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Doc. 47.-Morgan's invasion of Ohio.

Account by an eye-witness.

on the twenty-seventh of June, 1863, the Second and Seventh Ohio cavalry and the Forth-fifth Ohio mounted infantry, together with Laws's howitzer battery, left Somerset, Ky., for Jamestown, for the purpose of watching Morgan, who, with his whole brigade, was encamped on the other side of the Cumberland River. We lay there from the twenty-ninth June to the third July, more or less skirmishing going on all the while — when [258] on that day Captain Carter of the First Kentucky cavalry, with detachments of the Second Ohio cavalry and Forty-fifth Ohio mounted infantry, went on a reconnoissance toward Columbia. There they had a fight with the advance of Morgan's division, which we then found had crossed the river on the second of July. About five o'clock on the afternoon of the third, Captain Carter was very seriously wounded, and the enemy pressed us so closely, that we were compelled to fall back. At six o'clock a detachment of the First Kentucky, Seventh Ohio cavalry, and Forty-fifth Ohio mounted infantry left Jamestown to reenforce Carter, and arrived at Columbia about eleven o'clock. They found Carter in a dying condition, and Morgan with three brigades in full possession of the town.

A short struggle ensued between us, for we had not then learned the strength of the enemy, and supposed it to be a force we might easily crush; but as the fight went on we found the forces with which we were contending were larger than we had supposed; when we fired musketry we were answered with grape and canister; when we fired a few rifle shots we were answered with whole volleys of musketry; and speedily beating a hasty retreat, we went as fast as our horses would carry us to Jamestown. We reached that place about five o'clock on the morning of the fourth, and a courier was instantly despatched by Colonel Wolford to General Carter, in command of the United States forces at Somerset, announcing that Morgan, with his whole force, had effected a crossing of the Cumberland River at Burkesville, and had advanced north to Columbia. From this date the pursuit of Morgan commenced.

At six o'clock P. M. there was an unusual amount of satisfaction expressed in the countenances of our boys, for orders had just been issued for all the mounted troops stationed in Jamestown to prepare to move at a moment's notice, and to provide themselves with six days rations. It was a relief after the wearisome monotony incidental to the comparative inactivity of camp life, to be suddenly called into active service, and, if I must admit it — the pleasure was none the less, because the prospects were that the chase would not be too long to be pleasant. Our boys therefore set about making their preparations with a will, and in a few moments we were ready to start. It was well that there was so much alacrity displayed, for these first orders were barely issued before it was followed by another ordering us off at once, and a few moments more saw us fairly off in pursuit of the celebrated raider.

We could not have made a more propitious start. The night was fine, clear and cool. The moon, although occasionally obscured by light fleecy clouds, gave sufficient light to enable us to see well and clearly all around us, so that we were to some extent free from apprehensions of a sudden attack from any hidden foe. The weather was sufficiently cool to enable us to ride along without discomfort, and altogether the ride from Jamestown to the banks of the Green River, on that splendid July night, was one of the pleasantest marches our boys have ever made. The future we cared little about; chatting and laughing and singing, we proceeded gayly enough on our journey, occasionally speculating among ourselves where we should meet with the man who had become the great object of our desires, and what we should do with him when we got him, for the possibility of his escaping from us was never entertained for a moment.

We reached the northern bank of the Green River about daylight on Sunday morning, the fifth instant, and after a hurried breakfast we again started in pursuit, marching all that day and camping on Sunday night, at eight o'clock, at Casey street, where we were joined by the Second Tennessee mounted infantry. The result of our observations convinced us that our commissary department had been neglected. We had been ordered to prepare ourselves with six days rations, but many of our boys, having faith in Providence, had failed to provide themselves, and the consequence was, we found ourselves with a bare average of three days rations for the whole number of troops. Consoling ourselves with vague speculations as to the prospects for foraging, we lay down to rest that night, and started again in pursuit at half-past 6 o'clock the next morning, the sixth instant, and drew rein again at Bradfordsville at ten o'clock. There we heard, for the first time since our departure, of any of the movements of Morgan. We were informed that he had captured our forces at Lebanon, and had then left that place for Bargetown. Leaving Bradfordsville within half an hour of our arrival, we took up our line of march for Lebanon, arriving there at three o'clock in the afternoon. At this place our forces had made some resistance, in which Tom Morgan, the brother of the guerrilla chieftain, was killed. In revenge the rebels burned some eighteen or twenty houses, robbed the post-office, cleaned out the stores, and plundered and robbed and destroyed all they could lay their hands on. An incident occurred here which may perhaps be worth relating. An old man living in Lebanon had two sons in Morgan's command, who had been with him ever since the commencement of his military career. During the absence of the young men, the old man's house and lot had been sold at sheriff's sale, and had been purchased by a strong Union man.

The rebels were informed of all these circumstances by the two sons, and proceeding to the house they burnt it to the ground, leaving its owner almost penniless to begin the world again. Another significant thing began to be evident here. John Morgan, who had heretofore been so popular with all Kentucky men, was beginning to lose a little of his popularity. Certain little murmurs of discontent reached our ears for the first time from some of those who are spoken of by the out-and-out traitors — as “good, strong Kentuckians.” Morgan's men, in their passage through the central part of the State, had been [259] blinded to some extent by the superior refulgence of “State rights,” and had, in a great measure, lost sight of individual rights. And many were the complaints of those who once possessed property which was not forthcoming, and who refused to be comforted by the reflection that it was all for the good of the sunny South.

Leaving Lebanon at half-past 3, we arrived at Springfield at six o'clock, and there we met many of those belonging to the Union forces which had been captured by the rebels at Lebanon.

