General Robert E. Lee's report.
Headquarters army of Northern Virginta, October 23, 1863.General: In advance of a detailed report, I have the horror to submit, for the information of the department, the following outline of the recent operations of this army: With the design of bringing on an engagement with the Federal army, which was encamped around Culpeper Court-House, extending thence to the Rapidan, this army crossed the river on the ninth instant, and advanced by way of Madison Court-House. Our progress was necessarily slow, as the march was by circuitous and concealed roads, in order to avoid the observation of the enemy. General Fitz Lee, with his cavalry division and a detachment of infantry, remained to hold our lines south of the Rapidan; General Stuart, with Hampton's division, moved on the right of the column. With a portion of his command he attacked the advance of the enemy near James City on the tenth, and drove them back toward Culpeper. Our main body arrived near that place on the eleventh instant, and discovered that the enemy had retreated toward the Rappahannock, ruining or destroying his stores. We were compelled to halt during the rest of the day to provision the troops, but the cavalry, under General Stuart, continued to press the enemy's rear guard toward the Rappahannock. A large force of Federal cavalry, in the mean time, had crossed the Rapidan, after our movement began, but was repulsed by General Fitz Lee, and pursued toward Brandy Station. Near that place the commands of Stuart and Lee united, on the afternoon of the eleventh, and after a severe engagement, drove the enemy's cavalry across the Rappahannock with heavy loss. On the morning of the twelfth the army marched in two columns, with the design of reaching the Orange and Alexandria railroad north of the river, and interrupting the retreat of the enemy. After a skirmish with some of the Federal cavalry, at Jeffersonton, we reached the Rappahannock at Warrenton Springs in the afternoon, where the passage of the river was disputed by cavalry and artillery. The enemy was quickly driven off by a detachment of our cavalry, aided by a small force of infantry and a battery. Early next morning (fifteenth) the march was resumed, and the two columns reunited at Warrenton, in the afternoon, when another halt was made to supply the troops with provisions. The enemy fell back rapidly along the line of the railroad, and early on the fourteenth the pursuit was continued, a portion of the army moving by way of New-Baltimore toward Bristoe Station,  and the rest, accompanied~ by the main body of the cavalry, proceeding to the same point by Auburn Mills and Greenwich. Near the former place a skirmish took place between General Ewell's advance and the rear guard of the enemy, which was forced back and rapidly pursued. The retreat of the enemy was conducted by several direct parallel roads, while our troops were compelled to march by difficult and circuitous routes. We were consequently unable to intercept him. General Hill arrived first at Bristoe Station, where his advance, consisting of two brigades, became engaged with a force largely superior in numbers, posted behind the railroad embankment. The particulars of the action have not been officially reported, but the brigades were repulsed with some loss, and five pieces of artillery, with a number of prisoners, captured. Before the rest of the troops could be brought up, and the position of the enemy ascertained, he retreated across Broad Run. The next morning he was reported to be fortifying beyond Bull Run, extending his line toward the Little River Turnpike. The vicinity of the intrenchments around Washington and Alexandria rendered it useless to turn his new position, as it was apparent that he could readily retire to them, and would decline an engagement unless attacked in his fortifications. A further advance was therefore deemed unnecessary, and after destroying the railroad from Cub Run southwardly to the Rappahannock, the army returned on the eighteenth to the line of that river, leaving the cavalry in the enemy's front. The cavalry of the latter advanced on the following day, and some skirmishing occurred at Buckland. General Stuart, with Hampton's division, retired slowly toward Warrenton, in order to draw the enemy in that direction, thus exposing his flank and rear to General Lee, who moved from Auburn, and attacked him near Buckland. As soon as General Stuart heard the sound of Lee's guns he turned upon the enemy, who, after a stubborn resistance, broke, and fled in confusion, pursued by General Stuart nearly to Haymarket, and by General Lee to Gainesville. Here the Federal infantry was encountered, and after capturing a number of them during the night, the cavalry slowly retired before their advance on the following day. When the movement of the army from the Rapidan commenced, General Imboden was instructed to advance down the valley, and guard the gaps of the mountains on our left. This duty was well performed by that officer, and on the eighteenth instant he marched upon Charlestown, and succeeded, by a well-concerted plan, in surrounding the place, and capturing nearly the whole force stationed there, with all their stores and transportation; only a few escaped to Harper's Ferry. The enemy advanced from that place, in superior numbers, to attack General Imboden, who retired, bringing off his prisoners and captured property, his command suffering very little loss, and inflicting some damage upon the pursuing column. In the course of these operations, two thousand four hundred and thirty-six prisoners were captured, including forty-one commissioned officers. Of the above number, four hundred and thirty-four were taken by General Imboden. A more complete account, with a statement of our killed, wounded, and prisoners, will be forwarded as soon as the necessary official reports have been received. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector-General:
General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector-General:
General Stuart's report.
Buckland, Va., Oct. 20, 1863.General: After offering some considerable resistance to the advance of the enemy at this point yesterday, in accordance with the suggestions of Major-General Lee, I retired with Hampton's division slowly before the enemy, until within two miles and a half of Warrenton, in order that Major-General Lee, coming from Auburn, might have an opportunity to attack the enemy in flank and rear. The plan proved successful. The enemy followed slowly and cautiously after Hampton's division, when, on hearing Major-General Lee's guns on their flank, I pressed upon them vigorously in front. They at first resisted my attack stubbornly, but once broken, the rout was complete. I pursued them from within three miles of Warrenton to Buckland, the horses at full speed the whole distance, the enemy retreating in great confusion. Major-General Lee had attacked them in flank just below Buckland. We captured about two hundred prisoners, eight wagons and ambulances, arms, horses, and equipments. The rout was the most complete that any cavalry has ever suffered during this war. Crossing at Buckland, General Fitz Lee pushed down the pike toward Gainesville, while I with the few men of Gordon's and Rosser's brigades, who could be collected after our unusually long chase, moved around to our left, and pressed down toward Haymarket. Here I encountered, besides a large cavalry force, the First army corps, who retired a short distance beyond Haymarket, on the Carolina road. I attacked their infantry pickets by moonlight, and scattered them over the fields, capturing many. General Lee pressed down to within a short distance of Gainesville, when he encountered their infantry, and captured prisoners from the First army corps on that road also. The pursuit was continued until after dark. The cavalry force was commanded by Kilpatrick, and composed of ten regiments. Most respectfully,
(Signed) J. E. B. Stuart, Major-General. Official: John Withers, A. A. G. See Fights along the Rapidan.
