27 (1969) 310-13; 29 (1971) 303-5PI; 32 (1973) 418-21.


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