These men presented a very sorry appearance when we arrived among them. The number of troops captured by the rebels at Lebanon was about three hundred. Immediately on surrendering, the rebels had made them fall in, and putting a guard around them had forced them to march on foot at a double-quick from Lebanon to Springfield — a distance of fully twelve miles. During the way many of them exhibited signs of giving out, but they were compelled to keep up by their merciless captors. At last one sergeant found it impossible to keep up with the ranks. The guards knocked him down with the buttend of their muskets, and his brains were tramped out by the feet of the horses of the rebel rearguard, and his body left lying in the road. On their arrival at Springfield they were paroled, the Southern chivalry first robbing them of every dollar they had.

We camped on the night of the sixth at eight o'clock, on the Bargetown Road, about six miles beyond Springfield, and left again the next morning at two o'clock, reaching Bargetown at six. Here we found that Morgan had left that place at noon on the day before, going north on the Shepherdsville road. We were joined at this place by General Hobson, with Shackleford's brigade, comprising the Third, Eighth, Ninth, and Twelfth Kentucky cavalry and two pieces of artillery. General Hobson now took command, and continuing our journey we encamped on the night of the seventh about four miles from Shepherdsville. It was at this point that Morgan captured the mail-train on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and had captured and paroled about, twenty soldiers who were passengers on board the cars. They also robbed all the passengers of any valuables they might have about them, stole all the contents of the mail-bags and appropriated all the express packages that were on board. Here our horses began to give out. We had been in the saddle with hardly any rest since the evening of the fourth of July, and it was more than horse-flesh could endure, so to recruit our horses we went into camp at six o'clock in the evening. On the morning of the eighth we were again on our way at half-past 4 o'clock, General Shackleford's brigade in the advance, and crossed the railroad where the rebels had robbed the mail. They had taken all the letters with them to amuse themselves by reading as they went along, and for twenty-five or thirty miles the road was strewed with fragments of paper — the letters which the rebels had thrown down in the way to become the sport of every breath of air that blew, or to be picked up by any passer by who might chance to come along. As we followed along the road we curiously picked up many of the notes and letters which were scattered so profusely around, and attempted to decipher the writing, an undertaking attended with considerable difficulty, for the writing — not often too distinct — was rendered almost totally illegible by reason of dust and dirt and the trampling of horses' feet. The first we picked out of the mass of fluttering paper commenced with “My dear wife,” and, after a few commonplace remarks, went on to speak of some crushing trial that had lately fallen upon them both in the death of a loved relative, while the writer attempts to impart comfort in the affliction, and to lighten the load of grief, which, he says, he fears is greater than she can bear. The next is altogether different in character. It is a business letter and says: “Inclosed please find one hundred and fifty dollars, which you will please place to my credit.” A third is written in rather a clerical sort of handwriting — at least it appears so to us. It commences very formally with “Madame,” and in it we find that it has become the painful duty of the writer to inform her for whom the letter is intended that her husband “is no more.” That after lingering for many weeks in some hospital, he had quietly breathed his last, with his last breath sending a message to the only woman he loved on earth. The letter covers all the four sides of the paper, but a large part is torn off, and singularly enough we cannot find a single name to give us any clue either to the parties to whom it was addressed, or to the writer of the sad news. A fourth letter is full of hope and joy, and speaks of weddings and dances and balls in a strange sort of jumbled — up way; while another is very sad, and gives a long description of a death-bed scene or a funeral. So they go on, strangely like the ever-changing scenes of every-day life, one day dark and cloudy, the next light and cheerful, and so amusing ourselves with perusing the letters, and reflecting on their contents, the day's march is made. Quietly enough, for the letters seem to have set every one thinking what will be the result of the loss of news. Thinking of children waiting to hear from a parent away off in the armies of the Tennessee. Of a sister watching for news of a dear brother. Of the news of the death of a husband to a newly-made widow, and speculating as to whether the news will ever reach her. So we go on to Laurenceville, about one mile from which place we pass the night. A little tiny stream runs close by our encampment, and I stroll out in the night and throw myself down by its side, and gaze on the little ripples that seem to glide over its surface. It was flowing on so peacefully and calmly in the midst of our warlike movements, that I insensibly catch myself repeating part of Willis's description of the pursuit of King David by his son Absalom, and saying:

. . . . . . . . [260]

How strikingly the course of nature tells,
By its light heed of human suffering,
That it was fashioned for a happier world.

But, as I get so far, I suddenly find I have company, and am joined by one of my comrades, who, having heard my involuntary soliloquy, accuses me of getting sentimental, and shaking off the spell that seemed to enthrall me, I return to camp, and throwing myself on the ground, I sleep soundly until morning breaks, and the bugle calls us once more to mount.

Here we are informed that Morgan left Elizabethtown on his right, and struck for Brandenburgh, commencing to cross the Ohio River on the Alice Dean and the J. T. McCoombs. On the morning of the ninth, we again started in pursuit, feeling a little elated to find that we have gained something on him in the journey. We captured three prisoners shortly after leaving Laurenceville, who told us that at the fight at Green River they lost one hundred and ten men in killed and wounded, including Colonel Chenault, one major and four captains. As we drew near to Brandenburgh we saw a thick smoke rising up from the river, and quickened our speed in hopes of arriving in time to prevent the destruction of property which we presumed was going on, but as we arrived in the town we could see down in the river the Alice Dean burning rapidly away on the other side of the stream, while far back on the opposite shore of the river, could be seen the rear-guard of Morgan's force rapidly disappearing in the distance. The complaints of the inhabitants were longer, and deeper, and louder than at any other point on our route. The accustomed chivalry of Morgan's men, which is a matter of so much pride and exultation among the secesh of Kentucky, is, it seems, excelled by their cupidity, and they could not withstand the temptation offered by the well-filled stores of Brandenburgh. Plundering all indiscriminately, there was hardly a house in the place which had not suffered more or less from their visit. One firm, that of Weatherspool and Joekel, they robbed of goods to the amount of three thousand five hundred dollars, and when they expostulated with them for taking such goods as could not possibly be of service to them, such as silks and muslins, they replied that they wanted them to present to their Yankee cousins in Indiana.

