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ἄν (A), [α^], Ep., Lyr., Ion., Arc., Att.; also κεν) Ep., Aeol., Thess., κα_ Dor., Boeot., El.; the two combined in Ep. (infr. D. 11.2) and Arc.,
A.εἰκ ἄνIG5(2).6.2, 15 (iv B. C.):—modal Particle used with Verbs to indicate that the action is limited by circumstances or defined by conditions. In Hom. κε is four times as common as ἄν, in Lyr. about equally common. No clear distinction can be traced, but κε as an enclitic is somewhat less emphatic; ἄν is preferred by Hom. in negative clauses, κεν) with the relative.
A. In Simple Sentences, and in the Apodosis of Compound Sentences; here ἄν belongs to the Verb, and denotes that the assertion made by the Verb is dependent on a condition, expressed or implied: thus ἦλθεν he came, ἦλθεν ἄν he would have come (under conditions, which may or may not be defined), and so he might have come; ἔλθοι may he come, ἔλθοι ἄν he would come (under certain conditions), and so he might come.
1. with historical tenses, generally impf. and aor., less freq. plpf., never pf., v. infr.,
a. most freq. in apodosis of conditional sentences, with protasis implying nonfulfilment of a past or present condition, and apod. expressing what would be or would have been the case if the condition were or had been fulfilled. The impf. with ἄν refers to continued action, in Hom. always in past time, exc. perh. “καί κε θάμ᾽ ἐνθάδ᾽ ἐόντες ἐμισγόμεθ᾽Od.4. 178; later also in pres. time, first in Thgn.905; πολὺ ἂν θαυμαστότερον ἦν, εἰ ἐτιμῶντο it would be far more strange if they were honoured, Pl.R.489a; οὐκ ἂν νήσων ἐκράτει, εἰ μή τι καὶ ναυτικὸν εἶχεν he would not have been master of islands if he had not had also some naval power, Th.1.9. The aor. strictly refers only to past time, Pi.N.11.24, etc.; εἰ τότε ταύτην ἔσχε τὴν γνώμην, οὐδὲν ἂν ὧν νυνὶ πεποίηκεν ἔπραξεν if he had then come to this opinion, he would have accomplished nothing of what he has now done, D.4.5, al., but is used idiomatically with Verbs of saying, answering, etc., as we say I should have said, “εἰ μὴ πατὴρ ἦσθ᾽, εἶπον ἄν σ᾽ οὐκ εὖ φρονεῖνS.Ant.755, cf. Pl.Smp.199d, Euthphr.12d, etc.: the plpf. refers to completed actions, as εἰ ἀπεκρίνω, ἱκανῶς ἂν ἤδη παρὰ σοῦ τὴν ὁσιότητα ἐμεμαθήκη I should have already learnt . . , ib.14c; “εἰ ἀνὴρ ἀπέθανεν, δικαίως ἂν ἐτεθνήκειAntipho 4.2.3.
b. the protasis is freq. understood: ὑπό κεν ταλασίφρονά περ δέος εἷλεν fear would have seized even the stout-hearted (had he heard the sound), Il.4.421; τὸ γὰρ ἔρυμα τῷ στρατοπέδῳ οὐκ ἂν ἐτειχίσαντο they would not have built the wall (if they had not won a battle), Th.1.11; πολλοῦ γὰρ ἂν ἦν ἄξια for (if that were so) they would be worth much, Pl.R.374d; οὐ γὰρ ἦν τι ἂν ἐποιεῖτε for there was nothing which you could have done, i. e. would have done (if you had tried), D.18.43.
c. with no definite protasis understood, to express what would have been likely to happen, or might have happened in past time: γάρ μιν ζωόν γε κιχήσεαι, κεν Ὀρέστης κτεῖνεν ὑποφθάμενος for either you will find him alive, or else Orestes may already have killed him before you, Od.4.546; θεασάμενος πᾶς ἄν τις ἀνὴρ ἠράσθη δάϊος εἶναι every man who saw this (the 'Seven against Thebes') would have longed to be a warrior, Ar. Ra.1022; esp. with τάχα, q. v., ἀλλ᾽ ἦλθε μὲν δὴ τοῦτο τοὔνειδος τάχ᾽ ἂν ὀργῇ βιασθὲν μᾶλλον γνώμῃ φρενῶν, i. e. it might perhaps have come, S.OT523; τάχα ἂν δὲ καὶ ἄλλως πως ἐσπλεύσαντες (sc. διέβησαν) and they might also perhaps have crossed by sea (to Sicily) in some other way, Th.6.2, cf. Pl.Phdr.265b.
d. ἄν is freq. omitted in apodosi with Verbs expressing obligation, propriety, or possibility, as ἔδει, ἐχρῆν, εἰκὸς ἦν, etc., and sts. for rhetorical effect, εἰ μὴ . . ᾖσμεν, φόβον παρέσχεν it had caused (for it would have caused) fear, E.Hec.1113. This use becomes more common in later Gk.