General Imboden's report.
Headquarters Valley District, in the fork of the Shenandoah, near Front Royal, Oct. 19, 1863.Colonel: Yesterday (Sunday) morning, at two o'clock, I moved from Berryville to surprise and capture the garrison at Charlestown. The surprise was complete, the enemy having no suspicion of our approach until I had the town entirely surrounded. I found the enemy occupying the court-house, jail, and some contiguous buildings in the heart of the town, all loop-holed for musketry, and the court-house yard inclosed by a heavy wall of oak timber. To my demand for a surrender, Colonel Simpson requested an hour for consideration. I offered him five minutes, to which he replied: “Take me, if you can.” I immediately opened on the building with artillery, at less than two hundred yards, and with half a dozen shells drove out the enemy into the streets, where he formed and fled toward Harper's Ferry. At the edge of the town he was met by the Eighteenth cavalry, Colonel Imboden's and Gilmore's battalions. One volley was exchanged, when the enemy threw down his arms and surrendered unconditionally. The Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel, and five others, who were mounted, fled at the first fire, and ran the gauntlet, and escaped toward Harper's Ferry. The force I captured was the Ninth Maryland regiment, and three companies of cavalry, numbering between four and five hundred men and officers. I have not had time to have them counted. In wagons, horses, and mules, arms, ammunition, medicine, and clothing, were considerable, all of which I have saved, and will have properly accounted for. As I expected, the Harper's Ferry forces, infantry, artillery, and cavalry, appeared at Charlestown in less than two hours after I fired the first gun. Having promptly sent off the prisoners and property, I was prepared for them. I retired from the town and fell back slowly toward Berryville, fighting the enemy all the way, from ten o'clock till near sunset. My loss, as far as ascertained, is very small-five killed and fifteen or twenty wounded, more or less, three or four mortally. Captain Coleman will lose an arm, and Captain Cumnel was badly shot in the hip. I think a a few-ten or fifteen broken-down men — who straggled behind, were captured. Wa killed and wounded dreadfully several of the enemy in the court-house, including the Adjutant of the Ninth Maryland; and, in the fight along the road, the enemy's loss was considerable, as we ambuscaded them several times with good effect. I marched nearly all night, and reached the river here at daybreak. It was quite full, but I have effected a safe crossing of the north branch. Very respectfully, Your obedient servant,
Colonel R. H. Chilton, Chief of Staff, A. N. V:
Colonel R. H. Chilton, Chief of Staff, A. N. V:
headquarters army of the Potomac, Oct. 15, 1863.After the cavalry engagement on Sunday, it was rumored that the rebel infantry was in force, supporting their cavalry. This induced General Meade to countermarch the troops, with the intention of making the line of the Rappahannock his base of operations in case of an attack. He also intrenched his reserve artillery in the forts near the river. Their desperate attack on Gregg's cavalry on Monday evening seemed to open our eyes to their real intentions; so an order came for the troops to march in the dead of night. On Tuesday morning, as our infantry were returning toward Auburn, on nearing the ford, which is in a dry ravine, with close trees and underwood, the enemy's dismounted cavalry opened a brisk fire on the front of the column from their sheltered position. The front line was composed of Graham's brigade, the Sixty-third Pennsylvania being in advance — a regiment chiefly of conscripts, and commanded by Colonel Danks. General Birney seeing them wavering, rode up, and cried out, “Come on, boys! Go into them,” and charged. The regiment at once rallied and forced back the enemy. The First division of the Third corps lost in this short but stubborn encounter, eleven men killed and forty-two wounded. Lieutenant Miller and Captain Consort were both wounded severely. The rebels retired, leaving eight killed and a large number of wounded, besides a lot of arms and accoutrements, behind them. Among the wounded were the bugler and two orderlies on the General's escort. The corps then moved on and encamped for the night at Greenwich. The Second corps bivouacked in the woods, beyond the ford. About six o'clock we resumed our march, and soon crossed the ford at Auburn. The First division, commanded by General Caldwell, fell into line of battle on the heights beyond. So secure did we feel that the men were ordered to stack their arms and cook breakfast. We heard some firing on our left, and when the dark haze that obscured the morning cleared away, we could see the lines of cavalry within half a mile of us. Corn was stacked in the field; so we left our tired and hungry steeds to feed on it, and advanced to the top of the hill to witness the conflict going on in the plain beneath. We saw our cavalry (Gregg's) charging into the wood; but after a fierce shelling and musketry fight, we saw them break back, followed pell-mell by the enemy. They were now rushing toward our lines. Our men were cooking their coffee, speculating on the chances of the. conflict. It was to be many a poor fellow's last breakfast. On our right were a couple of high knolls, thickly wooded. From these all of a sudden masked batteries opened on our lines, shot and shell came shrieking through the air, and so accurate was their range, that nearly every one of them came ploughing through us. The men jumped to their arms, the officers rushed to their commands.  The very hill reeled beneath us like a drunken man. As I darted through the men fell on both sides of me. The Fifty-second New-York volunteers, a conscript regiment, chanced from our position to be in front. They wavered, and were falling back on the old regiments, when Colonel Frank, who commanded the Third brigade, rode in their front and rallied them, crying: “Stand boys! Follow me.” Behind them was the Second brigade--or Irish brigade--who coolly stood to their guns. Colonel Myles, too, rallied the lines. In a moment the panic subsided, and the men stood colly in their lines, though the shot and shell of the enemy were knocking them over pretty fast. The lines now fell back behind the crest of the hill, and Rickett's battery, having taken position, returned the enemy's killing compliments with interest, shelling the woods and ravine in which they were concealed. All this time the rebels were shouting their demoniacal yell all round, and the sharp metallic sound of musketry ran along our picket and skirmish lines. The enemy's battery soon became silent; but the firing increased along our skirmishing lines. The corps now wheeled round its head in the direction of Catlett's Station. It was evident that the enemy meant to contest every inch of ground, and to cut us off from forming a junction with the other corps. The troops had to move in fighting order, every now and then taking up lines of defence. As there was little intermission from fighting all day, I could not ascertain ours or the rebel loss. I saw one rebel colonel mortally wounded. Gregg's cavalry suffered heavily, chiefly the Tenth New-York, which is severely cut up. The Second corps nobly covered the retreat of the army, being successively engaged with the enemy at several different points throughout the day, and most desperately throughout the afternoon and evening. They stood like a wall of iron against the repeated and thundering assaults of the enemy, until our whole army, with all its transportation, was secure, and in a position to meet every attack.