In the fight that took place at Brandenburgh, at the time of the crossing, between the Leavenworth home guards and Morgan's men, they killed two of the Indianians and took forty-five of them prisoners, capturing their twelve pounder gun, which they threw into the river after spiking it. In the onward march of the rebels they burnt Peter Locke's mill, which lies about three miles from the river. This was the first work of destruction they performed after they commenced to invade the free States.

Our forces commenced to cross the river at noon of the ninth of July, and went into camp on the hill opposite Brandenburgh until the whole force was across, in order to give our horses rest, that they might be fresh when they resumed the pursuit. At three o'clock on the morning of the tenth, all our forces were across, and breaking up our camp, we at once resumed the pursuit. About five miles on the road we captured Lieutenant Arnold, of Gano's regiment, who was thrown from his horse and sprained his ankle, thus being rendered unfit for duty. Arriving at Corydon at ten o'clock we found that the home guards had made a stand there under Colonel Timberley, and had fought them for four hours, killing two of Morgan's men, and wounding seven, while they themselves lost fifteen in killed and wounded. It was at this place that Mr. Glenn was shot down, and his house burnt for having fired on the rebels as they passed by his house. As we rode by the place, the dead body of Robinson, the rebel he had killed, was still laid out in the open air, waiting for its burial to take place. In Corydon we found that here, as everywhere else, they had cleaned out all the stores, and had plundered all they could lay their hands on. Three mills which are situated in this place they threatened to burn, unless they raised one thousand dollars each in fifteen minutes. The money was raised and the mills were saved.

They captured two hundred home guards and paroled them, and when they left, they took with them all the horses they could find, Dick Morgan's regiment taking the advance. Up to this time they had stolen altogether about two hundred and fifty horses and had torn up and destroyed all the American flags they could find.

Encamping that night about two and a half miles from Salem, we broke camp at five o'clock on the eleventh, and arrived there quite early in the morning. We met with quite a grand reception there, the inhabitants supplying us with all the eatables we required, and doing for us all they had in their power. Morgan had burnt the railroad bridge across the Blue River at this point, and had also levied his usual tax of one thousand dollars each on the three mills of the place; and finished up by robbing all the houses in the place. At one or two houses, the inhabitants had locked up and fled at their approach, but they broke in the doors and helped themselves to all they could find.

On Saturday, July eleventh, we encamped at Vienna, where the rebels had burnt the bridge, and we found that Morgan had struck for Lexington and thence north; so leaving camp again at five o'clock on the morning of the twelfth, we followed on to Paris, where the rebels had made but a short stay, being apprehensive that we were too close in their rear for their own comfort. At Vernon, Morgan sent in to Colonel Lowe, who commanded the one thousand two hundred militia who had assembled at that point, demanding a surrender. Colonel Lowe replied: “Come and take it.” Morgan then notified him to remove all the women and children, which was done. He then surrounded the town, burnt the bridges, and did all the damage that lay in his power, and then went on to Dupont without troubling himself [261] self to fight, and there burnt the railroad bridge and two other bridges, and left for Versailles, where he robbed the county treasurer of five thousand dollars, all the money he had, and again took his departure, expressing his sincere regret that the county was so very poor.

We arrived at Versailles on the thirteenth, at five o'clock, and found that Morgan, after sacking the town, had sent on a force to Osgood, where they burnt a bridge and captured a telegraph operator, and kept on to Pierceville, burning all the bridges on the road, and starting thence to Milan. They then struck off on the Brookfield road, and after travelling eight miles, turned off toward Wisebergh, where they had a skirmish with the home guards. At New-Ulsas, a small German settlement, they captured a wagon-load of lager beer, which they carried with them to refresh themselves on their way. On the night of the thirteenth, we encamped at Harrison, our horses being thoroughly jaded and worn out, and men being in a condition not much more encouraging than their horses. On that night Morgan nearly surrounded Cincinnati. Starting at three A. M. on the fourteenth, we followed in the wake of Morgan's troops through Springdale and Sharon to Montgomery, where we found he had captured one hundred and fifty good horses. At Miamiville, after turning over the train on the Little Miami Railroad, he burnt fifty new Government wagons. There had been two hundred wagons, but we succeeded in saving one hundred and fifty, together with one thousand mules. We camped that night at nine o'clock at Camp Repose, and started at two A. M. on the fifteenth for Batavia. We were led out of our way by a Methodist preacher, who had undertaken to guide us, and so far succeeded in misleading us, that instead of going by the direct road, which was only six miles, he took us by a roundabout way of fifteen miles. Whether this was intentional or otherwise we did not know, but he seemed very anxious to make his escape, and if hard swearing on the part of our boys will injure any one but the swearer, then is that Methodist preacher cursed for all eternity. Morgan on this day burnt two bridges on White Oak River, and Dick Morgan separated from the main body of the rebels with his regiment four miles from Williamsburgh and went to Georgetown, plundering that town. We encamped that night at Sardinia at eleven o'clock.