2. with fut. ind.:
a. frequently in Ep., usu. with κεν, rarely ἄν, Il.9.167, 22.66, indicating a limitation or condition, δέ κεν κεχολώσεται ὅν κεν ἵκωμαι and he will likely be angry to whom-soever I shall come, ib.1.139; καί κέ τις ὧδ᾽ ἐρέει and in that case men will say, 4.176; “ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι καταλέξωOd.3.80; so in Lyr., “μαθὼν δέ τις ἂν ἐρεῖPi.N.7.68, cf. I.6(5).59.
b. rarely in codd. of Att. Prose writers, “σαφὲς ἂν καταστήσετεTh.1.140; “οὐχ ἥκει, οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἥξει δεῦροPl.R.615d, cf. Ap.29c, X.An.2.5.13; dub. in Hp.Mul.2.174: in later Prose, Philostr.V A2.21, S E.M.9.225: also in Poetry, E.El.484, Ar.Av.1313; “οὐκ ἂν προδώσωHerod.6.36 (corr. -δοίην):— for ἄν with fut. inf. and part. v. infr.
II. WITH SUBJUNCTIVE, only in Ep., the meaning being the same as with the fut. ind. (1.2a), freq. with 1st pers., as εἰ δέ κε μὴ δώῃσιν, ἐγὼ δέ κεν αὐτὸς ἕλωμαι in that case I will take her myself, Il.1.324; πείθευ, ἐγὼ δέ κέ τοι εἰδέω χάριν obey and if so I will be grateful, 14.235 (the subj. is always introduced by δέ in this usage); also with other persons, giving emphasis to the future, “οὐκ ἄν τοι χραίσμῃ κίθαρις3.54, al.
III. WITH OPTATIVE (never fut., rarely pf. πῶς ἂν λελήθοι [με]; X.Smp.3.6):
a. in apodosis of conditional sentences, after protasis in opt. with εἰ or some other conditional or relative word, expressing a fut. condition: “ἀλλ᾽ εἴ μοί τι πίθοιο, τό κεν πολὺ κέρδιον εἴηIl.7.28; “οὐ πολλὴ ἂν ἀλογία εἴη, εἰ φοβοῖτο τὸν θάνατον;Pl.Phd.68b:—in Hom. pres. and aor. opt. with κε or ἄν are sts. used like impf. and aor. ind. with ἄν in Attic, with either regular ind. or another opt. in the protasis: καί νύ κεν ἔνθ᾽ ἀπόλοιτο . . εἰ μὴ . . νόησε κτλ., i. e. he would have perished, had she not perceived, etc., Il.5.311, cf. 5.388, 17.70; εἰ νῦν ἐπὶ ἄλλῳ ἀεθλεύοιμεν, τ᾽ ἂν ἐγὼ . . κλισίηνδε φεροίμην if we were now contending in another's honour, I should now carry . . , ib.23.274: so rarely in Trag., οὐδ᾽ ἂν σὺ φαίης, εἴ σε μὴ κνίζοι λέχος (for εἰ μὴ ἔκνιζε) E.Med.568.
b. with protasis in pres. or fut., the opt. with ἄν in apodosi takes a simply future sense: φρούριον δ᾽ εἰ ποιήσονται, τῆς μὲν γῆς βλάπτοιεν ἄν τι μέρος they might perhaps damage, Th.1.142, cf. 2.60, Pl.Ap.25b, R.333e; “ἢν οὖν μάθῃς . . οὐκ ἂν ἀποδοίηνAr.Nu.116, cf. D.1.26, al.
