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ATHENS Attica, Greece.

The city lies approximately in the middle of the largest plain of the region, at a distance of 6-7 km from the shore of the Saronic gulf. Except for the S edge, which is open to the sea, the plain is enclosed on all sides by a wall of mountains, Hymettos, Pentele, Parnes, and Aigaleos. At first the city was established on the rock of the Acropolis, but in time it spread out all around to a distance of not greater than 1 km, over terrain that was level except for the SW quarter, which was hilly and included the hills of the Muses, of the Pnyx, of the Nymphs, and of the Areopagus. The Eridanos River cut through the city at the N, the Ilissos at the E, and to the W at a distance of 3 km flowed the Kephisos.

The earliest inhabitants settled on the Acropolis and in the surrounding area in Neolithic times. From then on and up to the time of Theseus the most ancient city included, besides the Acropolis, a large area to the S of it. In that first period the city seems to have had no particular distinction, but to have developed equally with the other kingdoms of Attica. The great expansion of Athens is due to Theseus, who brought about the unification of all the small kingdoms and founded the city state of Athens. In memory of this unification, called the Synoecism, a special festival, the Synoikia, was inaugurated and at the same time, the Panathenaia, in honor of the patron of the city, the goddess Athena.

Tradition has it that during the Dorian invasion the city was saved by the self-sacrifice of King Kodros, who brought about his own death at the hands of the enemy so as to carry out an oracle according to which the city would be saved by the death of the king. The Athenians, in honor of his great sacrifice, ended the custom of kingship since they believed there could be no worthy successor to Kodros. During all the long Geometric period (1050-700 B.C.) the city of Athens continued to increase, new settlements were founded, and the city kept growing towards its peak and highest prosperity. In Athens as in other cities of Greece, aristocratic government succeeded to monarchy. At first the principal magistrate (archon) kept control for a period of ten years. Even after the archonship was made a yearly office, beginning in 683-682 B.C., the aristocracy continued to have great strength since it owned the greater part of the land and held all political power in its hands. The eupatrid, Kylon, exploiting the dissatisfaction of the farmers and other citizens, attempted a revolution in 636 or 632 with the aim of becoming tyrant, but the attempt failed.

The Athenians continued their struggles, demanding basically the franchise and the recording of the laws. In 624 B.C. Draco drew up a new system of law and codified the ancient, predominantly criminal, body of laws. But the citizens were still not content and unrest continued until the beginning of the 6th c. B.C. In 594 B.C. the warring parties agreed on the choice of Solon, a man trusted by all, to reform the state and the laws. The emergence of Solon ended a stage in the history of Athens. He was particularly honored by the Athenians for his advice concerning the acquisition of Salamis, and the consequent reduction of the power of Megara. Another success of his was the final union of Eleusis with Athens, and the astonishing increase in the might and authority and influence of Athens. After his election as archon in 594-593 B.C. Solon established a new body of law with radical changes. He brought about the abolition of agrarian debts, the liberation of those enslaved because of debt, and the foundation of the Heliaia and other popular courts. At the same time he established a new council of 400, the boule, composed of 100 members from each of Athens' four tribes, and achieved the inclusion of the Thetes, the lowest, neglected rank of citizens, into the ekklesia of the people.

In spite of all this development of the state, inner peace was not secured, and in 561 B.C. Peisistratos set up a tyranny. Although he retained the basic elements of Solon's law code he instituted his own ideas as well. The tyranny of Peisistratos and his successors lasted until 510 B.C. Through the whole period, in spite of the Athenians' dissatisfaction, a series of measures improved the city's progress through notable advances in spiritual, artistic, architectural, and commercial matters. In 508 B.C., Kleisthenes made a series of radical changes which resulted in the establishment of the Athenian democracy. The most important of these was the division of the population into 10 tribes. With the new division, the membership of the boule was increased to 500, 50 from each tribe. The boule prepared drafts of the laws which were debated and ratified by the ekklesia, which had become the sovereign body. With all these innovations the Athenians reached such a peak of spirit and idealism that their few repulsed the great Persian assault, and so brought about the victories of Marathon (490 B.C.) and later of Salamis (480 B.C.). Immediately after the victory the provident Themistokles had a new wall built around the ruined city, and he completed the fortification of the Peiraeus which he had chiefly been responsible for initiating when he was archon in 493-492 B.C. because he understood its particular importance for the development of Athenian naval power. The completion of his plan was brought about shortly afterwards with the building of the Long Walls.