On the sixteenth instant, we broke camp at four o'clock in the morning and arrived at Winchester at eight. The rebels had entered the town at two P. M. of the previous day, had robbed the mail, and stolen thirty-five thousand dollars' worth of property and fifty horses. From one firm in this place they stole eleven thousand dollars' worth of property, which was the largest single robbery they effected during the whole of the raid. They tore up all the flags they could find at this place, and amused themselves by ty. ing the fragments to mules' tails and driving them through the streets. At Jacktown they burnt a bridge and went on to Wheat Ridge, where they robbed an old man, who was hardly able to walk from old age and feebleness, of thirty dollars. Here their forces again separated, part going through Mount Olive. Six miles this side of Jackson the citizens blockaded the road, and detained Morgan two hours. With the exception of the fight by the home guards at Corydon, where the rebels were detained four hours, this was the best service rendered by citizens during the whole of the raid. At Jasper the rebels gave the proprietor twenty-five minutes to raise one thousand dollars, or they would burn his mill. He was unable to procure the money and the mill was burnt accordingly. We went into camp at Jasper at two A. M., on the seventeenth, and resumed our journey at eleven, having to swim our horses across the canal. One of our men, a member of company L, Second Ohio, named McGoron, accidentally killed himself with his revolver. Arriving at Piketon we found that the rebels had killed a Mr. McDougal who was busily blockading the road when they came up. The same day they shot a Dr. Burroughs, who had fired on them as they passed by his place. We arrived at Jackson at six o'clock, where we were met with the same story we had heard so often before-robbery, and theft, and pillage, and destruction on every hand. There was one thing we must give the rebels credit for, and that is, that in the matter of thieving they showed the strictest impartiality, robbing the man who “had always been opposed to the war” with the same coolness with which they robbed his more loyal brethren. Indeed, it was with a kind of vindictive pleasure that they stole from those who were so forward in informing them that they had always been “good butternuts.” At this place they destroyed the Jackson Standard printing-office — the only paper that they injured during the whole of the march. The home guards having reason to think it was done at the instigation of a butternut resident of the place, cleaned out the Jackson Express office, a copperhead sheet of the same place.

From this place Morgan had sent up some forces to Berlin, at which place there were three thousand militia posted, under the command of Colonel Runkle. Morgan's men threw one shell in their midst, which acted like a charm on the militia, who instantly became — missing.

We camped that night at Jackson, and started again at three o'clock on the morning of the eighteenth, and followed on by way of Keystone Furnace. We found that they had burnt a bridge over Raccoon Creek, and had captured two boxes of army clothing. At the little town of Linesville, the home guards tore up the bridge and blockaded the road, detaining the rebels another two hours, and doing as good service as the citizens of Jasper. Part of the rebel force had gone down by way of Wilkesville, where they burnt two or three bridges; we went on to Chester, where they had burnt a bridge over Shade Creek, and encamped for the night.

On the nineteenth, the battle of Buffington Island took place, if so slight a skirmish is worthy [262] of the name of a battle. We started out at one o'clock, and at five o'clock we opened fire on the rear of the rebels, who were just then opening fire on General Judah's forces. The battle, although it has been often described, is not altogether well understood, on account of most correspondents having written from the gunboats, and were of course unable to see much of the fight. The river-road runs along nearly close to the bank of the river. About two miles back of the river, on the north side, runs a long range of hills, down over which comes a road running to the river at the island. About three hundred yards above this pike road was a small private roadway leading north into some corn-fields, while a large wheat-field separated the two roads from each other. The rebels had encamped on Saturday night in the corn-fields at the end of the by-road or lane, and General Judah's men coming down on the pike road had come on them almost unawares, the density of the morning fog having obscured the rebels from their view. The rebels fired on the advancing column, throwing them into temporary disorder, and were preparing to make a charge, when the gunboats opened on them from the river, and at the same time the Second and Seventh Ohio, of General Hobson's force, opened on them in their rear, having just come in a little way above the pike road, by which General Judah's forces had come up from Portsmouth. This staggered them for the time, and Colonel Saunders coming up immediately afterward with two pieces of artillery, threw two shells in their midst. Fired at from all sides, what could they do? Separating in two columns, one part of — their force pushed forward to the right only to find themselves completely surrounded, and they quietly submitted themselves prisoners of war. Colonel Dick Morgan surrendered his command to General Shackleford, while Colonel Duke and Colonel Smith were cut off in a ravine, where they surrendered themselves to their captors. At this time the prisoners numbered about eight hundred and fifty. About forty-five men had succeeded in crossing over into Kentucky before the fight commenced. A portion of the rebels who ran to the left, at the end of the fight, numbering two hundred, marched under Colonel Johnston to Reedsville, where they succeeded in crossing over, with the loss of about twenty-five men who were killed by the fire of the gunboats. Another portion went up to Longgreen Bottom, stealing all that lay in their way, crossing over at Harrisonville, and turning right around, struck for the river again, about forty miles below Buffington, where Coleman of Colonel Cluke's command surrendered all his force to about fifty men. The balance of Morgan's band accompanied their leader to Columbiana County, where they were all captured by General Shackleford.

So ends the great Morgan raid. It has proved one of the most remarkable events of the war, and God grant it may never be repeated. * * *

The battle of Buffington Island.

National fleet on Ohio River below Buffington Island, Monday, July 20.
The uniform peace which sat brooding with dove-like wings over the State of the “Beautiful River” was broken for the first time during the threatened invasion under Bragg; but fate reserved for a rebel of far less military calibre and importance the remarkable event of bringing about and causing the first battle of the war in Ohio, and the first in her history as a State. But the sensation of the State is over, and the great Morgan raid is over forever.

The long, tedious, and perplexing pursuit of Morgan has ended at last in a victory such as will not only add lustre to our land and naval forces engaged, but render famous the scene of his defeat, which is, without doubt, the deathblow to the brilliant career of the notorious and wonderfully successful guerrilla chief. The local press of the State has chronicled from time to time the progress of the rebel force toward the point where it was met and defeated, and it only now remains to recount in a necessarily general manner.

Buffington Island lies in the Ohio River close to the Ohio shore, about thirty-five miles above Pomeroy, and was chosen by the rebels as a place of crossing into Virginia on account of the shoals between it and Blennerhasset's Island, twenty miles above. They had doubtless been well advised of the movements of our forces sent from all points, to either head them off or keep them confined to the only route eastward for them, until they reached the mountainous region and the eastern frontier. Without following, then, the progress of Morgan's march eastward, we will take a glance at his course previous to the morning of the battle. Yesterday, Sunday, the nineteenth, Morgan's right kept the main or shore-road, from Pomeroy, having sent out skirmishers to feel the strength of that town and Middleport. This was on Friday night, but if he had any intention to attempt to ford at Eight Mile Island, he abandoned it on account of a show of resistance made by a small body of home guards, with a piece of ordnance made of cast-iron, and used only to fire salutes. A skirmish took place, in which the rebels lost two men killed and two or three wounded, and the home guards had one man slightly wounded and lost their gun, which, however, the rebels contemptuously left behind, after they found its utter uselessness. The main body were advancing on the road from Vinton, and uniting with the right, the entire force took the old stage-ron;d to Pomeroy, and pushed for Buffington Island, or rather the shore opposite, which it reached, it is supposed, at two o'clock on Sunday morning.