d. with no definite protasis implied, in potential sense: ἡδέως δ᾽ ἂν ἐροίμην Λεπτίνην but I would gladly ask Leptines, D.20.129; βουλοίμην ἄν I should like , Lat. velim (but ἐβουλόμην ἄν I should wish, if it were of any avail, vellem); ποῖ οὖν τραποίμεθ᾽ ἄν; which way then can we turn? Pl.Euthd.290a; οὐκ ἂν μεθείμην τοῦ θρόνου I will not give up the throne, Ar.Ra.830; idiomatically, referring to the past, αὗται δὲ οὐκ ἂν πολλαὶ εἶεν but these would not (on investigation) prove to be many, Th.1.9; εἴησαν δ᾽ ἂν οὗτοι Κρῆτες these would be (i. e. would have been) Cretans, Hdt.1.2: used in order to soften assertions by giving them a less positive form, as οὐκ ἂν οὖν πάνυ γέ τι σπουδαῖον εἴη δικαιοσύνη, i.e. it would not prove to be, etc. (for, it is not, etc.), Pl.R. 333e.
e. in questions, expressing a wish: “τίς ἂν θεῶν . . δοίη;S.OC 1100, cf.A.Ag.1448; “πῶς ἂν θάνοιμι;S.Aj.389: hence (with no question) as a mild command, exhortation, or entreaty, “τλαίης κεν Μενελάῳ ἐπιπροέμεν ταχὺν ἰόνIl.4.94; σὺ μὲν κομίζοις ἂν σεαυτὸν θέλεις you may take yourself off (milder than κόμιζε σεαυτόν), S.Ant.444; χωροῖς ἂν εἴσω you may go in, El.1491; κλύοις ἂν ἤδη, Φοῖβε hear me now, Phoebus, ib.637; φράζοις ἄν, λέγοις ἄν, Pl.Phlb.23c, 48b.
f. in a protasis which is also an apodosis: εἴπερ ἄλλῳ τῳ ἀνθρώπων πειθοίμην ἄν, καὶ σοὶ πείθομαι if I would trust any (other) man (if he gave me his word), I trust you, Id.Prt.329b; εἰ μὴ ποιήσαιτ᾽ ἂν τοῦτο if you would not do this (if you could), D.4.18, cf. X.Mem.1.5.3, Plot.6.4.16.
IV. WITH INF. and PART. (sts. ADJ. equivalent to part., “τῶν δυνατῶν ἂν κρῖναιPl.R.577b) representing ind. or opt.:
1. pres. inf. or part.:
a. representing impf. ind., οἴεσθε τὸν πατέρα . . οὐκ ἂν φυλάττειν; do you think he would not have kept them safe? (οὐκ ἂν ἐφύλαττεν), D.49.35; ἀδυνάτων ἂν ὄντων [ὑμῶν] ἐπιβοηθεῖν when you would have been unable, Th.1.73, cf. 4.40.
2. aor. inf. or part.:
a. representing aor. ind., οὐκ ἂν ἡγεῖσθ᾽ αὐτὸν κἂν ἐπιδραμεῖν; do you not think he would even have run thither? (καὶ ἐπέδραμεν ἄν), D.27.56; ἴσμεν ὑμᾶς ἀναγκασθέντας ἄν we know you would have been compelled, Th.1.76, cf. 3.89; ῥᾳδίως ἂν ἀφεθείς when he might easily have been acquitted, X.Mem.4.4.4.
3. pf. inf. or part. representing:
a. plpf. ind., πάντα ταῦθ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων ἂν ἑαλωκέναι φήσειεν ἄν) he would say that all these would have been destroyed by the barbarians (ἑαλώκη ἄν), D.19.312.
b. pf. opt., οὐκ ἂν ἡγοῦμαι αὐτοὺς δίκην ἀξίαν δεδωκέναι, εἰ . . καταψηφίσαισθε I do not believe they would (then) have suffered (δεδωκότες ἂν εἶεν) punishment enough, etc., Lys.27.9.
4. fut. inf.or part., never in Ep., and prob. always corrupt in Att., νομίζων μέγιστον ἂν σφᾶς ὠφελήσειν (leg. -ῆσαι) Th.5.82, cf. 6.66, 8.25,71; part. is still more exceptional, “ὡς ἐμοῦ οὐκ ἂν ποιήσοντος ἄλλαPl.Ap.30c (codd.), cf. D.19.342 (v. l.); both are found in later Gk., “νομίσαντες ἂν οἰκήσειν οὕτως ἄρισταPlb.8.30.8, cf. Plu.Marc.15, Arr.An.2.2.3; with part., Epicur. Nat.14.1, Luc.Asin.26, Lib.Or.62.21, dub. l. in Arr.An.6.6.5.