The battle of Bristoe Station.The entire army left the line of the Rapidan, on its retrograde movement on Saturday night, marching along the line of railroad until Wednesday morning, encountering the enemy at times, and skirmishing occasionally, avoiding a general engagement. A general action might have been brought on at any time between the Rappahannock and our present position; but it was reserved for Wednesday to witness a renewed trial of the capabilities of our brave men in the field. The Second corps had been assigned the arduous duty of guarding the rear of the army, and on the morning of Wednesday, at daylight, took up its line of march in the following order: General Hayes's Third division leading, followed by the First division, General Caldwell, the rear being brought up by General Webb's Second division. On reaching a point near the railroad, some three miles west of Bristoe, the Second division took the lead, followed by the Third, leaving the first at the rear. In this order they marched to Bristoe, on the south side of the track of the Orange and Alexandria railroad, with flankers well out on both sides and skirmishers deployed. In order to understand fully the character of the fight, it is necessary to give the topography of the country in the vicinity of Bristoe. The Orange and Alexandria railroad here runs in a north-easterly and south-westerly direction over a broken and woody country: The town of Bristoe is non est. But a few old chimneys point out the place where the village once was, just at the west of Broad Run, about three miles west of Manassas Junction, and half a mile west of the station. There is a skirt of dense woods, undergrown with thick brush, through which, on either side of the railroad track, a tolerable road has been cut, both of which were used by our army on its march. On the west side of Broad Run the country is hilly up to the woods, and somewhat overgrown with brush. The run crosses the railroad at right angles under a high bridge, at the eastern end of which a dilapidated windmill stands, formerly used for pumping water for the use of the road. About three fourths of a mile west of Bristoe is Cedar Run, a small stream; but, from its depth of mud and water, difficult to ford. On the north side of the track, about thirty rods west of the bridge, is a solitary house, or rather shanty, which, though insignificant of itself, figures somewhat extensively in the fight. There are here, also, just back of the shanty, three quite prominent hillocks or humps, upon which the rebels had planted batteries. Also there were several like elevations on the south side of the track, upon which the batteries of our own forces were located. West of Broad Run, extending for a few rods, is low ground, rocky and brushy, affording excellent opportunities for sharp-shooters. On the east side of Broad Run, for a hundred rods, is an open plain, with a little point of timber jutting out perhaps twenty rods, and having its north border about eight rods south of the railroad. The roads from the west run across Broad Run as follows: The one on the north side of the track branches about forty rods west of the run, one fork crossing the run about a hundred rods north of the bridge, and goes to Centreville; the other fork crossing the track about twenty rods west of the bridge, and leading to the fork on the south side of the bridge. The road on the south side of the track runs parallel with the railroad; but a branch makes off to the right at Cedar Run, and crosses Broad Run about thirty rods south of the bridge. East of Broad Run, about a hundred rods distant, is a belt of timber perhaps a quarter of a mile wide, east of which the country on the south side of the track is open to Manassas. About half-past 12 o'clock the advance of  the Second corps (General Webb's division) reached the eastern edge of the wood looking out toward Broad Run. The rear of the Fifth corps was just crossing Broad Run by the northmost road, when, as suddenly as lightning and as astonishingly as a thunderbolt from a clear sky, boom, boom, boom, came a half dozen discharges of artillery, not a hundred yards away. It was the enemy emerging from the woods north of the railroad by an obscure road, and firing upon the rear of the Fifth corps. A few shells from the rebel battery killed four of the Pennsylvania reserves, and wounded eight others before they could be got over the run to a place of safety on the eastern side. Then a line of rebel skirmishers appeared, cresting the hill on the north of the track, and running obliquely from the road to the upper crossing of Broad Run. General Warren immediately formed his plans, and right beautifully were they carried out. General Webb's division was thrown forward along the line of the south side of the railroad, with its right resting on Broad Run and its left at the wagon road. General Hayes's division was marched by the right flank, and took position to the left of Webb, while Caldwell faced the railroad and awaited action. A section of Brown's battery, company A, First Rhode Island artillery, was thrown across Broad Run and put in position in the open field, where it could face the enemy and enfilade his skirmishers, the remainder being placed on the hill just west of the run and bearing directly upon the massing enemy. On the hill to the north-west of Brown was Arnold's famous battery — the same which at Gettysburgh did such terrible execution among the rebel infantry. Then there were other batteries not behind their compeers in the bloody fray. As soon as the rebels discovered that the rear of the Fifth corps had crossed to the east of Broad Run, and that Warren was preparing for a fight, they developed two batteries in the edge of the wood, and commenced to send their respects to the Second corps. They were close by, their most distant guns being not over nine hundred yards from the line ef the Union infantry. They had the advantage of us at first; for they, knowing our position and having their batteries ready planted, were able to open upon us before our line could be formed or our batteries planted, and they knew and appreciated their advantage, and right heartily did they improve it. For full ten minutes they rained their bullets and hailed their shells with demoniac fury; but not a man of the gallant old Second quailed, not a gun was dropped, not a color dipped; but like Spartans they faced their foe, as if each man felt that upon himself rested the responsibility of crushing the rebellion. But the rebels did not long maintain their advantage, for Brown and Arnold lost no time in getting their batteries placed, which, when accomplished, made short work of all opposition. Rebel lines of infantry skirmishers melted away like wax over a hot fire, and the rebel batteries died out like camp-fires in a heavy rain. Simultaneously with the ripping, tearing, death-dealing artillery, the Union infantry stood hiding their forms behind a bank of flame and a fog of smoke, cheering as they discharged their pieces, and