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Careful dialect study will always separate the more or less sophisticated language of literature from the native speech. There is scarcely a writer in dialect that has not been assailed for infidelity to the spoken tongue; and if this is true of those who have tried to reproduce the dialect faithfully, what shall be said of the make-believes, such as Burns and Mistral?1 What shall be said of the lyric poets of Greece, who seem to have shifted and blended dialects according to rhythm and mood?2

Doubtless, to a certain extent, the dialect was dictated by the origin of the department. Lyric poetry emerging from the Epos could not throw off the authority of Epic forms, but the so-called Epic dialect is itself composite, and the Doric strains, with which the Epic language was tempered by Stesichoros, became characteristic of the higher lyric. And yet such is the freedom with which the Ionian Simonides and the Theban Pindar handle the language, that we must leave a wide margin for individual susceptibility. Those who translate Homer back into the original Aiolic may yet reconstruct a Pindar in uniform dialect. But till this is done it may be provisionally assumed that Pindar used an artistic dialect that had no definite relation to the spoken language, and it may be added that if such a uniform dialect should be established, it would be a contradiction of the subtile variety that Pindar is always producing out of his material, and always producing with as full consciousness as true poets ever have. Pindar rejoices in his play with language; he rings changes on words, he toys with synonyms, he loves the discord of the oxymoron, and those who think that such artistic devices are too mechanical forget that before plastic art had developed its finesse, song had served an apprenticeship of ages. While awaiting, then, new light, it may be permissible to call Pindar's language an artistic dialect, and to give a rapid summary of the chief peculiarities that mark it.

The basis is the language of the Epic, itself composite, and with this are blended in varying proportions Aiolic and Doric

forms. None of these elements appears in its extremes. The flow of the Epic is retained, but certain forms familiar in Homer are discarded. There are no echoing verbs in -αω, there is no -φι, no infinitive in -εμεναι. The Doric majesty and sonorous fulness of utterance enter into the composition, but the older and stiffer inflections are set aside. The first person plural cnds in -μεν and not in -μες, Pindar says τοῦ not τῶ, τούς not τώς. The Aiolic gives fire and passion and a certain familiar sweetness as well, but the Boeotian variety was not refined, and, in spite of local criticism, Pindar preferred the Asiatic form of the dialect. Thus trebly and more than trebly composite, Pindar's language shifts with the character of his rhythms. The three moods — Dorian, Aiolian, Lydian — call for different coloring, and the mobile Aiolian measures show the greatest number of recondite forms, so that dialect, rhythm, plan, imagery, are all in accord. Ahrens has seen in the dialect of Pindar the influence of Delphic speech. So, for instance, the use of ἐν with the accusative, the elision of -ι in περί. But the evidence seems too slight, and while the study of Pindar by the light of Hesiod is instructive, the theory that they both used a Delphic dialect remains an ingenious suggestion and nothing more.

In the following exhibit only those points are dwelt on that might give the student trouble as to the recognition of forms. The more familiar facts are briefly stated.3

VOWELS. — α_ for Epic η. So where η comes from an original α, as in the sing. of the A- declension, ἀρχά, ἀρχᾶς, ἀρχᾷ, ἀρχάν:

in fut., aor., perf. of verbs in -άω as αὐδάσομαι (O. 2.101), ἐτόλμασαν (O. 2.75), τετόλμακε (P. 5.117). So also τεθνακότων. But forms from κτάομαι retain η as κτησάμεναι (N. 9.52), Φιλοκτήταο (P. 1.50), and also those from χράω, χράομαι, as χρῆσεν (P. 4.6), χρησθέν (O. 2.43), χρησμός (P. 4, 60).
On α_ in the augment see p. lxxxv. Derivatives of the A- declension and of verbs in -άω have α_, as νικαφορία (P. 1.59), κυβερνάσιας (P. 10.72), μναμοσύναν (O. 8.74). So in compounds of which the second part usually begins with η, as κακαγοριᾶν (P. 2.53), εὐάνορι (O. 1.24). The personal endings -μην and -σθην (3 p. dual) are in Pindar -μαν and -σθαν, as ἱκόμαν (P. 4.105), κτισσάσθαν (O. 9.49). For -ηνη we find -ανα, as Κυλλάνας (O. 6.77), Κυράνας (P. 4.279). Whether we are to read εἰρήνα or εἰράνα (O. 13.7), Ἀθῆναι or Ἀθᾶναι (P. 7.1), is disputed. In this ed. Ἀθαναίᾳ has been preferred to Ἀθηναίᾳ, and Ἀλκμήνα to Ἀλκμάνα. Feminine abstracts in -της show α as ταχυτάς (O. 1.95), κυκότατα (P. 2.35). So adverbs in - and in -δην, as κρυφᾷ (O. 1.47), κρύβδαν (O. 3.13). The others cannot be reduced to classes and must be watched. Doric is η for α_ in Ἀμφιάρηος (P. 8.56), Ἀμφιάρηον (O. 6.13 al.).

η is retained in verb forms and verbals from verbs in -έω, as δῆσεν (P. 4.71), αἰτήσων (O. 5.20), ἐδινήθην (P. 11.38),

η, where retained.
though many have ἐδινάθην, as ἀκινήταν (O. 9.35), κρατησίμαχος (P. 9.93). There are a few exceptions, as φώνασε from φωνέω (O. 13.67); a few variations, now η, now α. So the MSS. vary between θεόδμητον and θεόδματον (O. 3.7). η remains in the augment of verbs, beginning with ε as ἤλπετο (P. 4.243), in the subjunctive endings as βάλῃ (O. 3.13), the opt. in -ιην as εἰδείην (O. 13.46), in the aor. pass. φάνη (O. 1.74), λείφθη (O. 2.47). Nominatives of the 3d. decl. in -ηρ and -ης are unchanged. So is ἀλώπηξ. So words in -τηριον as χρηστήριον (O. 9.7), compounds the second part of which goes back to an initial ε, as δολιχήρετμος (O. 8.20), εὐήρατος (O. 6.98), ἁρματηλάτας (P. 5.115). Substantives of the 3d decl. in -ημα, as πῆμα (O. 2.21), οἴκημα (O. 2.10). Adj. in -ηρος and -ηλος that are not related to α- stems. So ὑψηλός (O. 2.24), λαιψηρός (O. 12.4). Words ending in -ας, -ις, as γῆρας (O. 1.83), ῥῆσις (O. 7.55), κρηπίς (O. 4.138). A noteworthy exception is μᾶνις (P. 4.159). Adjectives in -ήιος, as ἀρήιος (O. 2.46), adverbs in η, and their compounds, , δή, μή, μηδέ, μήτε, τῆλε (P. 11.23), adjectives compounded with ἡμι-, numerals in -ηκοντα, as ἡμίθεος (P. 4.12), ἑξηκοντάκι (O. 13.99). Verbs generally retain a penultimate η. So ἀρήγω (P. 2.63), λήγω (P. 4.292). θνᾴσκω, κάδομαι, and forms from πλήσσω and πήγνυμι are the main exceptions. Other retentions of η than those mentioned cannot be reduced to rule. α^ for ε. This also is Doric. So σκιαρός (O. 3.14. 18) for σκιερός. Still Pindar does not say ἱαρός nor ῾Ιάρων. τάμνω
α^ for ε.
is Ionic and Epic as well as Doric, τάμνοισαι (O. 12.6), τράφοισα = τρέφοισα (P. 2.44), τράφεν = τρέφειν (P. 4.115), τράχον = τρέχον (P. 8.32).

Under ε note that Pindar has κενεός (or κεινός), ἀδελφεός, never κενός, ἀδελφός. ι is rejected in ἀφνεός, as ἀφνεάν (O. 1,

10), ἀφνεαῖς (P. 11.15). For κλεινός, φαεινός, κελαδεινός, we find also the Aiolic form in -εννος. So κλεεννᾶς (P. 5.20, etc.), κελαδεννῶν (P. 3.113 al.), φαεννόν (O. 1.6, etc.).