When General Judah started from Portsmouth on Thursday evening, the sixteenth, it was expected that an engagement would take place; for reliable information had been received at the headquarters of Colonel P. Kinney, commander of the post, during the afternoon, that the rebels [263] were at Miamiville, about eleven miles out. Now it was not the design to either court or bring on an engagement, as it was shown that the rebels were scattered over fifty or sixty miles of country, and the necessary concentration which they must make was rather humored than otherwise, so that the result would culminate in the complete capture or destruction of the entire horde.

General Judah then kept as close as possible to the rebels, but between them and the river, where that was practicable, until Morgan reached Jackson. Judah then pushed for Centreville, thinking that the enemy would take that route for the river; but he avoided it, and took through Winchester and Vinton toward Pomeroy, and thence north of that to the scene of action.

Our gunboats, namely, Moose, (flag-boat,) Reindeer, Springfield, Naumkeag, and Victory, in command of Lieutenant Commander Le Roy Fitch, were patrolling the river from an accessible point below Ripley to Portsmouth; but as soon as it was definitely ascertained that Morgan was pushing eastward, the Moose, towed by the Imperial, started up-stream, followed at proper distances by the other boats. The Moose made the foot of Buffington Island on Saturday night, and remained until next morning, without changing position, on account of a dense fog,

The rebel force made the shore opposite and above the island, as before stated, at two o'clock, and took position, under cover of artillery, in an extensive corn and wheat-field, skirted by hills and woods on its north and east sides. The position was *a good one, and might have been held to advantage for a much longer time than it was, but for the cooperation of the gunboat Moose, the only one of the fleet which arrived in time to participate in the fight.

The rebels had their artillery placed on the highest elevation on the east and completely commanded the Pomeroy road, over which General Judah's force, heretofore enumerated by your correspondent, came filing along unaware of the close proximity of the enemy. It should be noted here that the old stage-road to Pomeroy, over which Morgan came, and the lower road travelled by Judah, meet in an acute angle three quarters of a mile from the battle-field. Our column came along the lower road within range at six o'clock, having marched all night, having started from Pomeroy, and was not as fresh by five or six hours rest as the enemy.

The rebels met us in solid column, and moved in battalions, and at the first fire repulsed our advance, which was' too far ahead to be assisted by our artillery. This was the best opportunity they had to make a successful fight, but we fell back to bring forward our artillery, and the enemy did not seem to care to follow up the advantage. During this encounter Captain John J. Grafton, of General Judah's staff, became separated from the advance and narrowly escaped capture, by shooting, as he represents, the rebel cavalryman who seized him. He was dismounted, and being left on the ground made his way with considerable difficulty to the river, where he hailed the Moose and got aboard. Meantime the fight progressed, but in a desultory manner, until our artillery got into position and our lines were drawn closely around the enemy. A furious onset was made on our side and the rebels were driven over the field eastward and sought the shelter of the woods beyond.

No more fortunate circumstance could have transpired for the Union force than the escape of Captain Grafton to the gunboat Moose, for he pointed out to Lieutenant Commander Fitch the exact position of the rebels, and enabled that officer to so direct his guns as to throw shell in their very midst. The Moose is armed with twenty-four pounder Dahlgren guns, the most accurate and effective gun in the service for operation against exposed bodies of men, and on this occasion the weapon did not belie its character. A dense fog, however, prevailed, which prevented Lieutenant Fitch doing as great execution in the rebel works as he desired, but his shots from the larboard and forward guns told, and an extensive scattering took place. The Moose opened at seven o'clock, and as the rebels were driven she kept steadily moving up-stream, throwing shell and shrapnel over the heads of our lads into the ranks of the enemy.

It now became evident that the rebels were being pressed in all directions, and that hard fighting would not save them from destruction.

A simultaneous rush was then made for the river, and throwing away arms and even clothing, a large body ran down to the shore, some with horses and some without, and plunged into the stream. The point chosen to effect the crossing was one mile and a half above the head of Buffington Island, and the movement would undoubtedly have been attended with considerable success but for the presence and performance of the gunboat. The crossing was covered by a twentypounder Parrott and a twelve-pound howitzer dragged into position by the rebels in their hasty retreat, but before the guns could be loaded and sighted the bow guns of the Moose opened on the rebel guns and drove the gunners away, after which the pieces were captured. Some twenty or thirty men only succeeded in crossing into Virginia at this point. Several were killed in the water, and many returned to the shore. While this was transpiring on the river, the roar of battle was still raging on the shore and back into the country. Basil Duke, under whose generalship the fight was conducted, was evidently getting the worst of it, and his wearied gangs of horse-thieves, cut-throats, and nondescripts began to bethink them only of escape. Many threw down their arms, were taken prisoners and sent to the rear. Others sought the shelter of trees, or ran wildly from one point to another, and thus exposed themselves far more to the deadly chances of the field than if they had displayed courage and stood up to the fight.

A running fight next ensued, as the main force of the enemy retreated up-stream toward a point on the Ohio shore, opposite Belleville, Va. The retreat was made as rapidly as possible, but considerable [264] confusion was apparent. The gunboat kept almost ahead of the retreating column, and, when practicable, threw shell over the river-bank toward it. It is said that the retreat was headed by Morgan, for Basil Duke was taken prisoner in the early part of the fight, but it was as rapidly followed up as possible. The Moose reached Belleville in time to fire upon the first party that attempted to cross the river. The crew report eight or nine killed and several wounded in the water, but twenty rebels or more got safely ashore in Virginia. It should have been stated above that General Scammon, with reinforcements from the Kanawha, arrived at the first scene of action in time to participate, but instead of landing his men on the Ohio side he disembarked them on the Virginia shore. This precaution may have been well enough in the event of the enemy effecting a crossing, but when the Moose moved up General Scammon reembarked his troops, and went up with the gunboat to head off Morgan's retreat.

