previous next

Chapter III

  • Reasons for not pursuing Early through the Blue Ridge
  • -- General Torbert detailed to give General Rosser a “drubbing” -- General Rosser routed -- telegraphed to meet Stanton -- Longstreet's message -- return to Winchester -- the ride to Cedar Creek -- the retreating Army -- rallying the troops -- Reforming the line -- commencing the attack -- defeat of the Confederates -- appointed a Major -- General in the regular Army -- results of the battle.

While we lay in camp at Garrisonburg it became necessary to decide whether or not I would advance to Brown's Gap, and, after driving the enemy from there, follow him through the Blue Ridge into eastern Virginia. Indeed, this question began to cause me solicitude as soon as I knew Early had escaped me at New Market, for I felt certain that I should be urged to pursue the Confederates toward Charlottesville and Gordonsville, and be expected to operate on that line against Richmond. For many reasons I was much opposed to such a plan, but mainly because its execution would involve the opening of the Orange and Alexandria railroad. To protect this road against the raids of the numerous guerrilla bands that infested the region through which it passed, and to keep it in operation, would require a large force of infantry, and would also greatly reduce my cavalry; besides, I should be obliged to leave a force in the valley strong enough to give security to the line of the upper Potomac and the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and this alone would probably take the whole of Crook's command, leaving me a wholly inadequate number of fighting men to prosecute a campaign against the city of Richmond. Then, too, I was in doubt whether the besiegers could hold the entire army at Petersburg; and in case they could not, a number of troops sufficient to crush me might be detached by Lee, moved rapidly by rail, and, after overwhelming me, be quickly returned to confront General Meade. I was [310] moreover, that my transportation could not supply me further than Harrisonburg, and if in penetrating the Blue Ridge I met with protracted resistance, a lack of supplies might compel me to abandon the attempt at a most inopportune time.

I therefore advised that the Valley campaign be terminated north of Staunton, and I be permitted to return, carrying out on the way my original instructions for desolating the Shenandoah country so as to make it untenable for permanent occupation by the Confederates. I proposed to detach the bulk of my army when this work of destruction was completed, and send it by way of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad through Washington to the Petersburg line, believing that I could move it more rapidly by that route than by any other. I was confident that if a movement of this character could be made with celerity it would culminate in the capture of Richmond, and possibly of General Lee's army, and I was in hopes that General Grant would take the same view of the matter; but just at this time he was so pressed by the Government and by public opinion at the North, that he advocated the wholly different conception of driving Early into eastern Virginia, and adhered to this plan with some tenacity. Considerable correspondence regarding the subject took place between us, throughout which I stoutly maintained that we should not risk, by what I held to be a false move, all that my army had gained. I being on the ground, General Grant left to me the final decision of the question, and I solved the first step by determining to withdraw down the valley at least as far as Strasburg, which movement was begun on the 6th of October.

The cavalry as it retired was stretched across the country from the Blue Ridge to the eastern slope of the Alleghanies, with orders to drive off all stock and destroy all supplies as it moved northward. The infantry preceded the cavalry, passing down the Valley pike, and as we marched along the many columns of smoke from burning stacks, and mills filled with grain, indicated that the adjacent country was fast losing the features which hitherto had made it a great magazine of stores for the Confederate armies.

During the 6th and 7th of October, the enemy's horse followed us up, though at a respectful distance. This cavalry was now under command of General T. W. Rosser, who on October 5 had joined Early with an additional brigade from Richmond. As we proceeded the Confederates gained confidence, probably on account of the reputation with which its new commander had been heralded, and on the third day's march had the temerity to annoy my rear guard considerably. Tired of these annoyances, I concluded to open the enemy's eyes in earnest, so that night I told Torbert I expected him either to give Rosser a drubbing [311] next morning or get whipped himself, and that the infantry would be halted until the affair was over; I also informed him that I proposed to ride out to Round Top Mountain to see the fight. When I decided to have Rosser chastised, Merritt was encamped at the foot of Round Top, an elevation just north of Tom's Brook, and Custer some six miles farther north and west, near Tumbling Run. In the night Custer was ordered to retrace his steps before daylight by the Back road, which is parallel to and about three males from the Valley pike, and attack the enemy at Tom's Brook crossing, while Merritt's instructions were to assail him on the Valley pike in concert with Custer. About 7 in the morning, Custer's division encountered Rosser himself with three brigades, and while the stirring sounds of the resulting artillery duel were reverberating through the valley Merritt moved briskly to the front and fell upon Generals Lomax and Johnson on the Valley pike. Merritt, by extending his right, quickly established connection with Custer, and the two divisions moved forward together under Torbert's direction, with a determination to inflict on the enemy the sharp and summary punishment his rashness had invited.

The engagement soon became general across the valley, both sides fighting mainly mounted. For about two hours the contending lines struggled with each other along Tom's Brook, the charges and counter charges at many points being plainly visible from the summit of Round Top, where I had my headquarters for the time.

The open country permitting a sabre fight, both sides seemed bent on using that arm. In the centre the Confederates maintained their position with much stubbornness, and for a time seemed to have recovered their former spirit, but at last they began to give way on both flanks, and as these receded, Merritt and Custer went at the wavering ranks in a charge along the whole front. The result was a general smashup of the entire Confederate line, the retreat quickly degenerating into a rout the like of which was never before seen. For twenty-six miles this wild stampede kept up, with our troopers close at the enemy's heels; and the ludicrous incidents of the chase never ceased to be amusing topics around the camp-fires of Merritt and Custer. In the fight and pursuit Torbert took eleven pieces of artillery, with their caissons, all the wagons and ambulances the enemy had on the ground, and three hundred prisoners. Some of Rosser's troopers fled to the mountains by way of Columbia Furnace, and some up the Valley pike and into the Massanutten Range, apparently not discovering that the chase had been discontinued till south of Mount Jackson they rallied on Early's infantry. [312]

After this catastrophe, Early reported to General Lee that his cavalry was so badly demoralized that it should be dismounted; and the citizens of the valley, intensely disgusted with the boasting and swaggering that had characterized the arrival of the “Laurel brigade” 1 in that section, baptized the action (known to us as Tom's Brook) the “Woodstock races,” and never tired of poking fun at General Rosser about his precipitate and inglorious flight.

On the 10th my army, resuming its retrograde movement, crossed to the north side of Cedar Creek. The work of repairing the Manassas Gap branch of the Orange and Alexandria railroad had been begun some days before, out from Washington, and, anticipating that it would be in readiness to transport troops by the time they could reach Piedmont, I directed the Sixth Corps to continue its march toward Front Royal, expecting to return to the Army of the Potomac by that line. By the 12th, however, my views regarding the reconstruction of this railroad began to prevail, and the work on it was discontinued. The Sixth Corps, therefore, abandoned that route, and moved toward Ashby's Gap with the purpose of marching direct to Washington, but on the 13th I recalled it to Cedar Creek, in consequence of the arrival of the enemy's infantry at Fisher's Hill, and the receipt, the night before, of the following despatch, which again opened the question of an advance on Gordonsville and Charlottesville:


Washington, October 12, 1864, 12 M.
Major-General Sheridan:
Lieutenant-General Grant wishes a position taken far enough south to serve as a base for further operations upon Gordonsville and Charlottesville. It must be strongly fortified and provisioned. Some point in the vicinity of Manassas Gap would seem best suited for all purposes. Colonel Alexander, of the Engineers, will be sent to consult with you as soon as you connect with General Augur.