οὖν in Pindar is always ὦν (O. 1.111 al.). Οὔλυμπος (O. 3.36 al.) varies with Ὄλυμπος (O. 1.54 al.), but the Ὀλ. form

is far more common (more than 4:1). μόνος is more common than μοῦνος, νόσος than νοῦσος, κοῦρος alone is used, but κόρα outnumbers κούρα. We find δουρί (O. 6.17) as well as δορί (I. 4 [5], 42), οὖρος less frequently than ὄρος. Διώνυσος is the normal form for Pindar. Syracuse is Συράκοσαι (P. 2.1) or Συράκοσσαι (O. 6.6), never Συράκουσαι. So the derivatives. The Aiolic ὄνυμα has expelled both ὄνομα and οὔνομα, the Aiolic -οισα (for -οντια) in the present participle has taken the place of -ουσα. So φέροισα (P. 3.15), Κρείοισα (P. 9.17), Μοῖσα (for Μοντσα). Aiolic -οισι is used as well as Doric -οντι, περιπνέοισιν (O. 2.79). See p. lxxxv.

CONSONANTS. — γλέφαρον for βλέφαρον (O. 3.12 al.), but ἑλικοβλεφάρου (P. 4.172). ἐσλός for ἐσθλός is Boeotian. So

everywhere (O. 1.99 al.). The first syllable is short, O. 2.19; P. 3.66; N. 4.95. αὖτις for αὖθις everywhere (O. 1.66), δέκεσθαι for δέχεσθαι (O. 4.8 al.). For τότε is found the Doric form τόκα (O. 6.66). Noteworthy are ὄκχος = ὄχος (O. 6.24), and ὀκχέοντι = ὀχέοντι (O. 2.74), and πετοῖσαι = πεσοῦσαι (O. 7.69), πετόντεσσι = πεσοῦσι (P. 5.50), ἔμπετες = ἐνέπεσες (P. 8.81), κάπετον = κατέπεσον (O. 8.38).

Pindar has ὅσσος (O. 9.100 al.) as well as ὅσος (O. 2.75 al.), τοσσάδε (O. 1.115) as well as τόσα (O. 13.71), μέσσος (P. 4.224) as well as μέσος (P. 11.52 al.), ὧτε, after the Doric fashion (O. 10 [11], 86 al.), as well as ὥστε (O. 9.74), though in different senses.

Φήρ for θήρ is Aiolic, and is used of the Centaur. Φερσεφόνα (P. 12.2) is familiar from the Iliad (1, 268; 2, 143). δ is not changed before μ in κεκαδμένον (O. 1.27), τεθμός is a Doric form for θεσμός (O. 8.25 and often). Metathesis and other slight variations explain themselves.

DIGAMMA. — Pindar seems to have used the digamma both in speech and in writing, and in this edition the example of