Foiled at Belleville, the rebels still kept pushing up along the shore, and again attempted to cross at Hawkinsport, fourteen miles above the island, but again their efforts proved abortive on account of the gunboat. Passing Hawkinsport, the Moose came to Lee's Creek, Va., where she was greeted by a sharp volley of rifles and musketry from an ambuscade on the shore. It was now the turn of the starboard gunners to try the temper of their metal, and a smashing broadside was poured into the sneaking rascals on the “sacred soil.” It was sufficient, for not another shot was fired, and Lieutenant Fitch learned afterward that nine of the bushwhackers were killed and several wounded.

The transports containing General Scammon's forces were then run up to a point between Hawkinsport, Ohio, and Lee's Creek, Va., and landed on the Ohio shore, to intercept the rebel retreat. This is the last information we had on the river of that expedition, although it was reported in the evening that Scammon had captured the force or compelled it to surrender.

While the Moose was winning her laurels the other boats of the fleet were not failing to enact their regularly assigned part of the programme, which was to guard the fords below the island, and prevent any skulking squads of the rebels crossing to the much wished for Virginia shore. It is said that some of Morgan's men sang, “Oh! Carry me back to ole Virginny,” with a pathos and sincerity of tone quite suggestive, not to say touching, and it certainly cannot be denied that Captain Fitch “went for them” with a degree of alacrity which proved his entire willingness to assist them as far as he could. The only regret which now in any way disturbs the repose of this officer is, that the rebels did not make a larger draft on the Moose, which might have been used as a ferry-boat to carry them even farther on their direct road than they bar. gained for. As it was, she did all she could under the circumstances, and as the river was falling very fast, she, together with the others comprising the fleet, was compelled to return downstream. The Alleghany Belle, a light draught boat was fitted up temporarily for the occasion and armed with a rifled gun protected with bales of cotton, to guard the fords between Belleville and Buffington Island.

The scene of the battle was one of the most composite, perhaps, in the panorama of the war. The rebels were dressed in every possible manner peculiar to civilized man, but, generally speaking, their attire was very good. They wore in many instances large slouch hats peculiar to the slave States, and had their pantaloons stuck in their boots. A dirty, gray-colored coat was the most prevalent, although white “dusters” were to be seen.

They were armed with carbines, Enfield rifles, sabres, and revolvers, were well mounted, and looked in good health although jaded and tired. The battle-field and the roads surrounding it were strewn with a thousand articles never seen perhaps on a battle-field before. One is accustomed to see broken swords, muskets, and bayonets, haversacks, cartridge-boxes, belts, pistols, gun-carriages, caissons, cannon, wagons upset, wounded, dead, and dying on the battle-field, but besides all these on the battle-field of Buffington Island, one could pick up almost any article in the dry goods, hardware, house-furnishing, or ladies' or gentlemen's furnishing line. Hats, boots, gloves, knives, forks, spoons, calico, ribbons, drinking-cups, buggies, carriages, market-wagons, circus-wagons, and an almost endless variety of articles useful and all more or less valuable. An inventory of Morgan's plunder would tax the patience of an auctioneer's clerk, and I question if one man's life would be long enough to minutely catalogue the articles picked up during his raid.

The carnage of the field was not remarkable, although little groups of rebels were found slain by the deadly fragments of shell.

The result, as far as heard from at this time is all that could be wished for by the country. The en tire rebel force was met, engaged, defeated, routed, and partially captured. All the enemy's arms, guns, accoutrements, most of his horses and all his plunder, were taken or fell into our hands, but the “full particulars” of his defeat and capture must be made the.subject of another communication.

Nearly one thousand seven hundred prisoners are now in our hands, under guard of the Eighth Michigan cavalry, and others are constantly arriving by our scouts and pursuing parties.

Prisoners admit a loss of two hundred killed and wounded on the field, while our loss will not exceed a fourth of that number. The rebel raid into the North is over. It has been destroyed, and the prestige of its notorious leader is gone.

The saddest incident of the fight is the wounding of Major MeCook, father of the lamented Colonel McCook, murdered last summer by guerrillas in Kentucky. The old gentleman received a shot in the breast, which is represented as very serious, but it is to be hoped that it may not prove so. Major McCook is a patriotic, loyal, sturdy [265] old gentleman, who clung to the service for his country's sake, and especially because he desired above all things to assist in ridding it of an armed tyranny and despotism under which such a mode of warfare prospers as left him to lament the untimely death of a brave and loyal son.

From papers found in the chests of the enemy's artillery, it would appear that Byrne's battery, Captain John McMurray, First Kentucky brigade, was the one used by Morgan, besides two twentypounder Parrotts, which, after all, he had the energy and foresight to drag over the country in his remarkable march. One of these Parrotts and a brass piece were captured by Lieutenant Commander Fitch; all the other guns, five or six in number, were captured by the army.

The home guard and militia companies in the immediate neighborhood of the battle-field, and, indeed, along the lines of march, contributed very largely to the result, and were mainly instrumental in preventing the rebels from striking at points where a great destruction of property would necessarily have followed.

At Middleport the militia captured several prisoners; at Syracuse, eighty-five were brought in; at Racine, seventy-eight. Skirmishes frequently occurred between the rebel scouts and small parties of armed citizens, and many a household will have reason to remember the Morgan raid. But more than a score of rebels “bit the dust” during the last two or three days of the raid, and were laid low by the unerring aim of the sturdy farmer of South-western Ohio, so suddenly called to the defence of his home and happy fireside.

