The opposing armies at the first Bull Run.
[The composition and losses of each army as here stated give the gist of all the data obtainable in the Official Records
K stands for killed; w for wounded; m for captured or missing; c for captured.-editors.]
Strength of the Union army.
General James B. Fry
, who was General McDowell
's adjutant-general, prepared in October, 1884, a statement of the strength of the army, in brief as follows:
It was not practicable at the time to ascertain the strength of the army with accuracy; and it is impossible now to make a return which can be pronounced absolutely correct.
The abstract which appears on page 309, vol.
II., Official Records, is not a return of McDowell's army at the battle of Bull Run, and was not prepared by me, but, as I understand, has been compiled since the war. It purports to give the strength of the “ Department of Northeastern Virginia,” July 16th and 17th, not of McDowell's army, July 21st.
It does not show the losses resulting from the discharge of the 4th Pennsylvania Infantry and Varian's New York battery, which marched to the rear on the morning of the 21st, nor the heavy losses incident to the march of the army from the Potomac; it embraces two regiments — the 21st and 25th New York Infantry--which were not with the army in the field; and it contains the strength of Company E, Second United States Cavalry, as a special item, whereas that company is embraced in the strength of the Second (Hunter's) Division, to which it, with the rest of the cavalry, belonged.
In his report of the battle (p. 324, vol.
II., Official Records) General McDowell says he crossed Bull Run “with about eighteen thousand men.”
I collected information to that effect for him at the time.
His statement is substantially correct.
The following is an exhibit in detail of the forces actually engaged:
Only Keyes's and Sherman's brigades of the four brigades of the First Division crossed Bull Run.
The Fifth Division, with Richardson's brigade of the First Division attached, was in reserve at and in front of Centreville.
Some of it was lightly engaged on our side of Bull Run in repelling a feeble advance of the enemy.
The Fourth (Reserve) Division was left to guard our communications with the Potomac, its advance being seven miles in rear of Centreville.
That is to say, McDowell crossed Bull Run with 896 officers, 17,676 rank and file, and 24 pieces of artillery.
The artillerymen who crossed Bull Run are embraced in the figures of the foregoing table.
The guns were as follows: Ricketts's Battery, 6 10-pounder rifle guns; Griffin's Battery, 4 10-pounder rifle guns, 2 12-pounder howitzers; Arnold's Battery, 2 13-pounder rifle guns, 2 6-pounder smooth-bores; R. I. Battery, 6 13-pounder rifles; 71st N. Y. Reg't's Battery, 2 Dahlgren howitzers.
The artillery, in addition to that which crossed Bull Run, was as follows: Hunt's Battery, 4 12-pounder rifle guns; Carlisle's Battery, 2 13-pounder rifle guns, 2 6-pounder smooth-bore guns; Tidball's Battery, 2 6-pounder smooth-bore guns, 2 12-pounder howitzers; Greene's Battery, 4 10-pounder rifle guns; Ayres's Battery, 2 10-pounder rifle guns, 2 6-pounder smooth-bore guns, 2 12-pounder howitzers; Edwards's Battery, 2 20-pounder rifle guns, 1 30-pounder rifle gun.
|First Division, two brigades||284||5,068|
|Second Division, two brigades||252||5,717|
|Third Division, three brigades||341||6,891|
Composition and losses of the Confederate army.
General Joseph E. Johnston
Army of the Potomac, Brig.-Gen. G. T. Beauregard
. First Brigade
, Brig.-Gen. M. L. Bonham
: 11th N. C., Col. W. W. Kirkland
; 2d S. C., Col. J. B. Kershaw
; 3d S. C., Col. J. H. Williams
; 7th S. C., Col. Thomas G. Bacon
; 8th S. C., Col. E. B. C. Cash
. Loss: k, 10; w, 66 =76. Second Brigade
[not actively engaged], Brig.-Gen. R. S. Ewell
: 5th Ala., Col. R. E. Rodes
; 6th Ala., Col. J. J. Seibels
; 6th La., Col. J. G. Seymour
. Third Brigade, Brig.-Gen. D. R. Jones
: 17th Miss., Col. W. S. Featherston
; 18th Miss., Col. E. R. Burt
; 5th S. C., Col. M. Jenkins
Loss: k, 13; w, 62 = 75. Fourth Brigade
[not actively engaged], Brig.-Gen. James Longstreet
: 5th N. C., Lieut.-Col. Jones
; 1st Va., Major F. G. Skinner
; 11th Va., Col. S. Garland, Jr.
