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PHENEOS or Phenea, N Arkadia, Greece.

A town on the N edge of the now-dry lake of the same name. Mentioned by Homer (Il. 2.605), it rarely entered the mainstream of Greek history, though it lay on a strategic route. It joined the Achaian League, and was taken by Kleomenes in 225 (Polyb. 2.52.2). Pausanias describes the site in Book Eight (14.1-15.4).

The site lies on a low hill just SE of the town of Kalivia. Little remains, save for some of the walls (now badly overgrown), and a Sanctuary of Asklepios lower down the slope on the SE. The sanctuary contains two buildings, one of them with a statue base of Asklepios sculpted by Attalos of Athens (2d c. B.C.). In front of the base there is a mosaic floor with a reservoir underneath. A colossal head of Hygeia in almost perfect condition, with inserted eyes and eyelashes still in place, was found in the same room. Coins found nearby confirm the site as that of Pheneos.


J. G. Frazer, Paus. Des. Gr. (1898) IV 231-41; J. Baker-Penoyre, “Pheneus and the Pheneatike,” JHS 22 (1902) 228-40; G. Daux in BCH (1959) 625; 85 (1961) 682I; E. Vanderpool in AJA 63 (1959) 280-81I.


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