The loyal women of Portsmouth, Pomeroy, and other towns and villages, were not wanting in thoughtfulness for our brave boys on their perplexing and hurried marches. They prepared food and had it ready at all times, day and night, and with ready hands and smiling faces supplied the wants of the “brave defenders of our country.” Nothing so gladdens the heart of the soldier as the kindly attention of patriotic women, for with the memory of their goodness and sweetness in his heart he goes forth encouraged to continued deeds of valor, which shall make their common future more peaceful and secure.

One of the features of the pursuit and defeat of the rebels was the wonderful stories of John Morgan and his conduct through Ohio. Some had it that he was “a perfect gentleman” --that most vulgar of phrases to express one of the greatest rarities on the face of the earth; while others were ready to swear that he had committed all the crimes known to the code, prominent among which were murder, rape, arson, and highway robbery. It would prove a bootless task to sift these stories, and a mere imposition upon the credulity and time of the reader to recount them. They are in no way revelant to the purpose of the present writing, and, if for no other reason, are left untold.

The rebels took one of our guns at the first charge, and captured over twenty prisoners, but these they immediately paroled, and the gun they never used, for it was soon recovered, with the capture of all their own.

In closing this general account of the last moments of the Morgan raid, which culminated in the battle of Buffington Island, a name I have given it because no other place of note lay near the scene, I have to express my regret at not being able to speak intelligently of the operation of General Hobson, and in fact of all the forces engaged, besides those of General Judah, General Scammon, and the gunboat Moose. Time was pressing and opportunities limited, but the best use was made of them.

The gratitude of the country is due our soldiers and sailors to whose efforts the successful result of the brief but perplexing campaign against Morgan is due, and I know I hazard nothing in bespeaking for them the lasting gratitude of the patriotic and loyal people of Ohio.

E. B.

Another account.

Cincinnati, July 28, 1863.
Mr. Editor: Upon the invitation of General Judah I applied to General Cox for permission to accompany him on his late expedition after John Morgan and Co., as Vol. A. D. C., which was kindly granted. We left this city Wednesday, the fifteenth, with about one thousand two hundred cavalry and artillery, arriving at Portsmouth the following afternoon, immediately disembarking, and at nine o'clock in the evening started in pursuit toward Oak Hill or Portland. During the night the guide lost his way, which caused us to march several miles more than we liked. At early day we arrived at Webster and halted an hour, after which we started for Oak Hill, at which place we learned that the rapid wild rangers were at Jackson destroying property and were about going eastward. General Judah immediately started for Centreville, a point on the main road to Gallipolis, some six miles distant, to intercept the villains. General Manson was sent for from Portsmouth, who was awaiting orders with a good infantry force to cooperate when he might with advantage. Judah arrived, after a hasty march of less than two hours, and took possession of the town for the night, making such disposition of his forces that all were anxious to have Morgan come that way to the river and try his disposition for a fight, but he took the old road from Jackson to Pomeroy, through Vinton, while we started early next morning for the same place through Potter. We arrived at Pomeroy about four o'clock, a few hours after Morgan had been scared away by a slight fight with the home guards and the close proximity of the United States forces under General Scamnmon. The roads to Pomeroy had been by the people barricaded very effectually to prevent the murderers from entering without trouble their active and thriving little city.

After a few hours' rest the order was sounded at ten o'clock at night to advance, which was obeyed with eager desire to go ahead, for all felt that General Judah knew his business, although he was suffering from, severe illness known only [266] by his surgeons, Dr. Kimberly of his staff, and Hunt of Covington, a personal friend. Some wiseacres at Pomeroy attempted to induce the General to follow Morgan via Chester, which would have increased our distance to Buffington some ten miles, but he, Napoleon-like, heard all reasonable suggestions and then decided promptly to go through Racine, which was his own judgment, and not thought well of by some who assumed to “know it all.” After a tiresome night-march, day dawned, and within a few miles of the river rumors reached us that the enemy had crossed during the night. We pressed on. A scouting party returned from the river saying all was clear on our road. A paroled home guard and an escaped negro corroborated each other in saying that Morgan was now over the river, as they had been with him a few hours before, and it was his intention then to “push right on.” We were then only a mile from the bar, and the General urging up the rear with the artillery, pushed forward with the Michigan cavalry in advance, himself, staff, and escort following close behind. A dense fog covered all the bottom-lands so that we moved slowly forward. About half a mile from the river Captain W. H. Day and Dr. J. F. Kimberly saw upon the left the enemy in line of battle, not seventy yards from us. It was doubted at first, but in a moment the whistling minie, carbine and pistol-balls were sending loud and quick calls for us to halt. Our road being narrow, and we confined by strong fences, with ditches on either side of us, all that was left for us was to retreat as best we could a few rods. Here it was that the noble and brave old hero, Major Daniel McCook, received his two mortal wounds, of which he died on Tuesday, twenty-first, on the boat from Portland to Pomeroy. Upon our retreat Captains R. C. Kise, A. A. G.,----Grafton, Vol. A. D. C., and Henshaw, of said battery, were, with a number of others, taken prisoners, and one piece of artillery captured. Lieutenant F. G. Price, a gallant young officer of the staff, was also seriously wounded in the head, which disabled him for the rest of the day.