Mommsen and Christ has been followed after some hesitation, and the digamma, though in skeletonform, has been restored to the text.4 That the use was not rigid is clear. But from this irregularity we are not to draw the inference that Pindar only imitates the effects of the digamma, as seen in Epic poetry, although it must be admitted that the digammated words in Pindar are nearly all Homeric. ϝοῖ, ϝέ, ϝόν (= ἑόν), orig. σϝοῖ, σϝέ, σϝεόν. οἶδα and ἴδον (compare wot and wit) have the digamma: πολλὰ ϝειδώς (O. 2.94), πάντα ϝίσαντι νόῳ (P. 3.29), ἐπεὶ ϝίδον (P. 5.84), and yet οὔτ᾽ ἰδεῖν (O. 6.53), ὄφρ᾽ ἰδοῖσ᾽ (O. 14.22). Add ϝεῖδος (O. 8.19), ϝείδομαι (P. 4.21). ϝανδάνειν (fr. σϝανδάνειν) is found (P. 1.29), ϝαδόντι (P. 6.51). ϝέργον and its congeners, μέγα ϝέργον (P. 1.29), ϝειπεῖν (O. 13.68 al.), yet εἰπεῖν (O. 1.52 al.), ϝέπος (O. 6.16; P. 2.16; 3, 2; N. 7.48), but ἔπος is more common, though some examples may be got rid of by emendation. ϝοῖκος (P. 7.4) occurs, but also οἶκος (P. 1.72), οἰκεῖν is certain (P. 11.64), not so ϝοικεῖν: ϝάναξ, and ϝανάσσω, once ἀνάκτων (O. 10 [11], 54). ϝελπίς (O. 13.83), but ἐλπίς (O. 12.6), as often. ϝέτος (O. 2.102). ϝείκοσι (N. 6.67). ϝεσπέρα (I. 7 [8], 44), but ἕσπερον (O. 10 [11], 82), ϝίδιος (O. 13.49). There are examples of ϝίσος in Nemeans and Isthmians; ἴσον (O. 4.22). τὰ ϝεοικότα occurs (P. 3.59), ἐοικός everywhere else, ϝέκατι (O. 14.20), ϝῆθος (O. 11 [10], 21), ϝιόπλοκον (O. 6.30), but ἰοπλοκάμων (P. 1.1). In proper names ϝαχοῖ (O. 14.21), ἐς δὲ ϝιωλκόν (P. 4.188), ϝιλιάδα (O. 9.120), ϝιόλαον (P. 9.85 al.), ϝιάλυσον (O. 7.76) [?]. In the Isthmians ϝισθμός, elsewhere Ἰσθμός (O. 8.48). Probably ϝώανιν (O. 5.11). The digamma in the middle of a word, ἀϝελπτίᾳ (P. 12.31), ἄϝιδρις (P. 2.37), is seldom indicated in this edition, e. g. ἀϝάταν (P. 2.28; 3, 24), as the chief object of the insertion is the very practical one of avoiding the perpetual explanation of hiatus, to which the young student of Greek should be made as sensitive as possible.

HIATUS. — True hiatus is rare in Pindar, though he sometimes keeps a long vowel long before another vowel, as γλώσσᾳ

ἀκόνας (O. 6.82). For Ὀρθωσίᾳ ἔγραψεν (O. 3.29) Ahrens writes Ὀρθωσίας. The shortening of a long vowel before a vowel is not hiatus, as ἀβουλίᾳ ὕστατος (O. 10 [11], 45), ἐν Πίσᾳ ἔλσαις (O. 10 [11], 47). In the case of a diphthong it would seem that ι and υ may be semi-consonant. Notice especially ει short in Pindar before a vowel, e. g. ἵππει^ον (O. 13.68 al.). αὐ- is short in ἀυάταν (P. 2.28), but in this ed. ἀϝάταν is preferred. εὐ- is short in ἰχνευ?́ων (P. 8.35).

CRASIS. — The ordinary crases, such as those with και, τό, τοῦ, belong to the grammar. Some read ὦναξ (P. 8.67). 'ριστόμενες (P. 8.80),

Crasis and Aphaeresis.
is APHAERESIS rather than crasis. Bergk goes so far as to write ἀρχη 'κδέξατο (P. 4.70), and ὀλβω ν̓δείξατο (P. 4.256).

ELISION. — α is sometimes elided in 1 s. perf. act., ἐπιλέλαθ᾽ (O. 10 [11], 4); αι in 1 s. midd., μέμφομ᾽ αἶσαν (P. 11.53),

ψεύσομ᾽ ἀμφί (O. 13.52); in 3 pl. (often), κυλίνδοντ᾽ ἐλπίδες (O. 12.6); in inf., ἀποθέσθ᾽ ἄπορον (O. 10 [11], 44). ι is elided in 1 s., ἀφίημ᾽ ἀγρούς (P. 4.149); in 3 pl. (Doric), ἀγαπάζοντ᾽ αὐτίκα (P. 4.241). Also περ᾽ for περί (see p. lxxxvii.). ο is elided in τοῦτο (O. 6.57 al.), κεῖνο (P. 9.74), δεῦρο (O. 8.51), even in δύο (O. 6.101; 9, 86), in 3 pl. midd.; 2 s. opt. midd., γένοι᾽ οἷος (P. 2.72), and in the genitive singular O-declension in -οιο, a non-Homeric freedom, Δάλοι᾽ ἀνάσσων (P. 1.39).