I. In the protasis of conditional sentences with εἰ, regularly with the subjunctive. In Attic εἰ ἄν is contracted into ἐάν, ἤν, or ἄν α_) (q. v.): Hom. has generally εἴ κε (or αἴ κε), sts. ἤν, once “εἰ δ᾽ ἄνIl.3.288, twice “εἴπερ ἄν5.224, 232. The protasis expresses either future condition (with apod. of fut. time) or general condition (with apod. of repeated action): εἰ δέ κεν ὣς ἔρξῃς καί τοι πείθωνται Ἀχαιοί, γνώσῃ ἔπειθ᾽ ὅς . . if thus thou shalt do . . , ib.2.364; ἢν ἐγγὺς ἔλθῃ θάνατος, οὐδεὶς βούλεται θνῄσκειν if death (ever) come near . . , E.Alc.671.
2. in relative or temporal clauses with a conditional force; here ἄν coalesces with ὅτε, ὁπότε, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, cf. ὅταν, ὁπόταν, ἐπήν or ἐπάν (Ion. ἐπεάν, ἐπειδάν: Hom. has ὅτε κε (sts. ὅτ᾽ ἄν, ὁππότε κε (sts. ὁπότ᾽ ἄν or ὁππότ᾽ ἄν, ἐπεί κε (“ἐπεὶ ἄνIl.6.412), ἐπήν, εὖτ᾽ ἄν; v. also εἰσόκε εἰς κε) :τάων ἥν κ᾽ ἐθέλωμι φίλην ποιήσομ᾽ ἄκοιτιν whomsoever of these I may wish . . , Il.9.397; ὅταν δὴ μὴ σθένω, πεπαύσομαι when I shall have no strength . . , S.Ant.91; ἐχθρὸς γάρ μοι κεῖνος . . ὅς χ᾽ ἕτερον μὲν κεύθῃ ἐνὶ φρεσίν, ἄλλο δὲ εἴπῃ whoever conceals one thing in his mind and speaks another, Il.9.312, cf. D.4.6, Th.1.21. —Hom. uses subj. in both the above constructions (1 and 2) without ἄν; also Trag. and Com., S.Aj.496, Ar.Eq.805; μέχρι and πρίν occasionally take subj. without ἄν in prose, e.g. Th.1.137,4.16 (μέχρι οὗ), Pl.Phd.62c, Aeschin.3.60.
3. in final clauses introduced by relative Advbs., as ὡς, ὅπως (of Manner), ἵνα (of Place), ὄφρα, ἕως, etc. (of Time), freq. in Ep., “σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαιIl.1.32; “ὄφρα κεν εὕδῃOd.3.359; “ὅπως ἂν εἰδῇ . . φράσωA.Pr.824; “ὅπως ἂν φαίνηται κάλλιστοςPl.Smp.198e; “μηχανητέον ὅπως ἂν διαφύγῃGrg. 481a (where ὅπως with fut. ind. is the regular constr.); also after ὡς in Hdt., Trag., X.An.2.5.16, al., once in Th.6.91 (but fut. ind. is regular in Att.); ἵνα final does not take ἄν or κε exc. “ἵνα εἰδότες κε θάνωμεν κεν . . φύγοιμενOd.12.156 (ἵνα = where in S.OC405). μή, = lest, takes ἄν only with opt. in apodosis, as S.Tr.631, Th.2.93.
II. in Ep. sts. with OPTATIVE as with subj. (always κεν), exc. “εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ Μοῦσαι ἀείδοιενIl.2.597), “εἴ κεν Ἄρης οἴχοιτοOd.8.353; ὥς κε . . δοίη κ᾽ ἐθέλοι that he might give her to whomsoever he might please, ib.2.54: so in Hdt. in final clauses, 1.75,99:—in Od.23.135 ὥς κέν τις φαίη, κέν belongs to Verb in apod., as in “ὡς δ᾽ ἂν ἥδιστα ταῦτα φαίνοιτοX.Cyr.7.5.81.
2. rarely in oratio obliqua, where a relat. or temp. word retains an ἄν which it would have with subj. in direct form, S.Tr.687, X.Mem.1.2.6, Isoc.17.15; “ἐπειδὰν δοκιμασθείηνD.30.6:—similarly after a preceding opt., “οὐκ ἀποκρίναιο ἕως ἂν . . σκέψαιοPl.Phd.101d.
