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ψι_λός , ή, όν,
I. of land, bare, ψ. ἄροσις open cornland, Il.9.580; “πεδίον μέγα τε καὶ ψ.Hdt.1.80; “ λόφος . . δασὺς ἴδῃσί ἐστι, ἐούσης τῆς ἄλλης Λιβύης ψ.Id.4.175; “ἀπὸ ψ. τῆς γῆςPl.Criti. 111d, cf. X.An.1.5.5, etc.: in full, [“γῆ] ψ. δενδρέωνHdt.4.19,21; ἄδενδρα καὶ ψ., of the Alps, Plb.3.55.9; τὰ ψ. (sc. χωρία), opp. τὰ ὑλώδη, X.Cyn.5.7; τόποι ψ. ib.4.6; ψ. γεωργία the tillage of land for corn and the like, opp. γ. πεφυτευμένη (the tillage of it for vines, olives, etc.), Arist.Pol.1258b18, Thphr.CP3.20.1; so “γῆ ψ.Eup. 230, D.20.115, Tab.Heracl.1.175, 2.33; “ἐλαῖαι, ὧν νῦν τὰ πολλὰ ἐκκέκοπται καὶ γῆ ψ. γεγένηταιLys.7.7.
II. of animals, stripped of hair or feathers, smooth (cf. “λεῖος1.3), “δέρμα . . ἐλάφοιοOd.13.437; “σάρξHp.Aër.19; ἡμίκραιραν ψ. ἔχων with half the head shaved, Ar. Th.227; ψ. γνάθοι ib.583; “τὴν ὀσφὺν κομιδῇ ψ.Pherecr.23.4 (anap.); used of dogs with a short, smooth coat of hair, X.Cyn.3.2; “τὴν δίποδα ἀγέλην τῷ ψ. καὶ τῷ πτεροφυεῖ τέμνεινPl.Plt.266e; “ἄνθρωπος -ότατον κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τῶν ζῴων πάντων ἐστίArist.GA745b16; so ἶβις ψ. τὴν κεφαλήν without feathers, bald on the head, Hdt.2.76; hairless, of the foetus of a hare, Id.3.108; ψ. τὰ περὶ τὴν κεφαλήν, of the ostrich, Arist.PA697b18.
b. ψιλαὶ Περσικαί Persian carpets, Callix.2; such a carpet is called ψιλή alone, PSI7.858.2 (iii B. C., pl.), LXXJo.7.21; ψιλὴ πολύμιτος, Babylonicum, Gloss.; ψιλή = aulaeum, tapeta, ibid.; cf. ψιλόταπις.
2. generally, bare, uncovered, ψ. ὡς ὁρᾷ νέκυν, i. e. without any earth over it, S.Ant.426; of a horse which has thrown its rider, AP13.18 (Parmeno).
c. stripped of appendages, naked, ψ. [τρόπις] the bare keel with the planks torn from it, Od.12.421; ψ. μάχαιραι swords alone, without other arms, etc., X.Cyr.4.5.58; θάλαττα ψ. blank sea, Aristid.Or.25(43).50.
III. freq. in Prose, as a military term, of soldiers without heavy armour, light troops, such as archers and slingers, opp. ὁπλῖται, first in Hdt.7.158, al., freq. in Th., e. g. “ὁπλίζει τὸν δῆμον, πρότερον ψ. ὄντα3.27, cf. Arr.Tact.3.3; “ ψ. ὅμιλοςTh.4.125; so ψιλοί or τὸ ψιλόν, opp. τὸ ὁπλιτικόν, X.HG4.2.17, Arist.Pol.1321a7; ψιλός, opp. ὡπλισμένος, S.Aj.1123: coupled with ἄσκευος, Id.OC1029; “ψιλὸς στρατεύσομαιAr.Th.232; “ψ. δύναμιςArist.Pol.1321a13; αἱ κοῦφαι καὶ αἱ ψ. ἐργασίαι work that belongs to unarmed soldiers, ib.1321a25; “ψ. χερσὶν πρὸς καθωπλισμένουςAel.VH6.2: but ψ. ἔχων τὴν κεφαλήν bare-headed, without helmet, X.An.1.8.6; ψ. ἵππος a horse without housings, Id.Eq.7.5: unarmed, defenceless, S.Ph.953.
IV. λόγος ψ. bare language, i. e. prose, opp. to poetry which is clothed in the garb of metre, Pl.Mx.239c, Phld.Mus.p.97K.; more freq. in pl., “ψ. λόγοιPl.Lg.669d; opp. τὰ μέτρα, Arist.Rh.1404b14,33: but in D.27.54 ψ. λόγος is a mere speech, a speech unsupported by evidence; and in Pl.Tht.165a ψιλοὶ λόγοι are mere forms of argumentation, dialectical abstractions (so ψιλῶς λέγειν speak nakedly, without alleging proofs, Id.Phdr.262c, cf. Lg.811e); “τὰς πράξεις αὐτὰς ψιλὰς φράζοντεςArist.Rh.Al.1438b27.
2. ποίησις ψ. mere poetry, without music, i. e. Epic poetry, opp. Lyric ( ἐν ᾠδῇ), Pl.Phdr.278c; so “ἄνευ ὀργάνων ψ. λόγοιId.Smp.215c, cf. Arist.Po.1447a29; ψ. τῷ στόματι, opp. μετ᾽ ὀργάνων, as a kind of μουσική, Pl.Plt.268b; “λύρας φθόγγοι . . ψιλοὶ καὶ ἀμεικτότεροι τῇ φωνῇArist.Pr.922a16; ψ. φωνή the ordinary sound of the voice, opp. singing ( ᾠδική), D.H. Comp.11.