Fortification was not the only concern of the Athenians. In 478 B.C. Kimon instituted the first Athenian Confederacy and the Athenian state was revealed as a great power. At the same time, about mid 5th c. B.C., under Perikles and a staff of inspired artists, the masterworks of the classical age were created on the Acropolis, in the lower city, and in the principal demes of Attica. These, along with philosophy, letters, and other kinds of intellectual manifestations, created the Golden Age. The catastrophic disasters of the Peloponnesian War and the cruelties exhibited during both phases of it, exhausted the city and its people.

The appearance of the Macedonians and the defeat of the Athenians in the battle of Chaironeia in 338 B.C. brought about a great reaction in the Athenians, since they realized they had lost the leadership of the Greek world. Athens experienced a temporary revival of influence during the administration of the orator Lykourgos (338-326 B.C.). The Lamian War in 322 B.C. brought new disaster to Athens since its unexpected result was a change of regime, installation of a Macedonian garrison, and the destruction of the commercial fleet. The appearance of Roman conquerors also brought disastrous consequences to Athens. In 86 B.C. the Athenians revolted to obtain their freedom, but the conquest of the city by Sulla was the result. The walls of the city and of Peiraeus were demolished by the victorious Roman general who sought in this way the diminution of Athens' power.

In the Imperial period the city enjoyed a certain amount of freedom and was enriched with grandiose new buildings and temples. But in A.D. 267, in spite of Valerian's fortification of the city, Athens suffered a fearful devastation by the Herulians. In the 5th c. A.D. much energy was put into the reconstruction of the city, which for all its vicissitudes remained an important intellectual center. The philosophical schools, which were known throughout the Greek world, practiced until A.D. 529 when a strict order issued by Justinian closed their doors. The closing of the schools put an end to the city's community spirit and to its ancient glory, but it continued as the capital of an eparchy in the great Byzantine Empire until 1204. There followed the occupation of the city by the Franks until 1456 and then the Turkish occupation until 1821, when, after a harsh struggle, the Greeks gained their freedom. The city of Athens in 1833 was proclaimed capital of the new Greek state.


The work of uncovering the monuments of the ancient city began in 1834 with the dismantling of all their mediaeval additions. At the same time excavations began, which in 1860 took on a systematic character. The excavations, together with the preserved literary evidence, particularly the description of the city's monuments by Pausanias in the 2d c. A.D., allow identification of the monuments and a virtually complete description of Athenian topography.

The Fortifications

In the second half of the 13th c. B.C. the so-called Pelargikon, or Pelasgian wall, was erected on the peak of the Acropolis hill. The city seems not to have been surrounded by a wall until the beginning of the 6th c. B.C. The first circuit wall, which is mentioned by Thucydides (1.89.3) must have been built by Solon, or more probably by Peisistratos. Unfortunately, no traces of this wall have yet been discovered.

After the destruction of the city by the Persians in 480-479 B.C., the so-called Themistoklean wall was built, which enclosed an area said to be much greater than that contained by the older wall. Within this new wall were included the Eridanos and the Olympieion, as well as the whole extent of the Pnyx, from the Hill of the Muses to that of the Nymphs. The gates, in order from the W side of the wall were: the Demian (“executioner's”) Gate; the Peiraeus Gate; the Sacred Gate; the Thriasian Gate (Dipylon); the Eria (“funeral”) Gate; the Acharnian Gate; the North Gate; the Gate of Diochares; the Hippades (“cavalry”) Gate; the Diomeian Gate; the Itonian Gate; the Halade (“seaward”) Gate; the South Gate. The Themistoklean wall was destroyed by the Lakedaimonians in 404 B.C. and was rebuilt by Konon in 394 B.C. In about mid 4th c. B.C., around the whole lower section of the city, from the base of the Hill of the Nymphs to that of the Hill of the Muses, a second wall, the proteichisma, was built outside the main one, and a deep ditch dug in front of that. At the same time a cross wall was built along the spine of the Pnyx hill, between the two peaks, by which the city was diminished in size.