III. rarely with εἰ and INDICATIVE in protasis, only in Ep.:
1. with fut. ind. as with subj.: “αἴ κεν Ἰλίου πεφιδήσεταιIl.15.213:—so with relat., “οἵ κέ με τιμήσουσι1.175.
IV. in later Greek, ἄν with relative words is used with INDICATIVE in all tenses, as “ὅπου ἂν εἰσεπορεύετοEv.Marc.6.56; “ὅσ᾽ ἂν πάσχετεPFay.136 (iv A. D.); “ἔνθ᾽ ἂν πέφυκεν ὁλότης εἶναιPhlp. in Ph.436.19; cf. ἐάν, ὅταν.
C. with impf. and more rarely aor. ind. in ITERATIVE construction, to express elliptically a condilion fulfilled whenever an opportumty offered; freq. in Hdt. (not in Pi. or A.), κλαίεσκε ἂν καὶ ὀδυρέσκετο she would (i. e. used to) weep and lament, 3.119; “εἶτα πῦρ ἂν οὐ παρῆνS.Ph.295; εἴ τινες ἴδοιεν . . , ἀνεθάρσησαν ἄν whenever they saw it, on each occasion, Th.7.71; “διηρώτων ἂν αὐτοὺς τί λέγοιενPl.Ap.22b: inf. representing impf. of this constr., ἀκούω Λακεδαιμονίους τότε ἐμβαλόντας ἂν . . ἀναχωρεῖν, i. e. I hear they used to retire (ἀνεχώρουν ἄν), D.9.48.
1. in A, when ἄν does not coalesce with the relat. word (as in ἐάν, ὅταν), it follows directly or is separated only by other particles, as μέν, δέ, τε, γάρ, καί, νυ, περ, etc.; as “εἰ μέν κεν . . εἰ δέ κεIl.3.281-4; rarely by τις, as “ὅποι τις ἄν, οἶμαι, προσθῇD.2.14:—in Hom. and Hes. two such Particles may precede κε, as “εἴ περ γάρ κενOd.8.355, cf. Il.2.123; εἰ γάρ τίς κε, ὃς μὲν γάρ κε, Hes.Op.280,357; rarely in Prose, “ὅποι μὲν γὰρ ἄνD.4.45; “ὁπότερος οὖν ἄνAr.Ra.1420: also “ὁπόσῳ πλέον ἄνPl.Lg.647e, cf. 850a; “ὅπου τὸ πάλαι λεγόμενον ἂν γίγνηται739c.
2. in apodosis, ἄν may stand either next to its Verb (before or after it), or after some other emphatic word, esp. an interrog., a negative (e. g. οὐδ᾽ ἂν εἷς, οὐκ ἂν ἔτι, etc.), or an important Adjective or Adverb; also after a participle which represents the protasis, λέγοντος ἄν τινος πιστεῦσαι οἴεσθε; do you think they would have believed it if any one had told them? (εἴ τις ἔλεγεν, ἐπίστευσαν ἄν), D.6.20.
4. ἄν never begins a sentence, or even a clause after a comma, but may stand first after a parenthetic clause, “ἀλλ᾽, μέλ᾽, ἄν μοι σιτίων διπλῶν ἔδειAr.Pax <*>37.
II. REPETITION OF ἄν:—in apodosis ἄν may be used twice or even three times with the same Verb, either to make the condition felt throughout a long sentence, or to emphasize certain words, “ὥστ᾽ ἄν, εἰ σθένος λάβοιμι, δηλώσαιμ᾽ ἄνS.El.333, cf. Ant.69, A.Ag. 340, Th.1.76 (fin.), 2.41, Pl.Ap.31a, Lys.20.15; “ἀφανεῖς ἂν ὄντες οὐκ ἂν ὑμνήθημεν ἄνE.Tr.1244, cf. S.Fr.739; attached to a parenthetical phrase, ἔδρασ᾽ ἄν, εὖ τοῦτ᾽ ἴσθ᾽ ἄν, εἰ . . Id.OT1438.
2. ἄν is coupled with κεν) a few times in Hom., as Il.11.187,202, Od.5.361, al.; cf. ἤν περ γάρ κ᾽ ἐθέλωσιν v.l. ib.18.318.