vainly begging to be permitted to rush over the track to the immediate locality of their adversaries. Then came a lull in the awful music; for the enemy, unable to stand against the terrible storm, had fled to the woods for safety, leaving six of their guns upon the field, one too badly crippled to be brought away. When the enemy ceased playing upon us, and the smoke had lifted so as to exhibit the field, and it was known that the enemy had retired, a detail of ten men from each regiment was made to bring away the deserted pieces. With a cheer that could be heard for miles, the men bounded across the track and climbed the opposite hill, seized the pieces as best they could, wheeled them into position, turned them toward the retreating demons, and fired a parting salvo with the ammunition which had been designed for the Yankees. Then the boys dragged five of them away, shouting as they came to the south side of the track, and placed them in battery, the infantry acting as artillerists and doing wondrous works of carnage. Shortly after the Second corps had got into position, the rebels tried their old tactics of massing and charging. A dense gray body of men were seen forming between the east of the woods and the run on the slope of the hill, north of the railroad, upon which the artillery and infantry opened at once, driving the throng back into the woods at a double-quick. After this manoeuvre a second line of skirmishers was thrown forward to the brow of the hill skirting the river, and two regiments of North-Carolina troops — the Twenty-sixty and Twenty-eight--came charging on our extreme right, over the railroad near the bridge. This post was held by Colonel Heath, commanding the brigade, which was the first of the Second division, and consisted of the Nineteenth Maine, Fifteenth Massachusetts, First Minnesota, and Eighty-second New-York. Our boys waited for their “erring Southern brethren,” who came on with a yell until they reached the track of the railroad, when a volley, and another, and another, sent them homeward at a pace which defies illustration. The brigade of Carolinians, which was commanded by Brigadier-General Heth, broke and fled, hiding themselves behind the rocks and bushes along the stream. This brigade of North-Carolinians was Pettigrew's old brigade, and the men prided themselves on their prowess. But the men opposed to them were too well versed in fighting to be intimidated, and they gave the lauded heroes the best turn in the shop. It was laughable to see them extricate themselves from their dilemma. They did not dare to rise from behind their cover when once hid; for no sooner would a head appear from behind a log, or rock, or bush, then a Minie would whistle it back to death.  Run they dared not, fight they could not, and the only alternative left them was to surrender at discretion, which they did by creeping out upon all fours without their guns, and piteously asking our boys, like Crockett's coon, “not to fire, as they would come in.” The captured of this brigade numbered about five hundred, and General Heth will have to recruit before taking it into action again. When the enemy found that the Second corps was ready and able to hold its ground, and had no notion of leaving, a fact they discovered after about five hours hard fighting, they withdrew to the cover of the dense wood in their rear, only firing with their artillery when they could work themselves up to the fighting point sufficiently to enable them to thrust a gun out of the edge of the wood. Then they would fire, and the flame and smoke would act as a target for our gunners; so the firing would be irregular and inconstant; now chiming in, peal on peal, like the reverberations of a thunder-clap, then only a shot or two for several minutes. The brunt of the fighting was done by General Webb's and General Hayes's division, with the artillery; but it was only so because General Caldwell, who was on the left, was employed in watching a heavy force of rebels which was massed in the woods across the railroad immediately in his front. At dark the fighting ceased, and darkness found us in full possession of the field, the rebels having fallen back to and beyond the woods, having suffered the loss of six pieces of artillery, two battle-flags, two colonels killed and one taken prisoner; probably five hundred killed and wounded, whom they left upon the field, and about seven hundred and fifty prisoners. Among the rebel slain and left were Colonel Ruffin of the First, and Colonel Thompson of the Fifth North-Carolina cavalry. The battle-flags captured were that of the Twenty-sixth North-Carolina infantry, captured by the Nineteenth Maine, and that of the Twenty-eighth North-Carolina, taken by the Eighty-second New-York. The battery captured consisted of one large Whitworth gun, two fine Rodmans, and three brass field-pieces. One of these, however, was so badly broken up as to be worthless, and was left upon the field. The others were brought away, and to-day have been sent to Washington. I ought not to pass over the capture of these guns without mentioning an incident which illustrates the valor of our men to a remarkable degree. After the enemy had been driven from their guns by the artillery and infantry combined, General Warren ordered a detail to be made of ten men from each regiment of the corps to bring off the pieces. This was done in order to debar any one regiment, brigade, or division from arrogating to itself the particular honor of their capture. The work to be done was a hazardous one; but the boys shouted as they started at a double-quick. The woods in the rear of the battery were full of graybacks, who, in all probability, would attempt to prevent their pets from falling into the hands of the Yankee mudsills. Our infantry and artillery would be powerless to help, as a shot from either would be as likely to kill one of our own as one of the rebel troops. But the selected men went off in the direction of the prizes, reached them, seized them, turned them toward the foe, fired a parting salute, from such as the enemy, in his haste, had left loaded, then commenced dragging them away by.hand. They had not gone far, however, when the rebels flocked out of the woods, and came down at a charge toward them, seeing which the boys dropped the artillery, grasped their smaller arms and drove the Butternuts back to the pines. They then came back and dragged off their captures in safety. I have heard some cheering on election nights, but I never heard such a yell of exultation as rent the air when the rebels' guns, caissons, and equipments were brought across the railroad track to the line of our infantry. During the afternoon, while the heavy cannonading was going on, General Meade sent the Fifth corps, under General Sykes, to reenforce the Second, but they did not reach the field before dark, and then the fortunes of the day were closed and they could be of no service. General Warren had won his victory and vindicated the wisdom of the power which made him a Major-General. The