After Sulla broke down the wall in 86 B.C. the city remained unwalled until the time of Valerian (A.D. 253-260). He rebuilt the wall and included in it as well the new city which had been built by Hadrian. For greater security he changed the Acropolis into a fort, as it had been before. After the great Herulian destruction of A.D. 267 a small circuit was built to the N of the Acropolis, known as the Late Roman wall. The outer ancient circuit, which appears to have been preserved and which was repaired in Justinian's time, was in use through the whole Byzantine period until A.D. 1204.

The Acropolis

A few remains of the Mycenaean period and considerable remnants of the Pelargikon remain on the top of the hill from prehistoric times. No remains of the Geometric period have been discovered. The first shrines must be dated at the earliest to the 8th c. B.C. In 566 B.C., the year when Peisistratos instituted the festival and games of the Great Panathenaia, the highest section of the Mycenaean tower in front of the entrance to the Acropolis was taken down and the first altar was consecrated there to Athena Nike. At the same time a straight ramp was built up the hill to help the procession in its ascent and the first temples were built inside the Acropolis: the Hekatompedon in 570-566 on the site where the Parthenon was later erected, the Old Temple of Athena in 529-520 whose foundations have been preserved, and a number of smaller buildings.

In the period from 490 to 480 B.C. the Acropolis was still surrounded by the Pelargikon wall, but this had lost its defensive role. In 485 B.C. a new propylon had replaced the old entrance, and near the Altar of Athena Nike a small poros temple was built. The Hekatompedon was torn down and in its place the first marble Parthenon was begun. This was in a half-finished state when the Acropolis was razed by the Persians in 480 B.C. A new program for rebuilding the temples and other buildings which had been destroyed was started in 448 B.C. after the signing of Kallias' Peace Treaty with the Persians at Susa. Among the first works on the Acropolis was the construction of strong retaining walls, partly to level the area, but chiefly to enlarge the area of the Acropolis. Then followed monuments which still remain today in a remarkable state of preservation: the Parthenon in 447-438 B.C., the Propylaia in 437-432, the Erechtheion in 421-406, the Temple of Brauronian Artemis, the Chalkotheke, and other small temples and altars.

In Hellenistic and Roman times only minor buildings were constructed on the Acropolis. Immediately after 27 B.C. the Erechtheion was repaired and a circular temple of Rome and Augustus was built to the E of the Parthenon. The temples of the Acropolis remained virtually untouched through the whole mediaeval period, save for their conversion to Christian churches. Their destruction and demolition began in the middle of the 17th c. A.D. and continued until the Greek War of Independence.

Around the Acropolis

In the whole area around the Acropolis remains and sherds from the Neolithic through the Late Geometric periods are found. From the 7th, but chiefly from the 6th c. B.C. through the Roman period, all along the Peripatos road which surrounds the Acropolis numerous shrines and other buildings were constructed. In 465 B.C. the Klepsydra fountain was built and at some time after the Persian wars the cult of Pan was instituted in a small cave above it, next door to a cave in which Apollo Hypoakraios had been worshiped since an early period. East of it, in the cave of Aglauros, a fountain had been built in Mycenaean times, which communicated directly to the Acropolis by means of a stair. Even after the destruction of the fountain, the stair was still used by the Arrephoroi to get down to the neighboring Shrine of Aphrodite and Eros. On the S slope of the Acropolis were the Odeion of Perikles and W of it on the ruins of the old Theater of Dionysos Eleuthereus, the new theater, which was finally completed under Lykourgos (338-326 B.C.). At the highest point behind the theater the monument of Thrasyllos was built in 321-320 B.C., while to the S of the scene building was the Sanctuary of Dionysos Eleutheros, including a stoa and two temples. The cult of Asklepios was founded in 419-418 B.C. to the W of the theater, with a sanctuary incorporating numerous buildings. Later a stoa was built in front of it by Eumenes II (197-159 B.C.). Above the E end of this was the monument of Nikias (320-319) and at the other end, the Odeion of Herodes Atticus which was built soon after A.D. 160. The Shrine of the Nymphs was uncovered in front of the odeion. Sherds found in it dated from about the middle of the 7th c. B.C.