H. W. Halleck, Major-General.

As it was well known in Washington that the views expressed in the above despatch were counter to my convictions, I was the next day [313] required by the following telegram from Secretary Stanton to repair to that city:

Washington, October 13, 1864.
Major-General Sheridan (through General Augur):
If you can come here, a consultation on several points is extremely desirable. I propose to visit General Grant, and would like to see you first.

Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War.

I got all ready to comply with the terms of Secretary Stanton's despatch, but in the meantime the enemy appeared in my front in force, with infantry and cavalry, and attacked Colonel Thoburn, who had been pushed out toward Strasburg from Crook's command, and also Custer's division of cavalry on the Back road. As afterward appeared, this attack was made in the belief that all of my troops but Crook's had gone to Petersburg. From this demonstration there ensued near Hupp's Hill a bitter skirmish between Kershaw and Thoburn, and the latter was finally compelled to withdraw to the north bank of Cedar Creek. Custer gained better results, however, on the Back road, with his usual dash driving the enemy's cavalry away from his front, Merritt's division then joining him and remaining on the right.

The day's events pointing to a probability that the enemy intended to resume the offensive, to anticipate such a contingency I ordered the Sixth Corps to return from its march toward Ashby's Gap. It reached me by noon of the 14th, and went into position to the right and rear of the Nineteenth Corps, which held a line along the north bank of Cedar Creek, west of the Valley pike. Crook was posted on the left of the Nineteenth Corps and east of the Valley pike, with Thoburn's division advanced to a round hill, which commanded the junction of Cedar Creek and the Shenandoah River, while Torbert retained both Merritt and Custer on the right of the Sixth Corps, and at the same time covered with Powell the roads toward Front Royal. My headquarters were at the Belle Grove House, which was to the west of the pike and in rear of the Nineteenth Corps. It was my intention to attack the enemy as soon as the Sixth Corps reached me, but General Early having learned from his demonstration that I had not detached as largely as his previous information had led him to believe, on the night of the 13th withdrew [314] to Fisher's Hill; so, concluding that he could not do us serious hurt from there, I changed my mind as to attacking, deciding to defer such action till I could get to Washington, and come to some definite understanding about my future operations.

To carry out this idea, on the evening of the 15th I ordered all of the cavalry under General Torbert to accompany me to Front Royal, again intending to push it thence through Chester Gap to the Virginia Central railroad at Charlottesville, to destroy the bridge over the Rivanna River, while I passed through Manassas Gap to Rectortown, and thence by rail to Washington. On my arrival with the cavalry near Front Royal on the 16th, I halted at the house of Mrs, Richards, on the north bank of the river, and there received the following despatch and inclosure from General Wright, who had been left in command at Cedar Creek:

headquarters Middle Military division, October 16, 1864.
I enclose you despatch which explains itself. If the enemy should be strongly re-enforced in cavalry, he might, by turning our right, give us a great deal of trouble. I shall hold on here until the enemy's movements are developed, and shall only fear an attack on my right, which I shall make every preparation for guarding against and resisting.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, H. G. Wright, Major-General Commanding. Major-General P. H. Sheridan, Commanding Middle Military Division.


Be ready to move as soon as my forces join you, and we will crush Sheridan.

Longstreet, Lieutenant-General.

The message from Longstreet had been taken down as it was being flagged from the Confederate signal-station on Three Top Mountain, and afterward translated by our signal officers, who knew the Confederate signal code. I first thought it a ruse, and hardly worth attention, but on reflection deemed it best to be on the safe side, so I abandoned the cavalry raid toward Charlottesville, in order to give General Wright [315] the entire strength of the army, for it did not seem wise to reduce his numbers while reinforcement for the enemy might be near, and especially when such pregnant messages were reaching Early from one of the ablest of the Confederate generals. Therefore I sent the following note to General Wright:

headquarters Middle Military division, Front Royal, October 16, 1864.
General: The cavalry is all ordered back to you; make your position strong. If Longstreet's despatch is true, he is under the impression that we have largely detached. I will go over to Augur, and may get additional news. Close in Colonel Powell, who will be at this point. If the enemy should make an advance, I know you will defeat him. Look well to your ground and be well prepared. Get up everything that can be spared. I will bring up all I can, and will be up on Tuesday, if not sooner.

P. H. Sheridan, Major-General. Major-General H. G. Wright, Commanding Sixth Army Corps.

At 5 o'clock on the evening of the 16th I telegraphed General Halleck from Rectortown, giving him the information which had come to me from Wright, asking if anything corroborative of it had been received from General Grant, and also saying that I would like to see Halleck; the telegram ending with the question: “Is it best for me to go to see you?” Next morning I sent back to Wright all the cavalry except one regiment, which escorted me through Manassas Gap to the terminus of the railroad from Washington. I had with me Lieutenant-Colonel James W. Forsyth, chief-of-staff, and three of my aides, Major George A. Forsyth, Captain Joseph O'Keefe, and Captain Michael V. Sheridan. I rode my black horse, Rienzi, and the others their own respective mounts.

Before leaving Cedar Creek I had fixed the route of my return to be by rail from Washington to Martinsburg, and thence by horseback to Winchester and Cedar Creek, and had ordered three hundred cavalry to Martinsburg to escort me from that point to the front. At Rectortown I met General Augur, who had brought a force out from Washington to reconstruct and protect the line of railroad, and through him received the following reply from General Halleck: [316]

headquarters armies of the United States, Washington, D. C., October 16, 1864.
To Major-General Sheridan, Rectortown, Va.
General Grant says that Longstreet brought with him no troops from Richmond, but I have very little confidence in the information collected at his headquarters. If you can leave your command with safety, come to Washington, as I wish to give you the views of the authorities here.

H. W. Halleck, Major-General, Chief-of-Staff.

In consequence of the Longstreet despatch, I felt a concern about my absence which I could hardly repress, but after duly considering what Halleck said, and believing that Longstreet could not unite with Early before I got back, and that even if he did Wright would be able to cope with them both, I and my staff, with our horses, took the cars for Washington, where we arrived on the morning of the 17th at about 8 o'clock. I proceeded at an early hour to the War Department, and as soon as I met Secretary Stanton, asked him for a special train to be ready at 12 o'clock to take me to Martinsburg, saying that in view of existing conditions I must get back to my army as quickly as possible. He at once gave the order for the train. and then the Secretary, Halleck, and I proceeded to hold a consultation in regard to my operating east of the Blue Ridge. The upshot was that my views against such a plan were practically agreed to, and two engineer officers were designated to return with me for the purpose of reporting on a defensive line in the valley that could be held while the bulk of my troops were being detached to Petersburg. Colonel Alexander and Colonel Thom, both of the Engineer Corps, reported to accompany me, and at 12 o'clock we took the train.