victory was signal and complete. I am reliably informed that the rebel Colonel Thompson stated that General Lee's object was to head us off before reaching Centreville, and supposed that when he made the attack upon Warrren he was at the head of the entire army with his corps. Consequently he only threw forward one portion of A. P. Hill's corps, numbering in all about twelve thousand men, with four batteries of artillery, in order to hold us in check until the other. corps of Ewell, together with the two remaining divisions of Longstreet's corps, could come up. I presume the story is true; but they have found out their mistake. After the fight had closed, we buried all our dead, brought off all our wounded, and came over Broad Run in perfect order and safety. We have not lost a dollar's worth of property by capture. Our forces are now safely and securely posted; our trains all parked in convenient and safe retreats, and the army is in excellent spirits. Among the casualties in the above described battles were the following on the Union side. In battery B, Second Rhode Island artillery, Chester Hunt, killed; Martin V. B. Eaton, leg shot off; John Kelley, wounded slight; Lieutenant Perrin, slight; Edward Howard, slight. Captain Ball of the Third Minnesota was wounded in three places and under the most aggravating circumstances. When the enemy charged up the railroad, finding themselves in a dangerous place, they waved their hands in token of surrender. At this instant Captain Ball sprang to the top of the embankment, and a volley was fired at him, three shots taking effect. The Minnesotians  returned the fire, and many a rebel suffered in retaliation for this act of treachery. The First Maine cavalry, which was cut off Monday night near Jefferson, reached Bristoe Station Tuesday night. They lost twenty men, who were sent to communicate with General Gregg. Our men behaved handsomely. The following is a list of the casualties: Killed--Colonel James E. Mallon, Forty-second New-York, commanding Third brigade, Second division, Second corps. Wounded--Captain S. M. Smith, Seventh Michigan infantry, Inspector-General of General Webb's staff; four captains of Forth-second New-York; Lieutenant William B. Driver, Nineteenth Massachusetts, slight; Lieutenant J. I. Ferris, Nineteenth Massachusetts, slight; Captain Frank Wessels, Judge Advocate, Second division, Second corps; Captain Thomas Sinclair, First Minnesota, slight; Lieutenant J. D. Gray, First Minnesota, slight; Lieutenant Stevens, Fifteenth Massachusetts, slight. The Fifteenth Massachusetts lost two killed and eight wounded; Nineteenth Maine, one killed and twelve wounded; First Maine, one killed, twenty wounded, and one missing; Eighty-second New-York, seven killed and eighteen wounded. The above were in First brigade, Second division. The casualties in the Third brigade, Third division, were four killed, eighty-five wounded, and twenty-five missing. In the Fourth brigade Third division, the loss was fourteen, in killed, wounded, and missing. General Tile, of the Tenth Pennsylvania reserves, was wounded in head and foot. Among the rebels slain were Colonel Ruffin, of the First, and Colonel Thompson, of the Fifth North-Carolina cavalry. The battle-flags captured belonged to the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-sixth North-Carolina infantry. The battery captured consisted of one large Whitworth gun, two fine Rodmans, and three brass field pieces; one of these, however, was so badly broken up as to be worthless, and was left upon the field. Besides the rebels killed, whom I have mentioned, there was Brigadier-General Cooke, a son of General Philip St. George Cooke, of the Union army. His body was left on the field. After the fight had closed, we buried all our dead, brought off all our wounded, and came over Broad Run in perfect order and safety. We have not lost a dollar's worth of property by capture. Our forces are now safely and securely posted, our trains all parked, and the army in excellent spirits. The rebel Colonel Thompson states that it was General Lee's object to head us off before reaching Centreville, and supposed when he made the attack upon General Warren he was at the head of the entire army with his corps; consequently he only threw forward one portion of D. P. Hill's corps, numbering in all about twelve thousand men, with four batteries of artillery, in order to hold us in check until the other corps of Ewell, together with the two remaining divisions of Longstreet's corps, could come up. Probably our entire loss in killed and wounded will not reach two hundred, while that of the enemy will not fall short of five hundred, besides the prisoners captured. We lost none in battle except the killed and wounded, though it is probable a few stragglers fell into the hands of the rebels, between Warrenton Junction and Bristoe.
General Meade's order.
headquarters army of the Potomac, October 15.The Major-General Commanding announces to the army that the rear guard, consisting of the Second corps, was attacked yesterday while marching by the flank. The enemy, after a spirited contest, was repulsed, losing a battery of five guns, two colors, and four hundred and fifty prisoners. The skill and promptitude of Major-General Warren, and the gallantry and bearing of the officers and soldiers of the Second corps, are entitled to high commendation.
Richmond Examiner account.
Richmond, Oct. 26, 1863.No connected account has yet been published of the movements of our army during the recent campaign in Northern Virginia. From the information in our reach, we make up a hasty and imperfect narrative. It would appear to have been General Lee's plan to send A. P. Hill's corps by a route west of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad to Manassas Junction, there to cut off Meade's retreat, whilst Ewell's corps followed on the right flank of the retreating enemy, and would be ready to fall upon his rear when he should be brought to a stand. In furtherance of this plan, Hill left Madison country on or about the eighth instant, and moved toward Sperryville. On the same day Ewell crossed the Rapidan at Raccoon Ford. At this place occurred the first cavalry fight, in which we drove the enemy back, but not without sustaining considerable loss. Here Newton and other gallant officers fell. Meade having apparently seen through the designs of General Lee, began his retreat simultaneously with our advance, and, having the benefit of the railroad, and moving on a direct line, it is no matter of surprise that he managed to frustrate them. On Sunday, Hampton's cavalry, under the immediate command of Stuart, moving in advance of Ewell's corps, reached Culpeper Court-House, and, moving along the railroad, encountered the enemy at Brandy Station. The battle took place on the farm of John Minor Botts, one of the charges of our cavalry being made through his front yard. We may here remark that the property on the farm of this extraordinary individual, of whom the government of the