Besides the Peripatos, the street of the Tripods surrounded the Acropolis. This started at the Prytaneion and ended in front of the propylon of the Shrine of Dionysos Eleuthereus. Along this were numerous choregic monuments, of which many bases have been found, and one of which, the monument of Lysikrates (335-334 B.C.), is nearly intact. The Prytaneion was in the Agora of Theseus, where the street of the Tripods branches off from the Panathenaic Way. Near this spot the Eleusinion was built around the middle of the 6th c. B.C.


The open-air jury court of the same name was probably held on the top of the rocky Areopagus Hill. Around the hill were found many Mycenaean and Geometric graves, and the remains of buildings dating from the Classical to the Late Roman period. Near the SW corner of the Agora an “Oval House” of the 8th c. B.C. and the Triangular Shrine of the Classical period were excavated. To the W of the Areopagus Hill at a distance of 300 m was found the Temple of Artemis Aristoboule, and among the houses on the S slope of the hill the Amyneion was uncovered as well as the Shrine probably of Herakles Alexikakos, over which the Baccheion was built in Roman times. There are also the remains of a fountain and another small temple.


The first Agora of the city, known as the Ancient Agora, was founded by Theseus, and is located on the NW slope of the Acropolis. The Agora of Solon, which was known from the outset simply as the Agora or Kerameikos was placed to the N of the Areopagus in an open, level spot where the prehistoric and Geometric cemetery of the city had been. The new Agora consisted of a large rectangular area, 200 x 250 m, whose four sides were bordered by buildings. The chief buildings, from the mid 6th c. B.C. to approximately 480 B.C. were as follows: on the W side, in order, the Royal Stoa, the Sanctuary of Zeus Eleutherios, the Temple of Apollo Patroos, the Temple of the Mother of the Gods, the Old Bouleuterion, and the Prytaneion. On the S side were the Court of the Heliaia and the Southeast Fountain-house. Another very ancient sanctuary was the Leokorion at the NW corner of the Agora and the Altar of the Twelve Gods (521-520 B.C.) which was used as the starting point for milestones. Inside the Agora square a section of the Panathenaic Way was used, from 566 B.C. on, as a race track, called the Dromos, for the gymnastic and horse racing contests, while the area called the orchestra in the middle of the square was for the musical and dramatic contests of the Panathenaic festival.

From the destruction of the city in 480-479 B.C. by the Persians to the end of the 4th c. B.C., the old buildings were repaired and new ones built as well. On the W side were built the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios in 430 B.C., the Temple of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria, a new Temple of Apollo Patroos, the new Bouleuterion around the end of the 5th c., the Tholos in 465 B.C. and the Strategeion. Around the middle of the 4th c. B.C. the monument to the Eponymous Heroes was built, and on top of the Agora hill (Kolonos Agoraios) the Temple of Hephaistos (449-444 B.C.) which has remained virtually intact until now. On the S side of the Agora ca. the end of the 5th c. B.C. the Southwest Fountain-house, the South Stoa I, and the mint (Argyrokopeion) were built. On the E side was the square peristyle, built over the ruins of a law court in the beginning of the 4th c. B.C. Finally, on the N side were a number of buildings of the 5th c. whose purpose is unknown, and in the unexcavated section of this side must be the Stoa of the Herms and the Stoa Poikile. In Hellenistic times a large building of unknown purpose was built on the Agora hill, to the N of the Temple of Hephaistos. North of this, at the base of the hill was a Temple of Aphrodite Ourania and from 177-176 B.C. the Altar of Aphrodite Ourania, the Demos, and the Graces.