We arrived about dark at Martinsburg, and there found the escort of three hundred men which I had ordered before leaving Cedar Creek. We spent that night at Martinsburg, and early next morning mounted and started up the Valley pike for Winchester, leaving Captain Sheridan behind to conduct to the army the Commissioners whom the State of New York had sent down to receive the vote of her troops in the coming Presidential election. Colonel Alexander was a man of enormous weight, and Colonel Thom correspondingly light, and as both were unaccustomed to riding we had to go slowly, losing so much time, in fact, that we did not reach Winchester till between 3 and 4 o'clock in the afternoon, though the distance is but twenty-eight miles. As soon as we arrived at Colonel Edwards's headquarters in the town, where I intended [317] stopping for the night, I sent a courier to the front to bring me a report of the condition of affairs, and then took Colonel Alexander out on the heights about Winchester, in order that he might overlook the country, and make up his mind as to the utility of fortifying there. By the time we had completed our survey it was dark, and just as we reached Colonel Edwards's house on our return a courier came in from Cedar Creek bringing word that everything was all right, that the enemy was quiet at Fisher's Hill, and that a brigade of Grover's division was to make a reconnoissance in the morning, the 19th, so about 10 o'clock I went to bed greatly relieved, and expecting to rejoin my headquarters at my leisure next day.2 [318]

Toward 6 o'clock the morning of the 19th, the officer on picket duty at Winchester came to my room, I being yet in bed, and reported artillery firing from the direction of Cedar Creek. I asked him if the firing was continuous or only desultory, to which he replied that it was not a sustained fire, but rather irregular and fitful. I remarked: “It's all right; Grover has gone out this morning to make a reconnoissance, and he is merely feeling the enemy.” I tried to go to sleep again, but grew so restless that I could not, and soon got up and dressed myself. A little later the picket officer came back and reported that the firing, which could be distinctly heard from his line on the heights outside of Winchester, was still going on. I asked him if it sounded like a battle, and [319] as he again said that it did not, I still inferred that the cannonading was caused by Grover's division banging away at the enemy simply to find out what he was up to. However, I went down-stairs and requested that breakfast be hurried up, and at the same time ordered the horses to be saddled and in readiness, for I concluded to go to the front before any further examinations were made in regard to the defensive line.

We mounted our horses between half-past 8 and 9, and as we were proceeding up the street which leads directly through Winchester, from the Logan residence, where Edwards was quartered, to the Valley [320] pike, I noticed that there were many women at the windows and doors of the houses, who kept shaking their skirts at us and who were otherwise markedly insolent in their demeanor, but supposing this conduct to be instigated by their well-known and perhaps natural prejudices, I ascribed to it no unusual significance. On reaching the edge of the town I halted a moment, and there heard quite distinctly the sound of artillery firing in an unceasing roar. Concluding from this that a battle was in progress, I now felt confident that the women along the [321] street had received intelligence from the battlefield by the “grape-vine telegraph,” and were in raptures over some good news, while I as yet was utterly ignorant of the actual situation. Moving on, I put my head down toward the pommel of my saddle and listened intently, trying to locate and interpret the sound, continuing in this position till we had crossed Mill Creek, about half a mile from Winchester. The result of my efforts in the interval was the conviction that the travel of the sound [322] was increasing too rapidly to be accounted for by my own rate of motion, and that therefore my army must be falling back.

At Mill Creek my escort fell in behind, and we were going ahead at a regular pace, when, just as we made the crest of the rise beyond the stream, there burst upon our view the appalling spectacle of a [323] panic-stricken army-hundreds of slightly wounded men, throngs of others unhurt but utterly demoralized, and baggage-wagons by the score, all pressing to the rear in hopeless confusion, telling only too plainly that a disaster had occurred at the front. On accosting some of the fugitives, they assured me that the army was broken up, in full retreat, and that all was lost; all this with a manner true to that peculiar indifference that takes possession of panic-stricken men. I was greatly disturbed by the sight, but at once sent word to Colonel Edwards, commanding the brigade in Winchester, to stretch his troops across the valley, near Mill Creek, and stop all fugitives, directing also [324] that the transportation be passed through and parked on the north side of the town.

As I continued at a walk a few hundred yards farther, thinking all the time of Longstreet's telegram to Early, “Be ready when I join [325] you, and we will crush Sheridan,” I was fixing in my mind what I should do. My first thought was to stop the army in the suburbs of Winchester as it came back, form a new line, and fight there; but as the situation was more maturely considered a better conception prevailed. I was sure the troops had confidence in me, for heretofore we had been successful; and as at other times they had seen me present at the slightest sign of trouble or distress, I felt that I ought to try [326] now to restore their broken ranks, or, failing in that, to share their fate because of what they had done hitherto.

About this time Colonel Wood, my chief commissary, arrived from the front and gave me fuller intelligence, reporting that everything was gone, my headquarters captured, and the troops dispersed. When I heard this I took two of my aides-de-camp, Major George A. Forsyth and Captain Joseph O'Keefe, and with twenty men from the escort started for the front, at the same time directing Colonel James [327] W. Forsyth and Colonels Alexander and Thom to remain behind and do what they could to stop the runaways.

For a short distance I traveled on the road, but soon found it so blocked with wagons and wounded men that my progress was impeded, and I was forced to take to the adjoining fields to make haste. When most of the wagons and wounded were past I returned to the road, which was thickly lined with unhurt men, who, having got far [328] enough to the rear to be out of danger, had halted, without any organization, and begun cooking coffee, but when they saw me they abandoned their coffee, threw up their hats, shouldered their muskets, and as I passed along turned to follow with enthusiasm and cheers. To acknowledge this exhibition of feeling I took off my hat, and with Forsyth and O'Keefe rode some distance in advance of my escort, while every mounted officer who saw me galloped out on either side of the pike to tell the men at a distance that I had come back. In this way the news was spread to the stragglers off the road, when they, [329] too, turned their faces to the front and marched toward the enemy, changing in a moment from the depths of depression to the extreme of enthusiasm. I already knew that even in the ordinary condition of mind enthusiasm is a potent element with soldiers, but what I saw that day convinced me that if it can be excited from a state of despondency its power is almost irresistible. I said nothing except to remark, as I rode among those on the road: “If I had been with you this morning this disaster would not have happened. We must face the other way; we will go back and recover our camp.”

My first halt was made Just north of Newtown, where I met a chaplain digging his heels into the sides of his jaded horse, and making for the rear with all possible speed. I drew up for an instant, and inquired of him how matters were going at the front. He replied, “Everything is lost; but all will be right when you get there” ; yet notwithstanding this expression of confidence in me, the parson at once resumed his breathless pace to the rear. At Newtown I was obliged to make a circuit to the left, to get round the village. I could not pass through it, the streets were so crowded, but meeting on this detour Major McKinley, of Crook's staff, he spread the news of my return through the motley throng there.

When nearing the Valley pike, just south of Newtown I saw about three-fourths of a mile west of the pike a body of troops, which proved to be Ricketts's and Wheaton's divisions of the Sixth Corps, and then learned that the Nineteenth Corps had halted a little to the right and rear of these; but I did not stop, desiring to get to the extreme front. Continuing on parallel with the pike, about midway between Newtown and Middletown I crossed to the west of it, and a little later came up in rear of Getty's division of the Sixth Corps. When I arrived, this division and the cavalry were the only troops in the presence of and resisting the enemy; they were apparently acting as a rear guard at a point about three miles north of the line we held at Cedar Creek when the battle began. General Torbert was the first officer to meet me, saying as he rode up, “My God! I am glad you've come.” Getty's division, when I found it, was about a mile north of Middletown, posted on the reverse slope of some slightly rising ground, holding a barricade made with fence-rails, and skirmishing slightly with the enemy's pickets. Jumping my horse over the line of rails, I rode to the crest of the elevation, and there taking off my hat, the men rose up from behind their barricade with cheers of recognition. An officer of the Vermont brigade, Colonel A. S. Tracy, rode out to the front, and joining me, informed me that General Louis A. Grant was in command there, the regular division commander, General Getty, having taken charge of the Sixth Corps in place [330] of Ricketts, wounded early in the action, while temporarily commanding the corps. I then turned back to the rear of Getty's division, and as I came behind it, a line of regimental flags rose up out of the ground, as it seemed, to welcome me. They were mostly the colors of Crook's troops, who had been stampeded and scattered in the surprise of the morning. The color-bearers, having withstood the panic, had formed behind the troops of Getty. The line with the colors was largely composed of officers, among whom I recognized Colonel R. B. Hayes, since president of the United States, one of the brigade commanders. At the close of this incident I crossed the little narrow valley, or depression, in rear of Getty's line, and dismounting on the opposite crest, established that point as my headquarters. In a few minutes some of my staff joined me, and the first directions I gave were to have the Nineteenth Corps and the two divisions of Wright's corps brought to the front, so they could be formed on Getty's division, prolonged to the right; for I had already decided to attack the enemy from that line as soon as I could get matters in shape to take the offensive. Crook met me at this time, and strongly favored my idea of attacking, but said, however, that most of his troops were gone. General Wright came up a little later, when I saw that he was wounded, a ball having grazed the point of his chin so as to draw the blood plentifully.