Synizesis and Diaeresis.
SYNIZESIS is very common in Pindar, and it has been thought best to indicate it in the text as well as DIAERESIS.

FIRST DECLENSION. — Pindar usually follows the Doric dialect here. Notice, however, the Aiolic shortening of Πέλλανα^

First Declension.
for Πελλήνη (O. 7.86; 13, 109), Νέμεα^ (O. 13.24), Κύκνεια^ (O. 10 [11], 17), Μινύεια (O. 14.17). Compare the Aiolic form Ὀδύσσεια, retained in standard Greek. Also χρυσοχαῖτα (P. 2.16), ἔπιβδαν (P. 4.140), and words in -τρίαινα (O. 1.40, 70; O. 8.48; P. 2.12). G. s. masc. -αο (Aiolic), Κρονίδαο (P. 4.171), more commonly -α_ (Doric), Κρονίδα (O. 8.43). G. pl. -ᾶν (Doric), the only form: ἀρετᾶν ἄπο πασᾶν (O. 1.14). So the adj. ἀλλᾶν (O. 6.25), etc., with the accent on the last syllable, not ἄλλων. Dat. pl. -αις far more frequently than -αισι, as -οις far more frequently than -οισι. Acc. pl. -ας, but also the Aiolic -αις (I. 1, 24), as Aiolic -οις is suspected by Bergk (O. 2.82). Proper names in -λαος become -λας (Doric), and follow the A- declension Ἀρκεσίλας (P. 4.65), Ἀρκεσίλᾳ (P. 4.2), voc. Ἀρκεσίλα (P. 4.250. 298), but Ἰόλαος usually retains the open form (O. 9.105; P. 9.85 al.).

SECOND DECLENSION. — The genitive ends in -οιο or -ου, -οιο being susceptible of elision, as is noted p. lxxxii. The

Second Declension.
Doric acc. pl. in -ος is favored by the metre (O. 2.78), where, however, the best MSS. have νᾶσον: the metre does not require κακαγόρος (O. 1.53).

THIRD DECLENSION. — The dat. pl. ends in -σι, more frequently in -εσσι, sometimes (in ς- stems) we find -εεσσι, πα-

Third Declension.
λαίσμασι (O. 9.14), παλαισμάτεσσι (P. 8.35), μεγαλοκευθέεσσιν (P. 2.33). There is a good deal of variation, but nothing puzzling. So ποσσί (O. 10 [11], 71 al.), ποσίν (O. 10 [11], 62 al.), πόδεσσιν (N. 10.63). φρασί has better warrant than φρεσί. Genitive -εος and -εων are never contracted, but do admit synizesis. -ει is more common than -εϊ. In the nominative and accusative plural -εα is seldom contracted. From words in -κλῆς we find N. Ἡρακλέης, G. Ἡρακλέος, D. Ἡρακλεῖ and Ἡρακλῆι, A. Ἡρακλέα, V. Ἡράκλεες. From words in -ευς, G. Εὐρυσθέος (O. 3.28), rarely Εὐρυσθῆος (P. 9.86), D. βασιλεῖ (P. 1.60), βασιλέι (I. 3, 18), βασιλῆι (P. 4.2), βασιλέα (P. 4.32), βασιλῆα (O. 1.23), Ὀδυσσῆ (N. 8.26). N. pl. βασιλῆες (O. 9.60), βασιλέες (P. 5.97). Acc. βασιλῆας (P. 3.94), ἀριστέας (I. 7 [8], 55). Words in -ις retain -ι, πράξιος (P. 12.8), ὕβριος (O. 7.90). θυγάτηρ has θυγατέρι (P. 2.39) as well as θυγατρί, θύγατρα (O. 9.62) as well as θυγατέρα, and always θύγατρες (P. 3.97). Δαμάτηρ has Δάματρα (O. 6.95). πατέρος (O. 7.36 al.) occurs as well as πατρός, ματέρος (P. 4.74 al.) and ματρός, ματέρι (N. 9.4), and ματρί. ἀνήρ, besides the usual forms which are more common, has ἀνέρι (P. 4.21), ἀνέρα (O. 9.110), ἀνέρες (P. 4.173), ἀνέρων (O. 1.66). From Ζεύς Διός is far more common than Ζηνός, Ζηνί is nearly as common as Δί (Δί). Ζῆνα occurs twice (P. 4.194; 9, 64), Δία once. Ποσειδάων contracts αω into α, Ποσειδᾶν, or keeps open, and so all the cases except the dat., which is always Ποσειδάωνι. A variant is Ποτειδᾶνος (O. 13.5. 40).