Around the middle of the 2d c. B.C. considerable changes were made in the Agora square, which now took on a regular form on account of the building of large stoas and other buildings around it. On the W side the Metroon was built on the site of the old Bouleuterion, on the S side the South Stoa II; the whole of the E side was taken up by the Stoa of Attalos (159-138 B.C.) which was rebuilt in 1956. In front and in the middle of this was the monument of the donor and in front of that the bema (speaker's platform) of the Agora. In the square, the so-called Middle Stoa, which divided the Agora in two sections, was built parallel to the South Stoa II, 32 m away. In a few years the S section 50 formed was bounded at the E by the E building.

In Roman times the Agora was enriched with new buildings and monuments. To the N of the Middle Stoa the Odeion of Agrippa was built around 15 B.C., while in the other section of the square several temples were built from parts of older Attic temples that had been destroyed by Sulla in 86 B.C. Thus, the Temple of Ares which had been built in the deme of Acharne in 440-436 B.C. was dismantled and moved to the NW corner of the Agora in 12 B.C. and there re-erected. Other temples were built with the architectural members of the Temple of Demeter from Thorikos and of the Temple of Athena from Sounion. Later on, around A.D. 100, the Library of Pantainos was built to the S of the Stoa of Attalos and around the middle of the 2d c. A.D., the NE Stoa. A colossal Nymphaion took the place of the mint building, and in Hadrian's period a large basilica was built next to the Stoa of Attalos in the N side of the Agora, with a circular fountain in front of it.

Besides the Agora area where the political and religious life of the city went on, there was also a large stretch of public land to the E of the Stoa of Attalos where there were markets and public buildings such as the Andronikos of Kyrrhos (Tower of the Winds) from the middle of the 1st c. B.C., the so-called Agoranomeion, the Roman Agora (29-9 B.C.), the library of Hadrian and the common Shrine of All the Gods which was also built in the time of Hadrian. Somewhere in this vicinity, to the E of the Roman Agora, must be the Diogeneion and the Gymnasium of Ptolemy. According to the literary evidence the Theseion ought to be close by, probably just S of the Roman Agora, in a place corresponding to the very center of the city.

Almost all of the Agora buildings were destroyed in A.D. 267 by the Herulians. In A.D. 400 the Gymnasium of the Giants and other smaller buildings filled the Agora Square.

The Pnyx

The densest district of the city was the Koile quarter on the heights of the Pnyx hill. On the N slope of the hill was the first theater-shaped area, built around the end of the 6th c. B.C. for the meetings of the popular assembly. The second phase of the Pnyx is dated to 404-403 B.C. and the third to 330-326 B.C. To this last period belongs the great square above the Bema of the Pnyx, which was bounded to the S by two large stoas. The Heliotropion of the astronomer Meton (433-432 B.C.) is believed to have been situated in the center of this square, and next to the Bema the Shrine of Zeus Hypsistos and the Altar of Zeus Agoraios which was moved to the Agora in the time of Augustus. After the building of the Diateichisma the Koile quarter was deserted and the whole area was used as a cemetery throughout Hellenistic and Roman times. In A.D. 114-16 a funerary monument to C. Julius Antiochus Philopappos was built by the Athenians on the top of the Hill of the Muses.

The Ilissos District

To the S of the Acropolis, in the area between the Hill of the Muses and the Ilissos river, numerous prehistoric remains have been found. These finds confirm not only the location, but also the extent of the most ancient city, just as Thucydides (2.15.3-6) delineated it, on the S side of the Acropolis. It is precisely in this area that the very ancient shrines are to be found: the Olympieion, the Pythion, and the Shrine of Dionysos in the Marshes, along with the Kallirrhoe spring and the Enneakrounos fountain.