For a time our prospects were quite dark, the fog was over us, the enemy near, and we entire strangers as to their localities, but Providence was with those who were for the Republic. The fog suddenly lifted, and the General, with Captains Day and J. E. McGowan, and Lieutenant H. T. Bissell, were all gallantly and coolly giving orders and making ready for a good fight with the enemy, who now appeared from three to four thousand strong, immediately before us on the plains. Lieutenant O'Neil, of the Fifth Indiana cavalry, now appeared by another road with but fifty men, and charged two different regiments so desperately that they broke and left our captured gun, officers and men in our possession. The tide had turned. Our guns were soon in position, and in two hours the enemy had left the field in confusion, and were hastened in their movements by a gun of a Michigan battery on board the steamer Alleghany Belle, commanded by Captain Sebastian, and the gunboat Moose, commanded by Captain Fitch, U. S. N. Morgan's in their retreat soon fell into the hands of the noble Hobson, who had so persistently chased him for over four weeks, and then the rivalry among our forces as to whom should gobble the most of the renegades commenced. General Shackleford and Colonel Woolford, with the Forty-fifth Ohio, all did good servvice, and helped to secure the prize, which could not have been done by either command alone. Immediately after a few hours' rest all the forces were sent in different directions by Generals Judah and Hobson to intercept the enemy. All the artillery Morgan had on the field, some five pieces, were taken by us. the spoils with which the trails of the runaways were littered would make an honest warrior blush to name, such as books, stationery, cutlery, dry goods of all descriptions, crockery, boots and shoes, hats and caps, women's wearing apparel of all names — some articles not to be mentioned — even old women's bonnets, to say nothing of carriages, harness, small arms of all kinds, and worn and jaded horses and mules by the hundred that are worth only the price of dead animals for the use of tallow-chandlers.

On the persons of most of the rebels could be found greenbacks in abundance. Their own trash, which Brownlow says “is not worth ten cents a bushel,” was also profuse among them. Watches and all kinds of jewelry, to a great extent, were in their pockets, which were not with them when they entered the North. The inference is, that they are a band of robbers under the guise of an army.

General Judah, for a few days, will make Pomeroy his headquarters, as he is the ranking officer in that part of the country. It is thought that some of Hobson's and Judah's forces will yet trap John and his few retainers before they can reach Dixie.

A disgraceful coward, called Sontag, from Portsmouth, with nearly four hundred men, well armed, surrendered to Morgan on Tuesday last without firing a gun. Morgan was in his grasp, if he had fought. Shame on such mountebanks! May he live long enough for his name to be a stench to himself, as it is to all who know him now.

I must not forget to testify to the intense loyal feeling manifested all along the route our army took. Many said Vallandigham's admirers were not as numerous as in days past. The raid may do good toward opening the eyes of the careless. May we not hope so?

It is again seen that the enemy attacked us on Sunday, and we whipped them. I only notice the fact. Major McCook was wounded within a short time after the first repulse, recovered by Captain Day, and by him sent to the nearest house, where Dr. Kimberly gave him all the attention possible; but from the first, all hope of recovery was dispelled by the Major and the Doctor. His wounds were necessarily mortal. The enemy, while he was yet in their lines, robbed him of money, watch, and all loose articles on his person. The silvery locks of the patriot-hero [267] were no protection against the “Kentucky gentlemen” of John Morgan's and Basil Duke's command. Captain Kise, and all of our men whom they held for a few minutes, were robbed of money and personal property. A pistol was placed at Captain Kise's head and his boots demanded, but an officer interfered, and the contemplated outrage was prevented. Pretty return for Grant's kindness, was it not!

Our loss is very light. All told, it will not exceed thirty killed and wounded--some five killed--at the outside. The enemy have thus far lost full two hundred killed and wounded, and not less than two thousand two hundred prisoners--among them about a hundred officers, including Colonels Basil Duke, Dick Morgan, Ward, Hoffman, and Smith. Considering how slight our loss was, it is the greatest victory of the war, and makes Judah and Hobson rightly entitled to two stars. Judah received his military education at West-Point, and is a soldier in every respect. While he is not an abolitionist, there is no one who hates rebels more than he, or who is more willing to use all means (including the negro) to crush the rebellion — yea, even to the extermination of every rebel in the South, so that the desired end be accomplished. Hobson is a lawyer and a good soldier, having entered the service because he hated rebels and loved the old flag. The people will ever sing praise to Judah and Hobson.

Cincinnati was well represented in the chase by the gallant Guthrie Grays, commanded by Captain Disney, who ascended the river on the steamer Magnolia, and at the battle of Buffington Bar, were on the steamer Alleghany Belle, panting for a chance to return the fire on shore, while they were compelled to receive it from the enemy. They did good and valuable service as guard to the prisoners brought from Pomeroy on the steamer Ingomar. Of this company the Queen City may feel proud. May all the new Seventh prove as ready and effective as this tenth part have already. Success to the Seventh!

Nat. Pepper, son of Captain Pepper, of the late steamer Alice Dean, was a volunteer private at the gun on the steamer Alleghany Belle, which the rebels say did the most execution of any of our artillery. He is an only son, about eighteen years of age, and is anxious to remain in the service. Would that many who are older had the same willingness to risk their lives for the Republic.

Captain Wood, of the Eighteenth regulars, while stationed at Marietta, as mustering officer, was induced to take command of two companies of volunteers and proceeded to Buffington Bar on Saturday. He found the steamer Starlight around, with only two men aboard, and loaded with three thousand barrels of flour. He immediately unloaded the vessel, raised steam and manned the boat, from the captain to the deck-hand, with his men, and run her out of the range of Morgan's guns, which, before he could get away, had arrived on the bank. Before leaving with his little band of true gallants, he rolled his two heavy pieces of artillery over into a ravine, so that the enemy could neither take nor use them. After the fight Captain Wood reported to General Judah for duty, with the boat, and was highly complimented by the General, and placed in charge of several hundred of the prisoners to bring to Cincinnati. Had the boat not been seized by Captain Wood when it was, Morgan would have had it, and crossed the river with it; for the gunboats did not arrive till Sunday morning, while Morgan was there the night before; so let Marietta be proud of her gentlemen soldiers, who were not too proud to carry coal or do any work which would hinder the enemies of the Union and help her defenders.

The South boasts that all of her people are in the fight — rich and poor, old and young — and that they can yet whip us. When all our rich and poor and old and young, who are at heart right, are engaged, we can whip the South, even if France and England do help them. Our people have not yet awakened out of sleep. Only a little more of this kind of work from Wood and Vallandigham's friends, and the honest people, who are for the Union without an if or but, will arise and overthrow all who oppose them, to the eternal shame of all traitors.

G. P. E.

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