The termination -θεν (-θε) occurs frequently. σέθεν takes

-θεν, -δε, -θι.
the prepositions of the genitive ἐκ and παρά. The local -δε (whither) is not common, -θι except in πόθι, τόθι, occurs only thrice.

GENDER. — Τάρταρος (P. 1.15) is fem. So is Ἰσθμὀς always (O. 7.81; 8, 48 al.), κίων, commonly fem. in the Od.,

is always fem. in Pindar. Μαραθών is fem. (O. 13.110), αἰών varies (fem. P. 4.186; 5, 7), αἰθήρ is sometimes fem., as in Homer (O. 1.6; 13, 88), sometimes masc. (O. 7.67 al.).

ADJECTIVES. — Pindar, like other poets, sometimes uses adjectives of two terminations instead of three, σὺν μοιριδίῳ πα-

λάμᾳ (O. 9.28), σιγαλὸν ἀμαχανίαν (P. 9.100); more commonly and more poetically adjectives of three terminations instead of two: ἀθανάτα Θέτις (P. 3.100), Δάλου θεοδμάτας (O. 6.59), ἀκινήταν ῥάβδον (O. 9.35), παρμονίμαν εὐδαιμονίαν (P. 7.15). Of the less common forms of πολύς note πολλόν = πολύ (O. 10 [11], 40), πολεῖς = πολλούς (P. 4.56), πολέσιν = πολλοῖς (O. 13.44). The old accentuations — ὁμοῖος, ἐρῆμος, ἑτοῖμος — are retained.

COMPARISON. — Pindar is fairly regular in his comparison. Eustathios says that he has a leaning to the endings -εστερος,

-εστατος, as ἀφθονέστερον (O. 2.104), ἀπονέστερον (O. 2.68), αἰδοιέστατον (O. 3.42). ταχυτάτων = ταχίστων (O. 1.77) is peculiar to Pindar. πόρσω forms πόρσιον (O. 1.114). μακρός forms μάσσων (O. 13.114) as well as μακρότερος.

PRONOUNS, Personal. — N. ἐγών once before a vowel (P. 3.77). σύ or τύ. Genitive σέο, σεῦ, σέθεν. D. ἐμοί or μοί (the

latter being far more common), σοί, τοί, τίν, of which τοι is always enclitic, while τίν like τύ is emphatic. ϝοῖ is common. I have not ventured to write ϝιν with Hermann and Bőckh (P. 4.36). (See G. Meyer, Gr. Gram. §§ 411, 414.) Acc. ἐμέ and μέ, σέ, ϝέ (O. 9.15). In the plural N. ἄμμες. D. ἄμμιν, ἄμμι, ὑμῖν (once), ὔμμιν, ὔμμι, σφίσι, σφίσιν, σφι, σφίν. Acc. ἄμμε, ὔμμε, σφέ. νίν (Doric) is preferred by recent editors to the Epic μίν, which is found not infrequently in the MSS. There are no reflexives. The emphatic forms of αὐτός suffice. Of the possessives note ἀμός = ἡμέτερος = ἐμός (P. 3.41; 4, 27); τεός (Doric) is far more common than σός, ἑός is nearly four times as common as ὅς: for ὑμέτερος we find ὑμός (P. 7.15; 8, 66), σφός occurs once (P. 5.102), σφέτερος = αὐτῶν (P. 10.38; I. 2, 27) twice, σφέτερος usually being = ἑός, while ἑός is once used for the possessive of the pl. (P. 2.91). The article has Doric α in the fem. So has the relative. Notice ταί = αἱ, = ὅς (P. 1.74 al.).