According to Pausanias (1.18.8) the first temple to Olympian Zeus was erected by Deukalion. Over this Peisistratos the Younger laid the foundations of a large poros Doric temple but never finished it. This temple was to have had not only the same dimensions but also the same general appearance as the Hellenistic-Roman temple. In 174 B.C. Antiochos Epiphanes started the construction of a marble Corinthian temple which was finished in A.D. 131-132 under Hadrian. At the same time a great peribolos wall was built around the temple and in its NW corner is still preserved the gate in honor of Hadrian which set the boundary between the old city and the new one founded by Hadrian.

Within the Themistoklean wall and to the S of the Olympieion the following buildings have been discovered: the poros Temple of Apollo Delphinios (450 B.C.) which, according to tradition, was built on the site of a very ancient temple, the court of the Delphinion which is dated to 500 B.C., the Temple of Kronos and Rhea from the period of the Antonines, and the Panhellenion (A.D. 131/2). Next to the wall of the city, but outside it, should be the site of the Pythion, according to a number of relevant inscriptions which have been discovered. A small stoa SW of the Olympieion dating to the mid 6th c. B.C. must be identified as the court of the Palladion. To the S of it the discovery of an ancient boundary stone in situ confirms the site of the Shrine of Kodros, Neleus, and Basile, and associated with this and in front of it (according to the inscription IG I2 94), the Sanctuary of Dionysos in the Marshes.

On the other bank of the Ilissos, near the Church of St. Photini, is the site of Kynosarges, where the ruins of the Gymnasium, built in A.D. 134 by Hadrian, were found. The little mid 5th c. B.C. Ionic temple of the Ilissos now vanished should be attributed to Artemis Agrotera, and the ruins which have been discovered next to the Ilisos, to the Metroon in the Fields. Somewhat to the N, in the hollow between the hills by the Ilissos river, the first stadium was built by Lykourgos. On the same site Herodes Atticus built the new Stadium in A.D. 143-44. This was restored in 1896 for the holding of the first Olympic Games. North of this was the site of the Shrine of Herakles Pankrates, and between the Ilissos and the E side of the city was the Gymnasium of the Lykeion and the Gardens of Theophrastos.

The Kerameikos

In the area of the Kerameikos a part of the Themistoklean wall has been uncovered, and two gates, the Dipylon and the Sacred Gates. Within the wall was the Inner Kerameikos. From the Dipylon Gate the Panathenaic Way began, which then cut through the Agora and ended at the Propylaia of the Acropolis. Along this road on both sides were stoas and numerous monuments which are mentioned by Pausanias (1.2.4-5). Parts of the stoas near the Agora have been found, and about at the middle of the road the site of the Monument of Euboulides was discovered. The ruins of three successive buildings uncovered between the Sacred Gate and the Dipylon are the remains of the Pompeion. The oldest dates to about 400 B.C., the second to mid 2d c. A.D., and the third to the 4th c. A.D.

Outside the walls, in the Outer Kerameikos was the main city cemetery. The earliest graves dated to the Submycenaean and Protogeometric periods, but burials in this area, which lies along the banks of the Eridanos River, continued until Late Roman Imperial times. Besides the graves of private persons, this cemetery also held public graves in the so-called state burial ground, where notable Athenians and those killed in war were buried. The private graves were ranged along the Sacred Way, which started at the Sacred Gate and went to Eleusis. They also lined the road to Peiraeus. The peribolos of the Temple of Tritopatres was located at the junction of these roads. The public graves were on both sides of the 39 m wide road that led from the Dipylon Gate to the Academy of Plato. On the left side of the road, at a distance of 250 m from the Dipylon was the site of the Temple of Artemis Ariste and Kalliste. Pausanias (1.29.4) lists the graves of notable men and men fallen in war from this point to the entrance of the Academy.

