Chapter 10: the last invasion of Missouri.--events in East Tennessee.--preparations for the advance of the Army of the Potomac.
- Arkansas overrun by the Confederates, 274.
-- decline of the National power there
-- dangerous secret associations, 275.
-- a conspiracy discovered and exposed
-- plan for a counter
-- revolution, 276.
-- Price again Invades Missouri
-- the Revolutionists Abashed, 277.
-- the Missouri capital threatened
-- Price moves toward Kansas, 278.
-- Price hotly pursued, 279.
-- he and his followers driven out of Missouri
-- the lust invasion of Missouri, 280.
-- affairs in East Tennessee
-- stirring operations there, 281.
-- Longstreet returns
-- Morgan in East Tennessee, 282.
-- his last raid into Kentucky
-- he receives a staggering blow, 283.
-- the author in the great Valley of East Tennessee
-- Governor Brownlow and his family, 284.
-- death of Morgan, the guerrilla chief, 285.
-- journey from Greenville to Richmond, 286.
-- Knoxville threatened by Breckinridge
-- Richmond threatened by General Butler, 287.
-- Kilpatrick's raid to Richmond, 288.
-- fortifications around Richmond, 289.
-- repulse of the Nationals at Richmond
-- death of Colonel Dahlgren, 290.
-- propriety of murdering Union prisoners considered by the Conspirators
-- preparations for blowing up Libby Prison with the prisoners, 291.
-- Ulysses S. Grant, General-in
-- takes command
-- reorganizes the Army of the Potomac, 292.
-- co-operating forces, 293.
-- Grant's ideas about making War
-- patriotic Governors, 294.
The failure of the Red River
expedition, and the expulsion of Steele
from the country below the Arkansas River
, by which two-thirds of the State of Arkansas
was given up to the Confederates
, had a disastrous effect upon the Union
cause and people in that State, where the restoration of civil power in loyal hands, amply sustained by the military, had been, it was believed, made permanent.1
The dream of security was now dispelled.
was placed on the defensive at the State
capital, and the Confederates
everywhere showed, by their boldness and activity, a determination to repossess the State
, if possible.
Their cavalry roamed at will over all the region below the Arkansas
, after Steele
retreated to Little Rock
, plundering and overawing the Unionists.
Nor did they confine themselves to that region.
Late in June Shelby
, with a considerable body of Confederate cavalry, dashed across the Arkansas
eastward of Little Rock
, and pushed on to the White River
, on the eastern border of Arkansas County
, where they were attacked and thrown back, in the vicinity of St. Charles
, by four regiments under General Carr
, with a loss of about four hundred men, of whom two hundred were made prisoners.
's loss was about two hundred.
was speedily re-enforced by Marmaduke
, when Carr
was pushed northward to Clarendon
, when he, in turn, was re-enforced, and the Confederates
This bold movement was followed by others in that section of the State
In July about four hundred colored troops, led by Colonel W. S. Brooks
, went up the country a short distance from Helena
, when they were attacked
by a heavier force under General Dobbins
Fortunately, Major Carmichael
was then passing down the Mississippi
on a steamer, with one hundred and fifty of the Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, and
hearing the firing, he landed and hastened in the direction of its sounds.
He found Brooks
and his men gallantly fighting double their number, so, with his followers, he dashed through the Confederate
lines, joined the colored troops, and assisted them in repulsing their assailants.
was killed, and fifty of his men were slain or wounded.
The foe had lost more.
The Union troops fell back to Helena
, followed some distance by Dobbins
At about the same time fifteen hundred Confederates surprised
an outpost of Fort Smith
, on the border of the Indian
country, which was held by two hundred of the Fifth Kansas, under Captain Mefford
After a sharp fight, in which he lost twenty-five men, Captain Mefford
was compelled to surrender.
The Confederates lost thirty-two killed and wounded. Less than a month later, Shelby
, with about two thousand men, struck
the line of the railway between Duvall's Bluff and Little Rock
, and captured nearly the whole of the Fifty-fourth Illinois, who were guarding it at three points.
Guerrillas hovered in large numbers around Little Rock
and other places, making communications between the military posts dangerous, and requiring heavy escort duty, which wore down men and horses.
Gradually several of these posts were abandoned, and at the close of 1864 only Helena, Pine
, and Duvall's Bluffs, Little Rock
, Van Buren
, Fort Smith
, and one or two other posts in that region, were held by the National
These being insufficient to protect the Unionists of the Commonwealth
, they became disheartened, silent, and inactive, for the guerrillas, who roamed over the State
, dealt vengeance upon these “traitors” and “renegades,” as they called them.
, like other old officers of the regular army, was opposed to the emancipation policy of the Government
, and his alleged sympathy with the slave-holding Oligarchy of Arkansas
made the army under his command a feeble instrument in upholding the National
cause in that State.
The consequence was, that, at the close of 1864, that Commonwealth was practically surrendered to the Confederates
The disloyal Governor called a session of the Legislature, which met at Washington
and chose a Senator (A. P. Garland
) to represent the State
in the “Congress” at Richmond
The condition of affairs in