Wright gave me a hurried account of the day's events, and when told that we would fight the enemy on the line which Getty and the cavalry were holding, and that he must go himself and send all his staff to bring up the troops, he zealously fell in with the scheme; and it was then that the Nineteenth Corps and two divisions of the Sixth were ordered to the front from where they had been halted to the right and rear of Getty.

After this conversation I rode to the east of the Valley pike and to the left of Getty's division, to a point from which I could obtain a good view of the front, in the mean time sending Major Forsyth to communicate with Colonel Lowell (who occupied a position close in toward the suburbs of Middletown and directly in front of Getty's left) to learn whether he could hold on there. Lowell replied that he could. I then ordered Custer's division back to the right flank, and returning to the place where my headquarters had been established I met near them Ricketts's division under General Keifer and General Frank Wheaton's division, both marching to the front. When the men of these divisions saw me they began cheering and took up the double quick to the front, while I turned back toward Getty's line to point out where these returning troops should be placed. Having done this, I ordered General Wright to resume command of the Sixth Corps, and Getty, who was temporarily [331] in charge of it, to take command of his own division. A little later the Nineteenth Corps came up and was posted between the right of the Sixth Corps and Middle Marsh Brook.

All this had consumed a great deal of time, and I concluded to visit again the point to the east of the Valley pike, from where I had first observed the enemy, to see what he was doing. Arrived there, I could plainly see him getting ready for attack, and MaJor Forsyth now suggested that it would be well to ride along the line of battle before the enemy assailed us, for although the troops had learned of my return, but few of them had seen me. Following his suggestion I started in behind the men, but when a few paces had been taken I crossed to the front and, hat in hand, passed along the entire length of the infantry line; and it is from this circumstance that many of the officers and men who then received me with such heartiness have since supposed that that was my first appearance on the field. But at least two hours had elapsed since I reached the ground, for it was after mid-day when this incident of riding down the front took place, and I arrived not later, certainly, than half-past 10 o'clock.

After re-arranging the line and preparing to attack I returned again to observe the Confederates, who shortly began to advance on us. The attacking columns did not cover my entire front, and it appeared that their onset would be mainly directed against the Nineteenth Corps, so, fearing that they might be too strong for Emory on account of his depleted condition (many of his men not having had time to get up from the rear), and Getty's division being free from assault, I transferred a part of it from the extreme left to the support of the Nineteenth Corps. The assault was quickly repulsed by Emory, however, and as the enemy fell back Getty's troops were returned to their original place. This repulse of the Confederates made me feel pretty safe from further offensive operations on their part, and I now decided to suspend the fighting till my thin ranks were further strengthened by the men who were continually coming up from the rear, and particularly till Crook's troops could be assembled on the extreme left.

In consequence of the despatch already mentioned, “Be ready when I join you, and we will crush Sheridan,” since learned to have been fictitious, I had been supposing all day that Longstreet's troops were present, but as no definite intelligence on this point had been gathered, I concluded, in the lull that now occurred, to ascertain something positive regarding Longstreet; and Merritt having been transferred to our left in the morning, I directed him to attack an exposed battery then at the edge of Middletown, and capture some prisoners. Merritt soon did this work effectually, concealing his intention till his troops [332] got close in to the enemy, and then by a quick dash gobbling up a number of Confederates. When the prisoners were brought in, I learned from them that the only troops of Longstreet's in the fight were of Kershaw's division, which had rejoined Early at Brown's Gap in the latter part of September, and that the rest of Longstreet's corps was not on the field. The receipt of this information entirely cleared the way for me to take the offensive, but on the heels of it came information that Longstreet was marching by the Front Royal pike to strike my rear at Winchester, driving Powell's cavalry in as he advanced. This renewed my uneasiness, and caused me to delay the general attack till after assurances came from Powell denying utterly the reports as to Longstreet, and confirming the statements of the prisoners.

Between half-past 3 and 4 o'clock, I was ready to assail, and decided to do so by advancing my infantry line in a swinging movement, so as to gain the Valley pike with my right between Middletown and the Belle Grove House; and when the order was passed along, the men pushed steadily forward with enthusiasm and. confidence. General Early's troops extended some little distance beyond our right, and when my flank neared the overlapping enemy, he turned on it, with the effect of causing a momentary confusion, but General McMillan quickly realizing the danger, broke the Confederates at the reentering angle by a counter charge with his brigade, doing his work so well that the enemy's flanking troops were cut off from their main body and left to shift for themselves. Custer, who was just then moving in from the west side of Middle Marsh Brook, followed McMillan's timely blow with a charge of cavalry, but before starting out on it, and while his men were forming, riding at full speed himself, to throw his arms around my neck. By the time he had disengaged himself from this embrace, the troops broken by McMillan had gained some little distance to their rear, but Custer's troopers sweeping across the Middletown meadows and down toward Cedar Creek, took many of them prisoners before they could reach the stream-so I forgave his delay.

My whole line as far as the eye could see was now driving everything before it, from behind trees, stone walls, and all such sheltering obstacles, so I rode toward the left to ascertain how matters were getting on there. As I passed along behind the advancing troops, first General Grover, and then Colonel Mackenzie, rode up to welcome me. Both were severely wounded, and I told them to leave the field, but they implored permission to remain till success was certain. When I reached the Valley pike Crook had reorganized his men, and as I desired that they should take part in the fight, for they were the very same troops that had turned Early's flank at the Opequon and at Fisher's Hill, I [333] ordered them to be pushed forward; and the alacrity and celerity with which they moved on Middletown demonstrated that their ill-fortune of the morning had not sprung from lack of valor.

Meanwhile Lowell's brigade of cavalry, which, it will be remembered, had been holding on, dismounted, just north of Middletown ever since the time I arrived from Winchester, fell to the rear for the purpose of getting their led horses. A momentary panic was created in the nearest brigade of infantry by this withdrawal of Lowell, but as soon as his men were mounted they charged the enemy clear up to the stone walls in the edge of Middletown; at sight of this the infantry brigade renewed its attack, and the enemy's right gave way. The accomplished Lowell received his death-wound in this courageous charge.

All our troops were now moving on the retreating Confederates, and as I rode to the front Colonel Gibbs, who succeeded Lowell, made ready for another mounted charge, but I checked him from pressing the enemy's right, in the hope that the swinging attack from my right would throw most of the Confederates to the east of the Valley pike, and hence off their line of retreat through Strasburg to Fisher's Hill. The eagerness of the men soon frustrated this anticipation, however, the left insisting on keeping pace with the centre and right, and all pushing ahead till we regained our old camps at Cedar Creek. Beyond Cedar Creek, at Strasburg, the pike makes a sharp turn to the west toward Fisher's Hill. and here Merritt uniting with Custer, they together fell on the flank of the retreating columns, taking many prisoners, wagons, and guns, among the prisoners being Major-General Ramseur, who, mortally wounded, died the next day. When the news of the victory was received, General Grant directed a salute of one hundred shotted guns to be fired into Petersburg, and the President at once thanked the army in an autograph letter. A few weeks after, he promoted me, and I received notice of this in a special letter from the Secretary of war, saying, “that for the personal gallantry, military skill, and just confidence in the courage and patriotism of your troops, displayed by you on the 19th day of October at Cedar Run, whereby, under the blessing of Providence, your routed army was reorganized, a great National disaster averted, and a brilliant victory achieved over the rebels for the third time in pitched battle within thirty days, Philip H. Sheridan is appointed a major-general in the United States Army.”