The entrance to the Academy was about 1500 m from the Dipylon Gate, and had various shrines and altars around it, but none of their sites has been determined. The Gymnasium of the Academy was founded by Peisistratos and was surrounded by a wall under Hipparchos. A large gymnasium dating to the end of the Hellenistic period and a square peristyle of the 4th c. B.C. have been uncovered in the Academy grounds.

Archaeological Areas and Museums

The larger section of the ancient city with private dwellings lies under the modern city of Athens, but most of the monuments which have been preserved or uncovered through excavation are set aside as Archaeological Zones. These are: the Acropolis and the area around it, the Areopagus, the Pnyx, the Agora, the Library of Hadrian, the Roman Agora, the Kerameikos, the Academy, and the area of the Olympieion. Finds from the excavations are kept mainly in the National Archaeological Museum, but there are three other local museums: on the Acropolis, in the Agora, and in the Kerameikos. To these must be added two storehouses where chance finds from the whole city are stored temporarily, and the Byzantine Museum where all the finds from the mediaeval city are collected.


C. Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen im Alterthum,I-II (1874-90); J. E. Harrison & M. de G. Verrall, Mythology and Monuments of Ancient Athens (1890); E. Curtius, Die Stadtgeschichte von Athen (1891); J. G. Frazer, Paus. Des. Gr. (1898) I-IV; P. Cavvadias-G. Kawerau, Die Ausgrabung der Akropolis vom Jahre 1885 bis zum Jahre 1890 (1906)P (Καὶ ἑλληνιστί); O. Walter, Athen Akropolis (1929); W. Judeich, Topographie von Athen (19312M; W. Wrede, Attische Mauern (1933)I; G. P. Stevens, “The Periclean Entrance Court of the Acropolis of Athens,” Hesperia 5 (1936) 443-520P; id., “The Northeast Corner of the Parthenon,” Hesperia 15 (1946) 1-26; id., “Architectural Studies Concerning the Acropolis of Athens,” Hesperia 15 (1946) 73-106; W. Kraiker-K. Kübler, “Die Nekropolen des 12. bis 10. Jahrhunderts,” Kerameikos 1 (1939); Kübler, “Die Nekropolen des 10. bis 8. Jahrhunderts” Kerameikos 5 (1954); id., “Die Nekropolen des späten 8. bis frühen 6. Jahrhunderts,” Kerameikos 6 (1959); H. A. Thompson & R. L. Scranton, “Stoas and City Walls on the Pnyx,” Hesperia 7 (1943) 269-301; Thompson, The Athenian Agora: A Guide to the Excavation and Museum (1962); Thompson & R.E. Wycherley, The Agora of Athens: The Athenian Agora XIV (1972)PI; O. Broneer, “Plato's Description of Early Athens . . . ,” Hesperia Suppl. VIII (1949) 49-59; W. B. Dinsmoor, The Architecture of Ancient Greece (1950)PI; I. T. Hill, The Ancient City of Athens (1953); R. E. Wycherley, Literary and Epigraphical Testimonia: The Athenian Agora III (1957); . Τραυλός, Πολεδομικὴ ἐξέλιξις τῶν Ἀθηνῶν ἀπὸ τῶν προιστορικῶν χρόνωϝ μέχρι τῶν ἀρχῶν τοῦ 19ου αἰῶνος (1960)MPI; id., Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Athens (1971)MPI (καὶ γερμαϝιστί); Ε. Ἰακωβίδης, Μυκηναικὴ Ἀκρόπολις τῶν Ἀθηνῶν(1962)PI; . Κόκκου, Ἀδριάνεια ῎εργα εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας, Δελτ. 25 (1970) 150-73MPI; S. A. Immerwahr, The Neolithic and Bronze Ages: The Athenian Agora XIII (1971); J. A. Bundgaard, The Excavations of the Athenian Acropolis (1974)PI.


hide References (5 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (5):
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.18.8
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.29.4
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.2.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.89.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.15.3-6
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