3. ψ. μουσική instrumental music unaccompanied by the voice, opp. μετὰ μελῳδίας, Arist.Pol.1339b20; ψιλῷ μέλει διαγωνίζεσθαι πρὸς ᾠδὴν καὶ κιθάραν, of Marsyas, Plu.2.713d, cf. Phld.Mus. p.100K.; so “ψ. κιθάρισις καὶ αὔλησιςPl.Lg.669e; ψιλὸς αὐλητής one who plays unaccompanied on the flute (cf. ψιλοκιθαριστής), Phryn. 145.
V. mere, simple (cf. supr. IV. 1), ἀριθμητικὴ ψιλή, opp. geometry and the like , Pl.Plt.299e; ὕδωρ ψ., opp. σὺν οἴνῳ, Hp.Int.35; ψ. ἀναίρεσις mere removal, Phld.Sign.12; ψ. ἄνδρες, i. e. men without women, Antip.Stoic.3.254:—Oedipus calls Antigone his ψιλὸν ὄμμα, as being the one poor eye left him, S.OC866. Adv. “ψιλῶςmerely, only, Plu.Per.15; ἕνεκα τοῦ ψ. εἰπεῖν for the purpose of merely saying, Sch. Il.Oxy.1086.65; ψ. ὀνομάζειν call by the bare name (without epithet), Phld.Vit.p.39J.
VI. Gramm. of vowels, “ψ. ἦχοςwithout the spiritus asper, Demetr.Eloc.73; “ψ. πνεῦμαA.D.Adv.148.9, D.T.Supp. 674.15; “ψιλῶς λέγεσθαιA.D.Pron.57.3.
b. of the letters ε and υ written simply, not as αι and οι, which represented the sounds in late Gr., “μαθόντες τὰ διὰ τοῦ διφθόγγου α_ι_ τυχὸν ἅπαντα, ἐδιδάχθημεν τὰ ἄλλα πάντα ψιλὰ γράφεσθαιHdn.Epim.162, cf. An.Ox.1.124: hence ἐψιλόν as name of the letter ε and ὐψιλόν as name of υ, which are first found in Anon. post Et.Gud.679.6, 678.55, and Chrysoloras: ψιλόν is f. l. in D.T.631.5: but in “πᾶσα λέξις ἀπὸ τῆς κ_ε_ συλλαβῆς ἀρχομένη διὰ τοῦ ε_ ψιλοῦ γράφεται . . πλὴν τοῦ καί, κτλ.Hdn.Epim.62, ε_ ψ. is not yet merely the name of the letter: for ὐψιλόν v. sub , cf. Sch. Heph.p.93C.
2. of mute consonants, the litterae tenues, π κ τ, opp. φ χ θ, ὅσαι γίγνονται χωρὶς τῆς τοῦ πνεύματος ἐκβολῆς Arist. Aud.804b10, cf. D.H.Comp.14, D.T.631.21; ψιλῶς καλεῖν pronounce with a littera tenuis for an aspirate, e. g., ῥάπυς for ῥάφυς, ἀσπάραγος for ἀσφάραγος, Ath.9.369b, cf. Eust.81.5, Tz.H.11.58.
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (56):
    • Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae, 227
    • Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae, 232
    • Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae, 583
    • Aristotle, Poetics, 1447a.29
    • Demosthenes, Against Leptines, 115
    • Demosthenes, Against Aphobus 1, 54
    • Herodotus, Histories, 1.80
    • Herodotus, Histories, 2.76
    • Herodotus, Histories, 3.108
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.175
    • Herodotus, Histories, 4.19
    • Herodotus, Histories, 7.158
    • Homer, Odyssey, 12.421
    • Homer, Odyssey, 13.437
    • Lysias, On the Murder of Eratosthenes, 3
    • Lysias, On the Olive Stump, 7
    • Plato, Laws, 669d
    • Plato, Laws, 669e
    • Plato, Laws, 811e
    • Plato, Laws, 834c
    • Plato, Laws, 899a
    • Plato, Statesman, 258d
    • Plato, Statesman, 266e
    • Plato, Statesman, 268b
    • Plato, Statesman, 299e
    • Plato, Theaetetus, 165a
    • Plato, Symposium, 215c
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 262c
    • Plato, Phaedrus, 278c
    • Plato, Menexenus, 239c
    • Plato, Critias, 111d
    • Sophocles, Ajax, 1123
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 426
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 1029
    • Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, 866
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 953
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.27
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.125
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.5.5
    • Xenophon, Anabasis, 1.8.6
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 4.5.58
    • Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 5.3.57
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4.2.17
    • Xenophon, On the Art of Horsemanship, 7.5
    • Xenophon, On Hunting, 3.2
    • Xenophon, On Hunting, 4.6
    • Xenophon, On Hunting, 5.7
    • Homer, Iliad, 9.580
    • Polybius, Histories, 11.1.12
    • Polybius, Histories, 3.55.9
    • Old Testament, Joshua, 7.21
    • Plutarch, Pericles, 15
    • Arrian, Tactica, 3.3
    • Dionysius of Halicarnassus, De Compositione Verborum, 11
    • Dionysius of Halicarnassus, De Compositione Verborum, 14
    • Aelian, Varia Historia, 6.2
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