Confederate States stand in such fear, had been religiously respected by the Yankees: whereas the country around was little better than a wilderness, his fences and crops were untouched. But that  Sunday night wrought a change in its condition. Three thousand confederate cavalry bivouacked there after the battle, and fed their horses in his corn-field. The next morning there were very few fence-rails and very little corn left. The men could be heard to say while building high their fires: “Pile on, boys, they are nothing but d — d old Union rails.” Botts came down Monday morning and said he would like to get a certificate of the quantity of corn used and rails burnt. He was dismissed very cavalierly, and told that we had no time to attend to such matters. Monday our cavalry came up with the enemy at Jefferson, on the road from Culpeper Court-House to Warrenton. There an obstinate fight took place, which resulted in the enemy being driven across Hedgeman's River to Warrenton Springs, from which place the enemy were also driven after a battle. In each of these battles we took several hundred prisoners. Ewell's corps, having changed its line of march, reached Warrenton on Tuesday morning. Meade's army was at this time across the Rappahannock, and believed to have halted at Warrenton Junction, and between that point and Catlett's Station. Two thousand cavalry were sent down from Warrenton to reconnoitre in the direction of Catlett's. On arriving near the latter place, Tuesday evening, they found the enemy were moving heavy columns of infantry along the railroad toward Manassas; and they thereupon immediately turned to retrace their steps toward Warrenton; but on reaching a road which crossed their route, leading from Warrenton Junction to Manassas, they found that the enemy were also moving infantry in large masses along this road. They were thus completely hemmed in. Night came on as they reached this road. The heavy tramp of the enemy's infantry and the rumble of their artillery sounded right in front of them. General Stuart withdrew his little force into a thicket of old field pines, hoping that the enemy would pass him by unnoticed, and leave his road to Warrenton clear. The enemy were moving so near our position that every word of command, and even ordinary conversation, could be distinctly heard by us. Our situation was extremely critical; any accident, the accidental discharge of a pistol, would have disclosed our position, and then, in view of the overwhelming force of the enemy, nothing awaited us but destruction or surrender, Stuart gave his officers and men to understand that surrender was not to be thought of, but that the enemy was to be fought to the last. A council of war having been called, it was resolved, as the best thing that could be done under the circumstances, to desert the nine pieces of horse artillery, and for the cavalry in six columns to endeavor to cut their way through the enemy. But after some reflection, Stuart resolved not to abandon his artillery, and struck upon a device for informing General Lee, who was at Warrenton, of his situation. He called for three volunteers to undertake a desperate enterprise. Crockett Eddins, of this city, and two other young men, immediately stepped forth to undertake any thing their General might order. Stuart ordered them to put on infantry knapsacks, and, shouldering muskets, to advance in the darkness to the road, fall into the enemy's column, and crossing it, to make their way to Warrenton, and say to General Lee that he was surrounded, and he “must send some of his people to help him out.” Eddins and his two gallant comrades obeyed orders, and reached Warrenton in safety. The last division of the enemy halted and bivouacked opposite Stuart and within one hundred and fifty yards of his position — so close that we could hear the Yankees pouring out oats to feed their horses. During the night two of Meade's staff straggled into our lines and were taken prisoners. One of them, a gay young fellow, said to Stuart, “All right, General, we sup with you to-night, you dine with us to-morrow,” intimating that Stuart would, by that time, be a prisoner. At daylight Wednesday morning, Stuart was informed, by the cracking of our skirmishers' muskets, that Lee had received his message, and was sending “some of the people” to help him. As Lee's advancing columns attracted the enemy's attention, Stuart, from the rear, opened on them with grape and canister. The enemy were much disordered by the cannonade from so unexpected a quarter, and, taking advantage of the confusion, Stuart limbered up his guns, and, with with cavalry and artillery, dashed through the hostile ranks and rejoined General Lee. The enemy suffered a loss of one hundred and eighty killed in this affair. That evening Hill's corps reached Bristoe Station just after Meade's army had passed that point. What appeared to be a small portion of the enemy was discovered behind a long embankment of the railroad, and two brigades of Heth's corps were ordered to dislodge them. Then followed the battle of Bristoe, which has already been mentioned in these columns. What appeared to be a trifling force of the enemy turned out to be two full army corps, lying in ambush to gobble up any inconsiderate brigades that might attempt to dislodge them. An hour's experiment convinced our men that a formidable force was in their front, and they withdrew. We had three or four hundred men killed and wounded in the fight. The enemy admit a severe loss, but they left but few dead upon the field. Before the main body of our army could get up, the battle was over. That night our men were drawn up in line of battle, but when the day broke on Thursday morning, the enemy was gone. Our forces followed them as far as Manassas Junction, and resting here a day, began a retrograde movement toward the Rappahannock. Our cavalry on Thursday crossed Bull Creek, near the foot of Bull Run Mountain, and made a reconnoissance as far as Centreville, where they were driven back by the enemy's infantry. Thus ended this famous retreat and pursuit. Our army returned to the Rappahannock, having lost in the campaign about one thousaud men,  killed, wounded, and prisoners, and having taken near two thousand prisoners. Of the enemy's loss in killed and wounded we have no means of making an estimate. During the pursuit our troops never made over twelve miles a day. The results of the campaign are important. We took a large number of prisoners and horses, ascertained Meade's army to consist of not more than fifty thousand infantry, destroyed the railroad from Manassas to Rappahannock Station, and removed Meade's headquarters from the Rapidan to the Rappahannock. During the campaign our cavalry did splendid service. They performed all the successful fighting, and took nine tenths of the prisoners. As belonging rather to the period of our retreat than of Meade's, we have made no mention of the cavalry victory gained by Stuart over Kilpatrick on the nineteenth instant.
Richmond Sentinel account.
