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Doc. 208.-order of General W. T. Sherman.

headquarters at Iuka, Miss., October 25.
Order no. 2:

First. Major-General Frank Blair takes command of the Fifteenth and a portion of the Sixteenth army corps now in the field.

Third. All officers in command of corps and fixed military posts will assume the highest military powers allowed by the laws of war and Congress. They must maintain the best possible discipline, and repress all disorder, alarms, and dangers in their reach. Citizens who fail to support the Government have no right to ask favors and protection, but if they actively assist us in vindicating the national authority, all commanders will assist them and their families in every possible way. Officers need not meddle with matters of trade and commerce, which by law devolve on the officer of the Treasury Department; but whenever they discover goods contraband of war being conveyed toward the public enemy, they will seize all goods tainted by such transactions, and imprison the parties implicated, but care must be taken to make ful. records and report such case. When a district is infested by guerrillas, or held by the enemy, horses and mules, wagons, forage, etc., are all [579] means of war, and can be freely taken, but must be accounted for as pubic property. If the people do not want their horses and corn taken, they must organize and repress all guerrillas or hostile bands in their neighborhood.

Third. It is represented that officers, provostmarshals, and others in the military service, are engaged in business or speculation on their own account, and that they charge fees for permits and passes. All this is a breach of honor and law. Every salaried officer of the military service should devote every hour of his time, every thought of his mind, to his government, and if he makes one cent profit beyond his pay, it is corrupt and criminal. All officers and soldiers in this department are hereby commanded to engage in no business whatever, save their sworn duty to their government.

Fifth. Every man should be with his proper corps, division, brigade, and regiment, unless absent, sick, or wounded, or detached by written order of a competent commander. Soldiers when so absent must have their descriptive rolls, and when not provided with them the supposition is that they are improperly absent. Mustering officers will see that all absentees not away by a written order from their proper commander are reported on the muster-rolls as deserters, that they may lose their pay, bounty, and pensions, which a generous. government and people have provided for soldiers who do their whole duty. The best hospitals in the world are provided for the wounded and sick, but these must not be made receptacles for absentees who seek to escape the necessary exposures and dangers of a soldier's life. Whenever possible, citizens must be employed as nurses, cooks, attendants, stewards, etc., in hospitals, in order that enlisted men may be where they belong — with their regiments. The medical inspectors will attend to this at once. The General Commanding announces that he expects the wounded and sick to have every care possible, but this feeling must not be abused to the injury of the only useful part of an army — a soldier in the field.

Sixth. In time of war and rebellion, districts occupied by our troops are subject to the laws of war. The inhabitants, be they friendly or unfriendly, must submit to the controlling power. If any person in an insurgent district corresponds or trades with an enemy, he or she becomes a spy, and all inhabitants, moreover, must not only abstain from hostile and unfriendly acts, but must aid and assist the power that protects them in trade and commerce.

The people who occupy this department had better make a note of this, and conduct themselves accordingly.

By order of

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