S Holland, Netherlands.
Castellum of cohors III Gallorum on the left bank of the Old Rhine, a few km from its mouth, identified by tabellae ceratae found on the site. The need for a stronghold
in this N outpost of the empire was probably linked with
Claudius' plan for an invasion of Britain in A.D. 43.
The first fort (132 x 108 m), probably built in A.D. 40,
was surrounded by ditches and by earthworks strengthened with wood and topped by a palisade. There were
towers on the long sides, double towers at the rounded
corners, and a gate on each side except to the SW. Inside
the camp the via principalis, between the NW and SE
gates, divided the stronghold into a retentura, backed by
the unbreached rampart, and a praetentura, entered by
the porta praetoria which led to the river. Left of the
via praetoria was a peristyle house for the commander.
The function of the complex to the right of the via praetoria is uncertain, but it may have been occupied by a
detachment of cavalry. In the central section of the
retentura were the headquarters of the cohors and the
sanctuary; here also the vexilla were kept. To E and W
were eight barracks, each of which held 60 soldiers, while
the officers' dwellings lined the via principalis. This force
of 500 men constituted a cohors quinaria.
Castellum was replaced in A.D. 42 by a similar camp
(Ia), perhaps because of flooding. The burned layer
which covers castellum II (44-45) may indicate a disastrous raid by the Chauci, and III (47-69) may be a rebuilding by Corbulo after his victory over the invaders. Near this fort the Praetorium Agrippinae of the Peutinger
probably stood, contemporary with the castellum
of Traiectum. Castellum III was destroyed in 69 in the
rebellion of the Batavi and the Canninefates. Cerialis
crushed the revolt, and in 70 or shortly thereafter rebuilt
the camp (IV); this phase is believed to have lasted
through the Flavian period, but identification of the
various buildings must remain conjectural.
Castellum v, more solidly constructed, may have contributed to the military efforts of Trajan or may have
repulsed renewed attacks by the tribes in the century of
the Pax Romana. A tile stamped with the legend SVB
DIDIO IVL. cos recalls the consul Didius Iulianus, governor
of the Provincia Belgica (178) and new attacks by the
Chauci (170-74). Castellum VI (122 x 140 m) was built
largely of stone; only the barracks were timber. This
camp may date from the reign of Septimius Severus at
the end of the 2d c., but there is no positive proof. Excavations have revealed no evidence of a violent final destruction. The small military force may have been shifted to other service towards the end of the 3d c.
A. E. van Giffen, “De Romeinse castella in de dorpsheuvel te Valkenburg aan de Rijn (Z.H.)
(Praetorium Agrippinae),” Jaarverslag van de Vereeniging voor Terpenonderzoek
33-37 (1948-53); W. Glasbergen, “42 n.C. Het eerste jaartal in de geschiedenis van West Nederland,” Jb. Kon. Ned. Ak. Wetenschappen
(1965-66) 1ff; id., De Romeinse castella te Valkenburg Z.H. De opgravingen in de dorpsheuvel in 1962
(1972) (former date 42 now corrected to A.D. 40), bibl.;
id. & W. Groenman, The Pre-Flavian Garrisons of Valkenburg Z. H
. (1974); W. A. van Es, De Romeinen in Nederland
(1972) 66-69; J. E. Bogners & C. B. Rüger, Der nidergermanische Limes, Materialien zu seiner Geschichte
F. J. DE WAELE