camp----cavalry, A. N. V., November 6, 1863.The late campaign is interesting from a cavalry point of view. We had the Yankees on what is called “a big drive.” Some of the incidents of the campaign may be interesting. One division of the cavalry corps, under General Fitz Lee, was left on the Rapidan, to watch the enemy below, while General Stuart advanced with Hampton's division to protect the flank of the army, then moving toward Madison Court-House, from observation. This division consisted of the brigades of Gordon, Young, and Jones; Colonel Funsten commanding the latter. At Thoroughfare Mountain, General Gordon, whose brigade led the advance, encountered a regiment of infantry, and attacked with his habitual gallantry and skill. A brisk action ensued between the opposing sharp-shooters, the enemy giving way from the first. Just as they were breaking, Young's brigade, which General Stuart had taken round to the left, came down in a thundering charge on the flank of the Federals, and dispersed, killed, or captured nearly the entire party of about four hundred infantry and three hundred cavalry. The two brigades then pushed on, drove the enemy from the little town of James City, and our artillery opened on the Yankee batteries and cavalry, keeping up a brisk cannonade. The sharp-shooters were also hotly engaged, the enemy's whole force of cavalry, with French's division of infantry, remaining in our front, drawn up in heavy line of battle on a rising ground. It was no part of our plan to bring on an engagement, as General Stuart's design was to keep the enemy's cavalry off our flank; and no advance was made. On the following morning, the Federals had fallen back, and we pursued them, coming up with their cavalry below Griffinsburg. Here we thanked an infantry regiment, which double-quicked to escape, and received, in so doing, the full benefit of our sharp-shooters' fire. At the same moment, Lieutenant Baylor, with a single company of cavalry, charged and broke them. A deep ditch alone prevented the cavalry from dashing in and sabring them. They were not thirty yards off; and, with one more volley into the cavalry, (which, strange to say, did not hurt man or horse,) took to their heels and escaped; for the most part in the woods. This was the second time, in two days, that the cavalry had charged and broken infantry. Passing the large, abandoned camps, where the enemy had evidently intended to go into winter quarters, to judge from the elaborate board cabins and every arrangement for permanent comfort, we pushed on to Culpeper Court-House after the flying enemy. They posted a battery at Mr. George's, below the town, but a flank movement to the left made them quickly withdraw it; and then sauve qui peut was the order of the day with them. General Stuart pushed after them, riding ahead of his command; and was heard to say: “Oh! If Fitz Lee was only up!” Almost as he spoke the boom of artillery was heard from the direction of Stevensburgh, and Fitz Lee, who has a faculty of always “turning up” at the right moment, attacked the retreating enemy's flank. He had driven Buford's command from the neighborhood of Rapidan Station, on the Rapidan, on, on, before him; and now came up, flushed with victory, just in time to report to General Stuart, and make the rout of the enemy complete. A hard and desperate fight ensued--one of the most fiercely contested combats of the war. The enemy had two brigades of infantry to back their heavy force of cavalry; but our infantry was far away, making the flank movement to intercept Meade. The confederate cavalry, therefore, had every thing their own way, and they finished “the big drive” all by themselves. At nightfall the Federals were driven with heavy loss back to and then beyond the river, and our weary but triumphant boys desisted from the long pursuit. On the next day--Monday--General Stuart flanked up to Jeffersonton, where the enemy made a brief but hot fight, taking refuge in the church and stone houses. They were speedily driven out, however, and our troops pushed on to Warrenton Springs. Here another fight occurred — cavalry and infantry, sharp-shooters of our army attacking. A gallant charge was made toward the bridge by the cavalry, but finding that some of the planks were torn up, they wheeled and dashed through the ford, driving the enemy before them. This little affair was witnessed by the infantry, and I hear that they were enthusiastic about the cavalry. The fact is, however, not that the cavalry did any harder fighting here than on a thousand other occasions, but that the infantry happened to see them at it. It is fortunate for the service, nevertheless, that this little affair was witnessed. It has tended to remove the groundless and absurd prejudice of the infantry against the cavalry arm of the service. That night, General Stuart pushed on to Warrenton. He had guarded the flank of the army, driven off the enemy's forces everywhere, and performed invaluable service. On the next day the army pushed on, the cavalry now in advance.  In the afternoon, General Stuart took two brigades and several batteries and set out for Cat lett's Station, to harass the enemy's flank and rear. Having passed Auburn, he at once discovered that he was between the advancing columns of the enemy. Enormous lines of infantry, cavalry, artillery, and baggage wagons were passing on both sides of him, and to have attacked them would have resulted in heavy loss. Nothing was left but to “lay low,” in camp parlance; and orders were accordingly issued that no sound should be uttered throughout the command. This novel incident in the career of the gallant Stuart has been so repeatedly described in the papers, that I will not further dwell upon it. Suffice it to say, that in spite of the sounds issuing from the throats of indecent donkeys, in spite of rattling artillery chains and neighing horses, the band of Southern cavaliers was not discovered; and at daybreak the rear-guard of the enemy were seen in camp cooking their breakfasts, not a quarter of a mile distant. General Stuart had sent several scouts on foot through the enemy's lines to announce his situation to General Lee, and urge the good results which would attend an attack on the enemy's left flank, while he attacked on the right. The scouts, disguising themselves as Federal infantry, got through the line and reported the “situation,” and at dawn General Rodes opened on the enemy, as suggested. At the same moment, General Stuart, who had gotten his artillery into position, hurled his thunders on them from an opposite direction, and the ball was opened in the liveliest way imaginable. The enemy formed and for a time resisted, but soon fell back, and our cavalry pushed on in pursuit, General Ewell following with his infantry. General Fitz Lee's division of cavalry had gone round by New-Baltimore and Buckland's, and reached Bristoe on the evening of the fight there, just as it was over. General Stuart came up at the same time, and taking command of the corps, advanced on the next morning to Manassas. Fitz Lee attacked the enemy at Blackburn's Ford — the scene of the battle of July eighteenth, 1861--and drove them off, after an artillery and sharp-shooters' fight of an hour or two. General Stuart, with the other division, then proceeded toward Yates's Ford below to cut off their wagon train, and coming up with the enemy, had a brief but severe fight with them, which terminated in their retreat across Bull Run. They had hurried off their trains, however, and no part of Meade's baggage felt into our hands. The entire command bivouacked that night in the waste and desolate country around Manassas, where there is neither sustenance for man nor beast. On the next morning, leaving General Fitz Lee at Manassas to watch the movements of the enemy in front, General Stuart, with Hampton's division, set out to make an expedition to their rear. At Groveton he encountered a heavy picket, which was driven away after some sharp fighting, and then proceeding more to the left by Gainesville, he crossed the Catharpin and Tittle River, struck into the turnpike below Aldie, and proceeded to the rear of Frying Pan, where a regiment of infantry was encountered and attacked. Desultory skirmishing consumed some hours, when, having ascertained that the Sixth corps was encamped there, and industriously intrenching to defend itself from General Lee's army, (then retiring from Warrenton toward the Rappahannock,) General Stuart withdrew, and marched back without pursuit or molestation by the badly frightened enemy. This expedition induced the enemy to retire his