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Doc. 84.-affair at Shelbyville, Tennessee.

Manchester, Tenn., July 1, 1863.
Headquarters still remain here, and the efforts of the General for the past three days have been confined to get his troops and trains all concentrated at this point. The corps of General Thomas was yesterday thrown forward, and his advance is within four miles of the enemy. We shall probably advance to-day; and if so, the chances are in favor of a great battle to-morrow. It seems likely that Bragg intends to make a stand at Tullahoma. Tullahoma is a strong position naturally; its artificial defences are respectaable. and the troops are laboring day and night strengthening them.

While sitting to-day with General Rosecrans and a number of the members of his staff, under the General's marquee, General Stanley, Chief of Cavalry, with General Mitchell and his division of horse, reached headquarters — being just back from his brilliant expedition to Shelbyville, the headquarters of the rebel army. I have already sent by telegraph the leading points of the affair; but, in the course of an afternoon's gossip, there are many details which may be of interest.

Our force, all of which was under command of General Gordon Granger, first met the enemy at Guy's Gap, where he occupied a strong position. It was determined to take it by direct assault. The head of our column deployed as skirmishers, and advanced in échelon up the hill, the enemy meanwhile falling back, their rearguard resisting our progress up the hill. On reaching the top, however, we found the rebel force on the full run down the pike for Shelbyville. They were, however, closely pursued by the First Middle Tennessee cavalry, (Colonel Galbraith,) supported by the Fourth regulars, (Captain McIntyre,) and forty or fifty of them were ridden down and captured. Minty's entire brigade followed the fleeing foe until they reached their intrenchments at Shelbyville, where, under cover of their breastworks and two pieces of artillery, they made a stand. Colonel Minty accordingly dismounted the Fourth Michigan and Third Indiana, and sent them to right and left in the woods, as skirmishers. On the advance of the skirmishers, the rebels limbered up their guns, when one hundred and fifty men of the Seventh Pennsylvania and two companies of the Fourth regulars pursued the battery to within a mile of Shelbyville, at which point two more guns were opened on our column, causing it to halt. A section of our artillery was presently brought up, which fired two rounds, after which the detachments already mentioned — being in their saddles on the road in rear of the guns — immediately charged forward, chasing the enemy into the town. The rebels here took up a strong position on, the public square, with three guns commanding the pike by which we had to approach. A charge was forthwith sounded — the Seventh and Ninth Pennsylvania, under command of Major Davis, being selected for the work. It was made with sabre drawn--first rank, tierce point, second, right cut. The column rushed forward into the teeth of the guns, but with such rapidity that before the artillerymen could serve the pieces a second time, they were captured, with the rammer half-way out of the [327] muzzle. We now engaged the enemy's cavalry hand to hand, and from all that I can learn, the public square and streets of Shelbyville must have been witnesses to some of the most exciting hand-to-hand encounters that have occurred during the war. The enemy was completely routed, and while they were still running, Colonel Campbell, with his command, reached their flank near the upper bridge of Duck River, into which they were driven, and a hundred of them killed and drowned. The rebel General Wheeler's horse was killed, and he escaped on foot without coat or hat. Our captures foot up sixty or seventy officers and nearly seven hundred men. Our loss six killed and between thirty and forty wounded.

The joy of the loyal people of this thoroughly Union town of Tennessee, is said to have been beyond all expression. The Stars and Stripes were displayed from the house-tops and windows, and the ladies, after waving their handkerchiefs, threw them away with joy and waved their skirts.

The fortifications of Shelbyville — the result of five months assiduous labor on the part of an enemy who has vast faith in digging-prove to have been of the most formidable character, and could not have been taken by direct assault without enormous loss of life. They covered Shelbyville three miles and a half north of the town, and for nine miles across-rifle-pits, abattis, and enfilading works for heavy artillery. The strategic manoeuvre on the rebel flank made these utterly useless to the enemy, and caused them to be voluntarily evacuated.

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July 1st, 1863 AD (1)
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