IV. ELLIPSIS OF ἄν:—when an apodosis consists of several co-ordinate clauses, ἄν is generally used only in the first and understood in the others: “πείθοι᾽ ἂν εἰ πείθοι᾽: ἀπειθοίης δ᾽ ἴσωςA.Ag.1049: even when the construction is continued in a new sentence, Pl.R.352e, cf. 439b codd.: but ἄν is repeated for the sake of clearness or emphasis, ib. 398a, cf. D.19.156 (where an opt. is implied with the third ὡς): rarely expressed with the second of two co-ordinate Verbs and understood with the first, τοῦτον ἂν . . θαρσοίην ἐγὼ καλῶς μὲν ἄρχειν, εὖ δ᾽ ἂν ἄρχεσθαι θέλειν (i. e. καλῶς μὲν ἂν ἄρχοι, εὖ δ᾽ ἂν θέλοι ἄρχεσθαι) S.Ant.669.
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (203):
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    • Homer, Odyssey, 4.546
    • Homer, Odyssey, 8.355
    • Homeric Hymns, Hymn 1 to Dionysus, 1
    • Homeric Hymns, Hymn 1 to Dionysus, 2
    • Isocrates, Helen, 48
    • Isocrates, Trapeziticus, 15
    • Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes, 22
    • Lysias, For Polystratus, 15
    • Lysias, Against Epicrates and his Fellow Envoys, 9
    • Plato, Laws, 647e
    • Plato, Laws, 719e
    • Plato, Laws, 739c
    • Plato, Laws, 850a
    • Plato, Republic, 333e
    • Plato, Republic, 352e
    • Plato, Republic, 398a
    • Plato, Republic, 439b
    • Plato, Republic, 577b
    • Plato, Republic, 615d
    • Plato, Republic, 374d
    • Plato, Republic, 477a
    • Plato, Republic, 489a
    • Plato, Apology, 22b
    • Plato, Apology, 25b
    • Plato, Euthyphro, 12d
    • Plato, Phaedo, 62c
    • Plato, Apology, 29c
    • Plato, Apology, 30c
    • Plato, Apology, 31a
    • Plato, Euthyphro, 14c
    • Plato, Phaedo, 101d
    • Plato, Phaedo, 68b
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 265b
    • Plato, Philebus, 23c
    • Plato, Philebus, 48b
    • Plato, Symposium, 174b
    • Plato, Symposium, 198e
    • Plato, Symposium, 199d
    • Plato, Euthydemus, 290a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 481a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 479a
    • Plato, Gorgias, 486d
    • Plato, Meno, 72c
    • Plato, Protagoras, 329b
    • Plato, Timaeus, 26b
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 389
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 496
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 1.2b
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 605
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 69
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 240
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 444
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 669
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 755
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 91
    • Sophocles, Electra, 333
    • Sophocles, Electra, 1491
    • Sophocles, Electra, 637
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 1100
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 405
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 1438
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 523
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 295
    • Sophocles, Trachiniae, 631
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.76
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.89
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.37
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.25
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.11
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.142
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.21
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.73
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.9
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.20
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.41
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.60
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.93
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.40
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.82
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.38
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.91
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.42
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.71
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.3.6
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.5.16
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.3.18
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 2.5.13
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 7.5.81
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.2.21
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8.7.25
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.4.12
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.2.6
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 4.4.4
    • Xenophon, Memorabilia, 1.5.3
    • Xenophon, Symposium, 3.6
    • Homer, Iliad, 14.235
    • Homer, Iliad, 1.139
    • Homer, Iliad, 1.175
    • Homer, Iliad, 23.526
    • Homer, Iliad, 2.364
    • Homer, Iliad, 2.597
    • Homer, Iliad, 3.54
    • Homer, Iliad, 4
    • Homer, Iliad, 4.421
    • Homer, Iliad, 5.388
    • Homer, Iliad, 5.481
    • Homer, Iliad, 6.412
    • Homer, Iliad, 7.28
    • Homer, Iliad, 9.312
    • Homer, Odyssey, 10.269
    • Homer, Odyssey, 23.135
    • Homer, Odyssey, 3.80
    • Homer, Odyssey, 8.353
    • Sophocles, Ichneutae, 739
    • Sophocles, Trachiniae, 687
    • Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1049
    • Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 935
    • Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1.197
    • Polybius, Histories, 8.30.8
    • Aristophanes, Lysistrata, 1099
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.137
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.16
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.2
    • New Testament, Mark, 6.56
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.140
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.66
    • Plutarch, Marcellus, 15
    • Arrian, Anabasis, 2.2.3
    • Arrian, Anabasis, 6.6.5
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