VERB. — The augment is often omitted, both syllabic and temporal, but it is safer to read α before two consonants long;

Verb. Augment.
hence ἆρχε (O. 10 [11], 51), ὑπᾶρχεν (P. 4.205). αι, αυ, ευ, ει are unchanged.

Of the terminations in the pres. act. -οντι (Doric) or -οισι (Aiolic) is used to the exclusion of -ουσι. οντι cannot take

ν ἐφελκυστικόν, and hence -οισιν must be used before vowels. On the so-called short subjunctive, see note on O. 1.7.

-μεν is more common than -ειν in the inf. στᾶμεν = στῆναι (P. 4.2), βᾶμεν = βῆναι (P. 4.39), whereas a long vowel before -μεν would not be allowed in Homer. ἔμμεναι occurs, but ἔμμεν is nearly twice as common. The Doric γαρύεν (O. 1.3), τράφεν (P. 4.115) has the authority of the MSS., not the cogency of metre.5 γεγάκειν (Doric) is from a theoretical γεγάκω, and is = γεγονέναι (O. 6.49).

In the participles -οισα (Aiolic) is used exclusively in the fem. pres. -αις and -αισα (Aiolic) in the masc. and fem. aor.,

but never in βάς: ἀναβάς (O. 13.86), καταβάς (O. 6.58). Two perfect participles have present endings: πεφρίκοντας (P. 4.183), κεχλάδοντας (P. 4.179).

In the passive the open forms, -εαι, -εο, are preferred, with synizesis, if needful (but always δέκευ). -μεσθα for -μεθα oc

curs (P. 10.28). In the 3 pl. aor. pass. -εν is used as needed, φάνεν (O. 10 [11], 88), δμᾶθεν (P. 8.17). So in the active ἔβαν (O. 2.38), ἔγνον (P. 4.120).

Many verbs in -ζω form the future and aor. in ξ instead of

the ordinary ς (see G. Meyer, Gr. Gram. § 529). κλεΐξειν (O. 1.110), εὐκλεΐξαι (P. 9.99), κατεφάμιξεν (O. 6.56), ἀποφλαυρίξαισα (P. 3.12). ἴυξεν (P. 4.237), a Pindaric word, simply follows the analogy of onomatopoetic verbs in -ξω, which regularly have ξ as ἀλάλαξεν (O. 7.37).
Verbs in -ξω.
Others vary. κωμάζω forms κωμάξατε (N. 2.24) and κωμάσαις (N. 11.28); κομίξω, κόμισον (O. 2.16) and κομίξαις (P. 5.51); ὑπαντιάξω, ὑπαντίασεν (P. 4.135) and ὑπαντιάξαισα (P. 8.11); ἁρπάξω, ἅρπασε (P. 3.44) and ἁρπάξαις (P. 4.34); ἅρμοσαν (P. 3.114), but in the compound ἐναρμόξαι (O. 3.5). Only a few verbs in -ξω double ς in the ς- forms, as θεμισσάμενος (P. 4.141), whereas future and aor. ς, preceded by a short vowel, are often doubled: ἐράσσατο (O. 1.25), ἐκάλεσσε (O. 6.58), ἄνυσσεν (P. 12.11). This so-called gemination is a reappearance (G. Meyer, Gr. Gram. § 224).

Pindar uses the Homeric ἐδόκησεν (P. 6.40), but also the common ἔδοξαν (O. 5.16); once he uses ἐκδιδάσκησεν (P. 4.217); αἰνέω increases in η except three times; verbs in -αίνω have -ανα in the aor.