The direct result of the battle was the recapture of all the artillery, transportation, and camp equipage we had lost, and in addition twenty-four pieces of the enemy's artillery, twelve hundred prisoners, and a number of battle-flags. But more still flowed from this victory, succeeding as it did the disaster of the morning, for the re-occupation of our [334]

Executive Mansion. Washington, Oct. 22, 1864
Major General Sheridan.
with great pleasure I render to you and your brave army the thanks of the nation, and my own personal admiration and gratitude, for the month's operations in the Shenandoah Valley, and especially for the splendid work of October 19, 1864.

your Obt. Servt. Abraham Lincoln.

[335] old camps at once re-established a morale which for some hours had been greatly endangered by ill-fortune.

It was not till after the battle that I learned fully what had taken place before my arrival, and then found that the enemy, having gathered all the strength he could through the return of convalescents and other absentees, had moved quietly from Fisher's Hill, in the night of the 18th and early on the morning of the 19th, to surprise my army, which, it should be remembered, was posted on the north bank of Cedar Creek, Crook holding on the left of the Valley pike, with Thoburn's division advanced toward the creek, and Duval's (under Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes) and Kitching's provisional divisions to the north and rear of Thoburn. The Nineteenth Corps was on the right of Crook, extending in a semi-circular line from the pike nearly to Meadow Brook, while the Sixth Corps lay to the west of the brook in readiness to be used as a movable column. Merritt's division was to the right and rear of the Sixth Corps, and about a mile and a half west of Merritt was Custer covering the fords of Cedar Creek as far west as the Middle road.

General Early's plan was for one column under General Gordon, consisting of three divisions of infantry (Gordon's, Ramseur's, and Pegram's), and Payne's brigade of cavalry, to cross the Shenandoah River directly east of the Confederate works at Fisher's Hill, march around the northerly face of the Massanutten Mountain, and again cross the Shenandoah at Bowman's and Mclnturffs fords. Payne's task was to capture me at the Belle Grove House. General Early himself, with Kershaw's and Wharton's divisions, was to move through Strasburg, Kershaw, accompanied by Early, to cross Cedar Creek at Roberts's ford and connect with Gordon, while Wharton was to continue on the Valley pike to Hupp's Hill and join the left of Kershaw, when the crossing of the Valley pike over Cedar Creek became free.

Lomax's cavalry, then in the Luray Valley, was ordered to join the right of Gordon on the field of battle, while Rosser was to carry the crossing of Cedar Creek on the Back road and attack Custer. Early's conceptions were carried through in the darkness with little accident or delay, Kershaw opening the fight by a furious attack on Thoburn's division, while at dawn and in a dense fog Gordon struck Crook's extreme left, surprising his pickets, and bursting into his camp with such suddenness as to stampede Crook's men. Gordon directing his march on my headquarters (the Belle Grove House), successfully turned our position as he gained the Valley pike, and General Wright was thus forced to order the withdrawal of the Nineteenth Corps from its post at the Cedar Creek crossing, and this enabled Wharton to get over the stream there unmolested and join Kershaw early in the action. [336]

After Crook's troops had been driven from their camps, General Wright endeavored to form a line with the Sixth Corps to hold the Valley pike to the left of the Nineteenth, but failing in this he ordered the withdrawal of the latter corps, Ricketts, temporarily commanding the Sixth Corps, checking Gordon till Emory had retired. As already stated, Wharton was thus permitted to cross Cedar Creek on the pike, and now that Early had a continuous line, he pressed his advantage so vigorously that the whole Union army was soon driven from its camps in more or less disorder; and though much disjointed resistance was displayed, it may be said that no systematic stand was made until Getty's division, aided by Torbert's cavalry, which Wright had ordered to the left early in the action, took up the ground where, on arriving from Winchester, I found them.

When I left my command on the 16th, little did I anticipate that anything like this would happen. Indeed, I felt satisfied that Early was, of himself, too weak to take the offensive, and although I doubted the Longstreet despatch, yet I was confident that, even should it prove true, I could get back before the junction could be made, and at the worst I felt certain that my army was equal to confronting the forces of Longstreet and Early combined. Still, the surprise of the morning might have befallen me as well as the general on whom it did descend, and though it is possible that this could have been precluded had Powell's cavalry been closed in, as suggested in my despatch from Front Royal, yet the enemy's desperation might have prompted some other clever and ingenious scheme for relieving his fallen fortunes in the Shenandoah Valley.

1 When Rosser arrived from Richmond with his brigade he was proclaimed as the savior of the Valley, and his men came all bedecked with laurel branches.

2 “organization of the Union forces commanded by Major-General
Philip H. Sheridan at the battle of Cedar Creek,
Va., October 19, 1864.

Army of the Shenandoah.
Major-General Horatio G. Wright.[Commanded during General Sheridan's temporary absence in the early part of the battle.]

Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry (detachment), Major Weidner H. Spera.
Sixth United States Cavalry, Captain Ira W. Claflin.

Sixth Army Corps.
(1) Brigadier-General James B. Ricketts.
(2) Brigadier-General George W. Getty.
(3) Major-General Horatio G. Wright.

First Michigan Cavalry, Company G, Lieutenant William H. Wheeler.

first division.
Brigadier-General Frank Wheaton.

first brigade:
(1) Colonel William H. Penrose.
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Edward L. Campbell.
(3) Captain Baldwin Hufty.
Fourth New Jersey, Captain Baldwin Hufty.
Tenth New Jersey (1), Major Lambert Boeman.
Tenth New Jersey (2), Captain Charles D. Claypool.
Fifteenth New Jersey (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Edward L. Campbell.
Fifteenth New Jersey (2), Captain Jas. W. Penrose.
Second brigade:
(1) Colonel Joseph E. Hamblin.
(2) Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.
(3) Lieutenant-Colonel Egbert Olcott.

Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery (1), Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.
Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery (2), Major Edward W. Jones.
Sixty-fifth New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas H. Higinbotham.
Sixty-fifth New York (2), Captain Henry C. Fisk.
One Hundred and Twenty-first New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Egbert Olcott.
One Hundred and Twenty-first New York (2), Captain Daniel D. Jackson.
Ninety-fifth and Ninety-sixth Pennsylvania, Captain John Harper.

Third brigade:[At Winchester, Va., and not engaged in the battle.]
Colonel Oliver Edwards.

Thirty-seventh Massachusetts, Lieutenant-Colonel George L. Montague.
Forty-ninth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Baynton J. Hickman.
Eighty-second Pennsylvania, Colonel Isaac C. Bassett.
One Hundred and Nineteenth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Gideon Clark.
Second Rhode Island (battalion), Captain Elisha H. Rhodes.
Fifth Wisconsin (battalion), Major Charles W. Kempf.
Seventeenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Major Coe Durland,

Second division.
(1) Brigadier-General George W. Getty.
(2) Brigadier-General Lewis A. Grant.
(3) Brigadier-General George W. Getty.

first brigade:

Colonel James M. Warner.
Sixty-second New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore R. Hamilton.
Ninety-third Pennsylvania, Captain David C. Keller.

Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania (1), Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Kohler.
Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania (2), Captain Gottfried Bauer.
One Hundred and Second Pennsylvania (1), Major James H. Coleman.
One Hundred and Second Pennsylvania (2), Captain James Patchell.
One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel John G. Paxt.

Second brigade:

(1) Brigadier-General Lewis A. Grant
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy.
(3) Brigadier-General Lewis A. Grant.

Second Vermont (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy.
Second Vermont (2), Captain Elijah Wales.
Second Vermont (3), Lieutenant-Colonel Amasa S. Tracy.
Third Vermont (battalion), Major Horace W. Floyd.
Fourth Vermont (1), Major Horace W. Floyd.
Fourth Vermont (2), Colonel George P. Foster.[Corps officer of the day at the beginning of the battle; later, rejoined brigade and
commanded the left of its line.]
Fifth Vermont, Major Enoch E. Johnson.
Sixth Vermont (battalion) (1), Captain Edwin R. Kinney.
Sixth Vermont (battalion) (2), Captain Wm. J. Sperry.
Eleventh Vermont (First Heavy Artillery), Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hunsdon.

Third brigade:

(1) Brigadier-General Daniel D. Bidwell.
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Winsor B. French.

First Maine (Veteran), Major Stephen C. Fletcher.
Forty-third New York (battalion), Major Charles A. Milliken.
Forty-ninth New York (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel Erastus D. Holt.
Seventy-seventh New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Winsor B. French.

One Hundred and Twenty-second New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Augustus W. Dwight.
One Hundred and Twenty-second New York (2), Major Jabez M. Brower.
Sixty-first Pennsylvania (battalion), Captain David J. Taylor.

Third division.

Colonel J. Warren Keifer.

first brigade:

Colonel William Emerson.
Fourteenth New Jersey, Captain Jacob J. Janeway.
One Hundred and Sixth New York (1), Captain Alvah W. Briggs.
One Hundred and Sixth New York (2), Captain Peter Robertson.
One Hundred and Fifty-first New York (1), Captain Browning N. Wiles.
One Hundred and Fifty-first New York (2), Captain Hiram A. Kimball.
One Hundred and Eighty-fourth New York (battalion), Major William D. Ferguson.
Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania (battalion) (1), Captain Edgar M. Ruhl.
Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania (battalion) (2), Captain John A. Salsbury
Tenth Vermont (1), Colonel William W. Henry.
Tenth Vermont (2), Captain Henry H. Dewey.

Second brigade:

Colonel William H. Ball.

Sixth Maryland, Major Joseph C. Hill.
Ninth New York Heavy Artillery, Major James W. Snyder.
One Hundred and Tenth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Otho H. Binkley.
One Hundred and Twenty-second Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Moses M. Granger.
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio (1), Major George W. Voorhes.
One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Ohio (2), Captain George W. Hoge.
Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania, Lieutenant John F. Young.
One Hundred and Thirty-eighth Pennsylvania, Major Lewis A. May.

artillery brigade:

Colonel Charles H. Tompkins.

Maine Light Artillery, 5th Battery (E), Captain Greenleaf T. Stevens.
New York Light Artillery, 1st Battery, Lieutenant Orsamus R. Van Etten.
First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Battery C, Lieutenant Jacob H. Lamb.
First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Battery G, Captain George W. Adams.
Fifth United States, Battery M, Captain James McKnight.

Nineteenth Army Corps.

Brigadier-General William H. Emory.

first division.

(1) Brigadier-General James W. McMillan.
(2) Brigadier-General William Dwight.

first brigade:

Colonel Edwin P. Davis.

Twenty-ninth Maine (1), Major George H. Nye.
Twenty-ninth Maine (2), Captain Alfred L. Turner.
Thirtieth Massachusetts, Captain Samuel D. Shipley.
Ninetieth New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson Shaurman.
Ninetieth New York (2), Captain Henry de La Paturelle.
One Hundred and Fourteenth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry B. Morse.
One Hundred and Sixteenth New York, Colonel George M. Love.
One Hundred and Fifty-third New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Strain.
One Hundred and Fifty-third New York (2), Captain George H. McLaughlin.

Second brigade:

(1) Colonel Stephen Thomas.
(2) Brigadier-General James W. McMillan.

Twelfth Connecticut, Lieutenant-Colonel George N. Lewis.
One Hundred and Sixtieth New York, Captain Henry P. Underhill.

Forty-seventh Pennsylvania, Major J. P. Shindel Gobin.
Eighth Vermont (1), Major John B. Mead.
Eighth Vermont (2), Captain Moses McFarland.
Eighth Vermont (3), Colonel Stephen Thomas.

Third brigade:[Guarding wagon-trains, and not engaged in the battle.]

Colonel Leonard D. H. Currie.

Thirtieth Maine, Colonel Thomas H. Hubbard.
One Hundred and Thirty-third New York, Major Anthony J. Allaire.
One Hundred and Sixty-second New York, Colonel Justus W. Blanchard.
One Hundred and Sixty-fifth New York (six companies), Lieutenant-Colonel Gouverneur Carr.
One Hundred and Seventy-third New York, Major George W. Rogers.


New York Light Artillery, Fifth Battery, Captain Elijah. D. Taft.

Second division.

(1) Brigadier-General Cuvier Grover.
(2) Brigadier-General Henry W. Birge.

first brigade:

(1) Brigadier-General Henry W. Birge.
(2) Calonel Thomas W. Porter.

Ninth Connecticut (battalion), Captain John G. Healy.
Twelfth Maine, Lieutenant-Colonel Edwin Ilsley.
Fourteenth Maine (1), Colonel Thomas W. Porter.
Fourteenth Maine (2), Captain John K. Laing.
Twenty-sixth Massachusetts (battalion), Lieutenant John S. Cooke.
Fourteenth New Hampshire (1), Captain Theodore A. Ripley.
Fourteenth New Hampshire (2), Captain Oliver H. Marston.
Seventy-fifth New York, Major Benjamin F. Thurber.

Second brigade:

Colonel Edward L. Molineux.

Thirteenth Connecticut, Colonel Charles D. Blinn.
Seventh Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel William W. Darnall.
Twenty-second Iowa, Colonel Harvey Graham.
Third Massachusetts Cavalry (dismounted), Colonel Lorenzo D. Sargent.
One Hundred and Thirty-first New York, Colonel Nicholas W. Day.
One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William Waltermire.

Third brigade:

(1) Colonel Daniel Macauley.
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafie.

Thirty-eighth Massachusetts, Major Charles F. Allen.
One Hundred and Twenty-eighth New York, Captain Charles R. Anderson.
One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Neafie.
One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York (2), Captain Alfred Cooley.
One Hundred and Seventy-fifth New York (battalion), Captain Charles McCarthey.
One Hundred and Seventy-sixth New York, Major Charles Lewis.

Fourth brigade:

Colonel David Shunk.

Eighth Indiana (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander J. Kenny.
Eighth Indiana (2), Major John R. Polk.
Eighteenth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel William S. Charles.
Twenty-fourth Iowa (1), Lieutenant-Colonel John Q. Wilds.
Twenty-fourth Iowa (2), Captain Leander Clark.
Twenty-fourth Iowa (3), Major Edward Wright.
Twenty-eighth Iowa (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Bartholomew W. Wilson.
Twenty-eighth Iowa (2), Major John Meyer.


Maine Light Artillery, First Battery (A) (1), Lieutenant Eben D. Haley.
Maine Light Artillery, First Battery (A) (2), Lieutenant John S. Snow.

reserve artillery:

Major Albert W. Bradbury.

Indiana Light Artillery, Seventeenth Battery, Lieutenant Hezekiah Hinkson.
First Rhode Island Light Artillery, Battery D, Lieutenant Frederick Chase.