whole force from Centreville to Fairfax Court-House, under the impression that General Lee had gotten into his rear, and was about to attack him! This may be called one of the best practical (cavalry) jokes of the war. As our cavalry fell back from Gainesville, on the next day, the great “Buckland Races” took place. General Kilpatrick came down from Bull Run, as furious as a wild boar at finding that the circumventing force which had appeared at Frying Pan was only a portion of Stuart's cavalry. He declared to a citizen, at whose house he stopped, that “Stuart had been boasting of driving him from Culpeper, and now he was going to drive Stuart.” He was about to sit down to an excellent dinner as he made the observation, when, suddenly, the sound of artillery attracted his attention, and he was obliged to get (dinnerless) into the saddle. General Stuart had played him one of those tricks which are dangerous. He had arranged with General Fitz Lee, whose division was still toward Manassas, to come up on the enemy's flank and rear, as they pursued, and when he was ready, fire a gun as a signal. At the signal, he (Stuart) would face about and attack. Every thing took place as it was planned. The signal roared, and General Stuart, who, until then, had been retiring before the enemy toward New-Baltimore, faced around and charged. At the same moment Fitz Lee came up on the enemy's flank, and the “Buckland Races” took place. Poor Kilpatrick was completely ruined. His command was killed, captured, or dispersed. When last heard from, he was at Alexandria, where he is supposed to have opened a recruiting-office for the enlistment of his command. To add to his misery, the confederates have caught his race-horse. General Kilpatrick is fond of racing, and had a thoroughbred mare, called “Lively,” which he ran on every occasion. The other day “Lively” flew the track, and took to the woods, where some of Moseby's men took possession of her. Two soldiers were sent after her; and these, too, were gobbled up. It would thus appear that the campaign, taken altogether, has been unfavorable to General Kil patrick. Driven out of Culpeper, ruined at Buck land's, the loss of his favorite mare must appear to him the “unkindest cut of all.” At Buckland's, General Stuart captured a number of wagons and mules, and the headquarter baggage of General Custer; his papers, clothes, every thing. The papers reveal many interesting facts connected with their cavalry, and show a  heavy loss in the recent engagements at Jack's Shop, James City, etc. A few unimportant skirmishes followed the “Buckland Races,” but that amusing occurrence may be regarded as the termination of the cavalry campaign. I think you will agree with me that the cavalry have “done well for the Republic” in this campaign. They have met and fought the enemy all along the roads from the Rapidan to the Rappahannock, advancing on the Federals by two routes. They guarded the flank of General Lee as he marched to intercept Meade, doing the work so perfectly that the Federal General never at any time could ascertain a single fact in relation to Lee's movements. They drove the enemy, after a fierce and final struggle at Brandy, clear across the Rappahannock. They did the same on the next day at Warrenton Springs. They damaged the retreating columns seriously, to say the least, at Auburn. They drove them across Bull Run, and took possession of the fords in front of Centreville. They penetrated to the enemy's rear at Frying Pan, and made them fall back from Centreville to Fairfax Court-House, and intrench, under the impression that the “rebel army” was in their rear. They got Kilpatrick “between two fires” at Buckland's, and broke to pieces his entire command — killing, capturing, or driving back on their heavy infantry reserves the best cavalry in the whole Federal service. They effected these results, besides furnishing General Lee with thorough and reliable information of every movement and design on the part of the enemy. And yet these services of the cavalry have not been more important than upon other occasions. The high reputation for courage and efficiency which they have received has not been the result of better generalship on the part of the commanders, or greater gallantry on the part of the men. It has all resulted from a circumstance already alluded to. The infantry of the army were held in reserve, and had an opportunity to see the cavalry at work and observe the results. I am disposed to think that some of the most intelligent and candid men in the infantry honestly adopted the old prejudice, and believe that the cavalry did all the straggling and none of the fighting. Far from the field of cavalry operations, which are generally off on the flanks of the army, or in the rear or the front, these honest and sensible men repeated the sneers handing from regiment to regiment, and ended by believing every calumny which was circulated. This is the only explanation I can think of for the naive and enthusiastic applause which greeted the charge at Warrenton Springs. A gallant and dashing little affair, it is true; but only one of a thousand such which occur on every expedition of the cavalry. The infantry broke out into rapturous plaudits on that occasion, and evidently thought that such things rarely occurred — that the cavalry had “turned over a new leaf.” I repeat that the misfortune has been heretofore that the brave boys of the infantry did not see their comrades of the cavalry at work; and not finding them prominent in the middle of the big battles, believed they preferred the rear and did no fighting. It is fortunate that this hallucination is exploded. The gallant blood of noble hearts which flows in every cavalry fight cries aloud against this cruel calumny. While the infantry are resting after their toils, the cavalry are fighting; and it would astound some of those who have been in the habit of repeating the sneers alluded to, if they could know how much precious blood — of field officers, company officers, and noble men in the ranks — is shed in almost every skirmish which occurs upon the outposts. But, enough, I am glad the infantry have seen the cavalry at work. P. S.--One incident of the late campaign has been omitted through inadvertence, though well worthy of notice. On the evening of the fight for possession of the Warrenton Springs ford, the enemy, puzzled to death at our movements, and determined to use every means to penetrate Lee's designs, advanced from Rappahannock Station by Brandy toward Culpeper Court-House, with two divisions of cavalry and some infantry. Our army had, of course, gone on, by the upper fords, and General Stuart had deserted that part of the field of operations for one more attractive beyond the Rappahannock. He had, however, left. Colonel Rosser with a force of less than two hundred cavalry and one piece of artillery at Brandy, to repel any advance in that direction. The enemy appeared suddenly, in the evening, as I have said, and commenced a furious attack upon Rosser. He dismounted his command, and deployed them as sharp-shooters; and with these and his single gun received the assault. He was speedily forced, of course, to fall back; but this was done gradually, his piece retiring from hill to hill, and continuing to fire upon the enemy. The only hope which Colonel Rosser had was in Colonel Young, commanding the South-Carolina cavalry, and his own Cobb legion, Butler's brigade. Young was above Culpeper Court-House when he received Rosser's message, and immediately pushed on, and threw himself into the affair with the dash and gallantry which are a matter of course with him. He dismounted his entire brigade, scattered them over a front of a mile, advanced upon the Federals, and kept up such a hot fire upon them that, they were completely checked and driven back. Night had now come, and ordering his men to build camp-fires along his entire front, Colonel Young brought up his brass band to the front and made it play “Dixie” and the “Bonnie Blue flag” till midnight. The consequence of this unique proceeding, on the part of the gallant Colonel, was pleasing. A mile and a half of camp-fires, and a brass band playing “Dixie,” defiantly, could be accounted for upon no other hypothesis than the presence of a strong force of General Lee's army; and having reconnoitred the heavy body of troops evidently in their front, the enemy concluded that  their expedition was “no go.” When morning came they had fallen back beyond the Rappahannock. Such is one of the many amusing incidents which wreathe with a smile the features of “grimvisaged war.”