Contract Verbs. Pindar contracts regularly the verbs in -αω. ναιετάω, an Epic verb, is the only one left open, ναιε-

Contract Verbs.
τάοντες (O. 6.78; P. 4.180). Verbs in -εω contract -εε and -εει into -ει, but -εο, -εοι, -εω are never contracted. Verbs in -οω contract.

Verbs in -μι. τιθεῖς (P. 8.11), διδοῖ (P. 4.265), are found as from verbs in -ω, but τίθησι (P. 2.10) and δίδωσι (P. 5.65)

Verbs in -μι.
also occur. There is much dispute about the reading in P. 4.155 (where see the notes). δίδοι (Aiolic) is the only form used for the imperative. The short forms, τίθεν (P. 3.65), παρέσταν (O. 10 [11], 58), κατέσταν (P. 4.135) = ἐτίθεσαν, παρέστησαν, κατέστησαν may be noticed. δοῦναι occurs once (P. 4.35), otherwise δόμεν is the rule (see p. lxxxv.). The passive forms require no special exhibit. The first aorist middle of τίθημι balances the second, each occurring four times, θηκάμενος (P. 4.29), θέμεναι (O. 14.9). Notice ἔρα_ται, 3 s. pres. subj. midd. from ἔραμαι (P. 4.92).

Pr. s., 1. εἰμί, 2. ἐσσί, 3. ἐστι: pl., 1. εἰμέν, 3. ἐντί, once εἰσίν (P. 5.116). Inf., ἔμμεν or ἔμμεναι. Part., ἐών, ἐοῖσα. Impf. s., 3. ἦν: pl., 3. ἔσαν or ἔσσαν. Fut. s., 1. ἔσσομαι, 3. ἔσσεται, ἔσεται, ἔσται. Inf., ἔσεσθαι, ἔσσεσθαι. Part., ἐσσόμενος.

φαμί has for its third pers. pl. φαντί. ἴσαμι is a Doric verb = οἶδα.

PREPOSITIONS. — παρά, ἀνά, κατά are apocopated when apocope is needful. ἀμνάσει (P. 4.54) = ἀναμνάσει, so ἀμνάσειεν

P. 1.47). κὰν νόμον (O. 8.78) = κατὰ νόμον, κάπετον (O. 8.38) = κατέπεσον. Compare Alkm. fr. 38: καβαίνων. ποτί (Doric) = πρός. It is elided once ποτ᾽ ἀστῶν (O. 7.90), and rarely used in compounds ποτιστάζων (P. 4.137), and in five other words. The regular πρός is far more common.

εἰς is suffered only before vowels, and when a long syllable is needed, and in composition εἰσιδέτω (I. 7 [8], 36) is the only example. Everywhere else we find ἐς. ἐν with the acc., especially noticeable in Boeotian inscriptions, is found only in Aiolic odes (P. 2.11. 86; 5, 38).

περί is elided περ᾽ ἀτλάτου (O. 6.38), περ᾽ αὐτᾶς (P. 4.265), περάπτων (P. 3.52). For μετά Aiol.-Dor. πεδά is found (P. 5.47; 8, 74). In compare πεδάμειψαν (O. 12.12). ξύν occurs only three times, once alone (N. 4.25), twice in composition.

1 “[Mistral's poems] are written in a dialect which is neither the real old Provençal nor the modern patois, but a combination of the poet's own.” — G. MONOD.

2 AHRENS, Ueber die Mischung der Dialecte in der griechischen Lyrik. (Verh. der Gött. Phil.-versamml., 1852, p. 55 sq.)

3 The ensuing pages are abridged from the dissertation of W. A. PETER, De dialecto Pindari, Halle, 1866, with corrections and adaptations. Use has also been made of E. MUCKE, De dialectis Stesichori, Ibyci, Simonidis, Bacchylidis aliorumque poetarum choricorum cum Pindarica comparatis. Leipzig, 1879.

4 Against the introduction of the digamma, see MUCKE, p. 39.

5 Impugned by CHRIST, Philol. XXV. p. 628; MUCKE, p. 29.

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