Army of West Virginia

Brigadier-General George Crook.

first division.

(1) Colonel Joseph Thoburn.
(2) Colonel Thomas M. Harris.

first brigade:

Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas F. Wildes.

Thirty-fourth Massachusetts, Captain Andrew Potter.
Fifth New York Heavy Artillery, Second Battalion, Captain Frederick C. Wilkie.
One Hundred and Sixteenth Ohio, Captain Wilbert B. Teters.
One Hundred and Twenty-third Ohio, Major Horace Kellogg.

Second brigade:[At Winchester. Va., and not engaged in the battle.]

Colonel William B. Curtis.

First West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Jacob Weddle.
Fourth West Virginia, Captain Benjamin D. Boswell.
Twelfth West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert S. Northcott.

Third brigade:

(1) Colonel Thomas M. Harris.
(2) Colonel Milton Wells.

Twenty-third Illinois (battalion),[At Winchester, Va., and not engaged in the battle.] Captain Samuel A. Simison.
Fifty-fourth Pennsylvania, Captain John Suter.
Tenth West Virginia (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Moses S. Hall.
Tenth West Virginia (2), Major Henry H. Withers.
Eleventh West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel Van H. Bukey.
Fifteenth West Virginia (1), Colonel Milton Wells.
Fifteenth West Virginia (2), Major John W. Holliday.

Second division.

Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes.

first brigade:

Colonel Hiram F. Duval.

Twenty-third Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel James M. Comly.
Thirty-sixth Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. G. Adney.
Fifth West Virginia (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Enochs.
Thirteenth West Virginia (1), Colonel William R. Brown.[Corps officer of the day.]
Thirteenth West Virginia (2), Lieutenant-Colonel James R. Hall.

Second brigade:

Lieutanant-Colonel Benjamin F. Coates.

Thirty-fourth Ohio (battalion), Lieutenant-Colonel Luther Furney.
Ninety--first Ohio, Major Lemuel Z. Cadot.
Ninth West Virginia, Captain John S. P. Carroll.
Fourteenth West Virginia, Major Shriver Moore.

artillery brigade.

Captain Henry A. Du Pont.

First Ohio Light Artillery, Battery L, Captain Frank C. Gibbs.
First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, Battery D, Lieutenant William Munk.
Fifth United States, Battery B (1), Lieutenant Henry F. Brewerton.
Fifth United States, Battery B (2), Lieutenant Charles Holman.

provisional division.[Only a small detachment from the First Brigade, and the Sixth New York Heavy Ar-
tillery, from the Second Brigade, engaged in the battle.]

Colonel J. Howard Kitching.


Brigadier-General Alfred T. A. Torbert.


First Rhode Island, Major William H. Turner, Jr.

first division.

Brigadier-General Wesley Merritt.

first brigade:

Colonel James H. Kidd.

First Michigan, Captain Andrew W. Duggan.
Fifth Michigan, Major Smith H. Hastings.
Sixth Michigan, Major Charles W. Deane.
Seventh Michigan, Major Daniel H. Darling.
New York Light Artillery, Sixth Battery, Captain Joseph W. Martin.

Second brigade:

Colonel Thomas C. Devin.

Fourth New York,[Detailed for duty at General Sheridan's headquarters.] Major Edward Schwartz.
Sixth New York, Captain George E. Farmer.
Ninth New York, Colonel George S. Nichols.
Nineteenth New York (First Dragoons), Colonel Alfred Gibbs.
First United States Artillery, Batteries K and L, Lieutenant Franck E. Taylor.

reserve brigade:

(1) Colonel Charles R. Lowell, Jr.
(2) Lieutenant-Colonel Casper Crowninshield.
Second Massachusetts (1), Lieutenant-Colonel Casper Crowninshield.
Second Massachusetts (2), Captain Archibald McKendry.
First United States, Captain Eugene M. Baker.
Second United States, Captain Robert S. Smith.
Fifth United States, Lieutenant Gustavus Urban.

Second division[From Department of West Virginia.]

Colonel William H. Powell.

first brigade:

Colonel Alpheus S. Moore.

Eighth Ohio (detachment),
Fourteenth Pennsylvania, Major Thomas Gibson.
Twenty-second Pennsylvania, Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew J. Greenfield.

Second brigade:

Colonel Henry Capehart.

First New York, Major Timothy Quinn.
First West Virginia, Major Harvey Farabee.

Second West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel John J. Hoffman.
Third West Virginia, Lieutenant-Colonel John L. McGee.


Fifth United States, Battery L, Lieutenant Gulian V. Weir.

Third division.

Brigadier-General George A. Custer.

first brigade.

Colonel Alexander C. M. Pennington, Jr.

First Connecticut, Captain Edwin W. French.
Third New Jersey, Lieutenant-Colonel Charles C. Suydam.
Second New York, Captain Andrew S. Glover.
Fifth New York, Major Theodore A. Boice.
Second Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Purington.
Eighteenth Pennsylvania, Major John W. Phillips.

Second brigade:

Colonel William Wells.

Third Indiana (two companies), Lieutenant Benjamin F. Gilbert.
First New Hampshire (battalion), Colonel John L. Thompson.
Eighth New York, Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Benjamin.
Twenty-second New York, Major Charles C. Brown.
First Vermont, Lieutenant-Colonel John W. Bennett.


Second United States, Batteries B and L, Captain Charles H. Peirce.
Third United States, Batteries C, F, and K, Captain Dunbar R. Ransom. ”

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Sort places alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a place to search for it in this document.
Winchester, Va. (Virginia, United States) (17)
Meadow Mills (Virginia, United States) (16)
Washington (United States) (15)
Middletown (Virginia, United States) (8)
Fishers Hill (Virginia, United States) (8)
Front Royal (Virginia, United States) (6)
Cedar Creek (Florida, United States) (6)
Strasburg, Va. (Virginia, United States) (5)
Martinsburg (West Virginia, United States) (5)
Charlottesville (Virginia, United States) (5)
Virginia (Virginia, United States) (4)
Rectortown (Virginia, United States) (4)
Newtown (Virginia, United States) (4)
Back River, Va. (Virginia, United States) (4)
Tom's Brook (Virginia, United States) (3)
Gordonsville (Virginia, United States) (3)
Doherty (Missouri, United States) (3)
United States (United States) (2)
Shenandoah (United States) (2)
Middle Marsh Brook (Virginia, United States) (2)
Hupp Hill (Virginia, United States) (2)
Woodstock, Va. (Virginia, United States) (1)
Tumbling Run (Virginia, United States) (1)
Staunton, Va. (Virginia, United States) (1)
Slaughter Mountain (Virginia, United States) (1)
Rivanna (Virginia, United States) (1)
Rienzi (Mississippi, United States) (1)
Providence, R. I. (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
Piedmont, Va. (Virginia, United States) (1)
New York State (New York, United States) (1)
New Market (Virginia, United States) (1)
Mount Jackson (Virginia, United States) (1)
Lowell (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Harrisonburg, Va. (Virginia, United States) (1)
Columbia Furnace (Virginia, United States) (1)
Chester Gap (Virginia, United States) (1)
Cambria (United Kingdom) (1)
Alleghany Mountains (United States) (1)

