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C. Caesar

and L. CAESAR, the sons of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, and the grandsons of Augustus. Caius was born in B. C. 20 and Lucius in B. C. 17, and in the latter year they were both adopted by Augustus. In B. C. 13, Caius, who was then only seven years of age, took part with other patrician youths in the Trojan game at the dedication of the temple of Marcellus by Augustus. In B. C. 8, Caius accompanied Tiberius in his campaign against the Sigambri in order to become acquainted with military exercises. Augustus carefully superintended the education of both the youths, but they early shewed signs of an arrogant and overbearing temper, and importuned their grandfather to bestow upon them public marks of honour. Their requests were seconded by the entreaties of the people, and granted by Augustus, who, under the appearance of a refusal, was exceedingly anxious to grant them the honours they solicited. Thus they were declared consuls elect and principes juventutis before they had laid aside the dress of childhood. Caius was nominated to the consulship in B. C. 5, but was not to enter upon it till five years afterwards. He assumed the toga virilis in the same year, and his brothel in B. C. 2.

Caius was sent into Asia in B. C. 1, where he passed his consulship in the following year, A. D. 1. About this time Phraates IV., king of Parthia, seized upon Armenia, and Caius accordingly prepared to make war against him, but the Parthian king gave up Armenia, and settled the terms of peace at an interview with Caius on an island in the Euphrates. (A. D. 2.) After this Caius went to take possession of Armenia, but was treacherously wounded before the town of Artagera in this country. Of this wound he never recovered, and died some time afterwards at Limyra in Lycia, on the 21st of February, A. D. 4. His brother Lucius had died eighteen months previously, on August 20th, A. D. 2, at Massilia, on his way to Spain. Their bodies were brought to Rome. Some suspected that their death was occasioned by their step-mother Livia. (D. C. 54.8, 18, 26, 4.6, 9, 11, 12; Zonar. x. p. 539 ; Suet. Aug. 26, 56, 64, 65, Tib. 12; Vell. 2.101, 102; Tac. Ann. 1.3, 2.4; Florus, 4.12.42; Lapis Ancyranus.)

C. Caesar married Livia or Livilla, the daughter of Antonia [ANTONIA, No. 6], who afterwards married the younger Drusus, but he left no issue. (Tac. Ann. 4.40.) L. Caesar was to have married Aemilia Lepida, but died previously. (Ann. 3.23.) There are several coins both of Caius and Lucius : their portraits are given in the one annexed. (Eckhel, vi. p. 170.)

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  • Cross-references from this page (7):
    • Tacitus, Annales, 1.3
    • Tacitus, Annales, 2.4
    • Tacitus, Annales, 4.40
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 26
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 56
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 64
    • Suetonius, Divus Augustus, 65
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