; 17th Va., Col. M. D. Corse
Loss: k, 2; w, 12 = 14. Fifth Brigade
, Col. P. St. Geo. Cocke
: 8th Va., Col. Eppa Hunton
; 18th Va., Col. R. E. Withers
; 19th Va., Lieut.-Col. J. B. Strange
; 28th Va., Col. R. T. Preston
; 49th Va. (3 cos.), Col. Wm. Smith
Loss: k, 23; w, 79; mi, 2 =104. Sixth Brigade
, Col. Jubal A. Early
: 7th La., Col. Harry T. Hays
; 13th Miss., Col. Wm. Barksdale
; 7th Va., Col. J. L. Kemper
; 24th Va., Lieut.-Col. P. Hairston, Jr.
Loss: k, 12; w, 67 = 79. Evans's command
(temporarily organized), Col. N. G. Evans
: 1st La. Battalion, Major C. R. Wheat
(w); 4th S. C., Col. J. B. E. Sloan
; Cavalry, Capt. W. R. Terry
; Artillery, Lieut. G. S. Davidson
Loss: k, 20; w, 118; m, 8 = 146. Reserve Brigade
[not actively engaged], Brig.-Gen. T. H. Holmes
: 1st Arkansas and 2d Tennessee. Unattached Infantry
. 8th La.: Col. H. B. Kelly
's (S. C.) Legion, Col. Wade Hampton
Loss: k, 19; w, 100; m, 2 = 121. Cavalry
: 30th Virginia, Col. R. C. W. Radford
's Battalion; Ten independent companies.
Loss: k, 5; w, 8 = 13. Artillery:
Battalion Washington Artillery (La.
), Major J. B. Walton
; Alexandria (Va.)
Battery, Capt. Del Kemper
's (Va.) Battery, Capt. H. G. Latham
; Loudoun (Va.)
Artillery, Capt. Arthur L. Rogers
's (Va.) Battery, Capt. J. C. Shields
Loss: k, 2; w, 8 =10.
Total loss Army of the Potomac: k, 105; w, 519; m, 12 = 636.
Army of the Shenandoah, General Joseph E. Johnston
. First Brigade
, Brig.-Gen. T. J. Jackson
: 2d Va., Col. J. W. Allen
; 4th Va., Col. J. F. Preston
; 5th Va., Col. Kenton Harper
; 27th Va., Lieut.-Col. John Echols
; 33d Va., Col. A. C. Cummings
. Loss: k, 119; w, 442 = 561. Second Brigade
, Col. F. S. Bartow
(k): 7th Ga., Col. Lucius J. Gartrell
; 8th Ga., Lieut.-Col. W. M. Gardner
Loss: k, 60; w, 293 = 353. Third Brigade
, Brig.-Gen. B. E. Bee
(k): 4th Ala., Col. Jones
(k), Col. S. R. Gist
; 2d Miss., Col. W. C. Falkner
; 11th Miss. (2 cos.), Lieut.-Col. P. F. Liddell
; 6th N. C., Col. C. F. Fisher
(k). Loss: k, 95; w, 309; m, 1 = 405. Fourth Brigade
, Brig.-Gen. E. K. Smith
(w), Col. Arnold Elzey
: 1st Md. Battalion, Lieut.-Col. George H. Steuart
; 3d Tennessee, Col. John C. Vaughn
; 10th Va., Col. S. B. Gibbons
; 13th Va., Col. A. P. Hill
Loss: k, 8; w, 19 = 27. Artillery: Imboden
's, and Beckham
: 1st Va., Col. J. E. B. Stuart
(Loss not specifically reported.) Total loss Army of the Shenandoah: k, 282; w, 1063; m, 1 = 1346.
Total loss of the Confederate Army: killed, 387; wounded, 1582; captured or missing, 13,--grand total, 1982.
Strength of the Confederate army.
In October, 1884, General Thomas Jordan
, who was General Beauregard
's adjutant-general, prepared a statement of the strength of the Confederate army at Bull Run
, of which the following is a condensation: <
p>So far as the troops of Beauregard's immediate Army of the Potomac are concerned, this statement is condensed from two that I prepared with the sub-returns of ail the commands before me as the adjutant-general of that army, September 25th, 1861, and I will vouch for its exactness.
In respect to the Army of the Shenandoah, I have been obliged to present an estimate of 8340 as the total of the rank and file of Johnston's army, my authority for which is a statement written by me in the official report of the battle, and based, as I distinctly recollect, upon official documents and returns in my hands at the time, of the accuracy of which I was and am satisfied.
The totals of General Beauregard's Army of the Potomac are:
Army of the Potomac available on the field.
|Generals and Staff||37|
|Infantry, Rank and File||19,569|
Army of the Potomac actively engaged.
|Generals and Staff||10|
|Infantry, Rank and File||8,415|
|Army of the Potomac--Rank and File engaged||8,415||100||288||10||9,713 |
|Army of the Shenandoah, Rank and File engaged (estimated)||7,684||300||350||6||8,340 |
|Total Rank and File, both Confederate armies, engaged||16,099||1,300||638||16||18,053 |