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide People (automatically extracted)
Sort people alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a person to search for him/her in this document.
Jubal A. Early (20)
George W. Getty (19)
George A. Custer (16)
George Crook (15)
Longstreet (14)
Wesley Merritt (13)
Horatio G. Wright (11)
T. W. Rosser (10)
Alfred T. A. Torbert (9)
Philip H. Sheridan (9)
Joseph Thoburn (7)
Kershaw (7)
H. W. Halleck (7)
James B. Gordon (7)
H. G. Wright (6)
William H. Powell (6)
Edwin M. Stanton (5)
James B. Ricketts (5)
James W. McMillan (5)
Charles R. Lowell (5)
Cuvier Grover (5)
Lewis A. Grant (5)
Oliver Edwards (5)
Frederick Charles Alexander (5)
Wharton (4)
Amasa S. Tracy (4)
U. S. Grant (4)
W. Forsyth (4)
William H. Emory (4)
Augur (4)
Frank Wheaton (3)
George Thom (3)
P. H. Sheridan (3)
Michael V. Sheridan (3)
Joseph O'Keefe (3)
Ranald S. Mackenzie (3)
Fitzhugh Lee (3)
Rutherford B. Hayes (3)
Milton Wells (2)
Round Top (2)
Stephen Thomas (2)
Ramseur (2)
Thomas W. Porter (2)
Payne (2)
Egbert Olcott (2)
Alfred Neafie (2)
Lomax (2)
J. Howard Kitching (2)
J. Warren Keifer (2)
Baldwin Hufty (2)
Thomas M. Harris (2)
Louis A. Grant (2)
Alfred Gibbs (2)
Winsor B. French (2)
George A. Forsyth (2)
Horace W. Floyd (2)
Elijah (2)
Hiram F. Duval (2)
Casper Crowninshield (2)
Edward L. Campbell (2)
Henry W. Birge (2)
John F. Young (1)
Edward Wright (1)
Gustavus A. Wood (1)
Henry H. Withers (1)
Bartholomew W. Wilson (1)
Frederick C. Wilkie (1)
Browning N. Wiles (1)
John Q. Wilds (1)
Thomas F. Wildes (1)
William H. Wheeler (1)
William Wells (1)
Gulian V. Weir (1)
Jacob Weddle (1)
James M. Warner (1)
William Waltermire (1)
George W. Voorhes (1)
Gustavus Urban (1)
Henry P. Underhill (1)
William H. Turner (1)
Alfred L. Turner (1)
Charles H. Tompkins (1)
Benjamin F. Thurber (1)
John L. Thompson (1)
Wilbert B. Teters (1)
Franck E. Taylor (1)
David J. Taylor (1)
D. Taft (1)
Charles C. Suydam (1)
John Suter (1)
Alexander Strain (1)
Greenleaf T. Stevens (1)
William J. Sperry (1)
Weidner H. Spera (1)
James W. Snyder (1)
John S. Snow (1)
Robert S. Smith (1)
Samuel A. Simison (1)
David Shunk (1)
Samuel D. Shipley (1)
Nelson Shaurman (1)
Edward Schwartz (1)
Lorenzo D. Sargent (1)
John A. Salsbury (1)
Edgar M. Ruhl (1)
George W. Rogers (1)
Peter Robertson (1)
Theodore A. Ripley (1)
Richards (1)
Elisha H. Rhodes (1)
Dunbar R. Ransom (1)
Timothy Quinn (1)
George A. Purington (1)
Andrew Potter (1)
Henry A. Pont (1)
John R. Polk (1)
John W. Phillips (1)
William H. Penrose (1)
James W. Penrose (1)
Alexander C. M. Pennington (1)
Charles H. Peirce (1)
Pegram (1)
John G. Paxt (1)
Henry De La Paturelle (1)
James Patchell (1)
George H. Nye (1)
Robert S. Northcott (1)
George S. Nichols (1)
William Munk (1)
Henry B. Morse (1)
Shriver Moore (1)
Alpheus S. Moore (1)
George L. Montague (1)
Edward L. Molineux (1)
Charles A. Milliken (1)
John Meyer (1)
G. G. Meade (1)
John B. Mead (1)
George H. McLaughlin (1)
James McKnight (1)
McKinley (1)
Archibald McKendry (1)
John L. McGee (1)
Moses McFarland (1)
Charles McCarthey (1)
Lewis A. May (1)
Joseph W. Martin (1)
Oliver H. Marston (1)
Daniel Macauley (1)
George M. Love (1)
Abraham Lincoln (1)
George N. Lewis (1)
Charles Lewis (1)
Jacob H. Lamb (1)
John K. Laing (1)
John B. Kohler (1)
Edwin R. Kinney (1)
Hiram A. Kimball (1)
James H. Kidd (1)
Alexander J. Kenny (1)
Charles W. Kempf (1)
Horace Kellogg (1)
David C. Keller (1)
Edward W. Jones (1)
Enoch E. Johnson (1)
Andrew Johnson (1)
Jacob J. Janeway (1)
James (1)
Daniel D. Jackson (1)
Edwin Ilsley (1)
Charles Hunsdon (1)
Thomas H. Hubbard (1)
Erastus D. Holt (1)
Charles Holman (1)
John W. Holliday (1)
George W. Hoge (1)
John J. Hoffman (1)
Hezekiah Hinkson (1)
Joseph C. Hill (1)
Thomas H. Higinbotham (1)
Baynton J. Hickman (1)
William W. Henry (1)
John G. Healy (1)
Smith H. Hastings (1)
John Harper (1)
Theodore R. Hamilton (1)
Joseph E. Hamblin (1)
Moses S. Hall (1)
James R. Hall (1)
Eben D. Haley (1)
Andrew J. Greenfield (1)
Moses M. Granger (1)
Harvey Graham (1)
J. P. Shindel Gobin (1)
Andrew S. Glover (1)
Benjamin F. Gilbert (1)
Thomas Gibson (1)
Frank C. Gibbs (1)
Luther Furney (1)
Edwin W. French (1)
George P. Foster (1)
James W. Forsyth (1)
Stephen C. Fletcher (1)
Henry C. Fisk (1)
William D. Ferguson (1)
George E. Farmer (1)
Harvey Farabee (1)
Orsamus R. Etten (1)
William H. Enochs (1)
William Emerson (1)
William Dwight (1)
Augustus W. Dwight (1)
Coe Durland (1)
Andrew W. Duggan (1)
Henry H. Dewey (1)
Thomas C. Devin (1)
Charles W. Deane (1)
Nicholas W. Day (1)
Edwin P. Davis (1)
William W. Darnall (1)
Daniel H. Darling (1)
William B. Curtis (1)
Leonard D. H. Currie (1)
Alfred Cooley (1)
John S. Cooke (1)
James M. Comly (1)
James H. Coleman (1)
Benjamin F. Coates (1)
Charles D. Claypool (1)
Leander Clark (1)
Gideon Clark (1)
Ira W. Claflin (1)
Frederick Chase (1)
William S. Charles (1)
John S. P. Carroll (1)
Gouverneur Carr (1)
Henry Capehart (1)
Lemuel Z. Cadot (1)
Van H. Bukey (1)
William R. Brown (1)
Charles C. Brown (1)
Jabez M. Brower (1)
Alvah W. Briggs (1)
Henry F. Brewerton (1)
Albert W. Bradbury (1)
Benjamin D. Boswell (1)
Theodore A. Boice (1)
Lambert Boeman (1)
Charles D. Blinn (1)
Justus W. Blanchard (1)
Otho H. Binkley (1)
Daniel D. Bidwell (1)
John W. Bennett (1)
William H. Benjamin (1)
Gottfried Bauer (1)
Isaac C. Bassett (1)
William H. Ball (1)
Eugene M. Baker (1)
Charles R. Anderson (1)
Charles F. Allen (1)
Anthony J. Allaire (1)
William H. G. Adney (1)
George W. Adams (1)
hide Dates (automatically extracted)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: