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Doc. 25. battle of Cedar Run.

Report of Lieutenant-General Jackson.

headquarters Second corps, A. N. V., April 4, 1863.
Brigadier-General R. H. Chilton, Assistant Adjutant and Inspector-General, Headquarters Department of Northern Virginia:
General: I have the honor herewith to submit to you a report of the operations of my command in the battle of Cedar Run, on the ninth day of August, 1862:

Intelligence having reached the commanding General that Gordonsville was endangered by the approach of the enemy, I was ordered to move in that direction with Ewell's and Jackson's divisions, from my position on the Mechanicsville turnpike, near Richmond. I arrived near Gordonsville on the nineteenth day of July. From information received respecting the strength of the opposing Federal army, under General Pope, I requested the commanding General to reenforce me. He accordingly sent forward Major-General A. P. Hill, with his division. On the second of August, whilst Colonel (now Brigadier-General) W. E. Jones, by direction of Brigadier-General Robertson, was moving with the Seventh Virginia cavalry to take charge of picket posts on the Rapidan, he received intelligence, before he reached Orange Court-House, that the enemy was in possession of the town. Finding the main street filled with Federal cavalry, Colonel Jones boldly charged the head of the Federal column, whilst its flank was attacked by another portion of the regiment, under Major Marshall. Both attacks were successful, and the enemy was hastily [540] driven from the town; but as our cavalry was vastly outnumbered, it was soon after forced to fall back, in consequence of the enemy's greatly superior force in front, and the fire from his flanking parties. Upon Colonel Jones's subsequent show of resistance, near where the engagement commenced, the enemy retired a short distance, and, about an hour afterward, retreated. Whilst Colonel Jones was gallantly leading his men in the charge, he received a sabre wound. I regret to say that, during the engagement, Major Marshall was captured.

Having received information that only part of General Pope's army was at Culpeper Court-House, and hoping, through the blessing of Providence, to be able to defeat it before reenforcements should arrive there, Ewell's, Hill's, and Jackson's divisions were moved, on the seventh, in the direction of the enemy, from their respective encampments near Gordonsville. On the morning of the eighth, the enemy's cavalry, north of the Rapidan, was driven back by ours, under Brigadier-General Robertson. Our cavalry pursued the enemy's on the direct road from Barnett's Ford to Culpeper Court-House, and was followed by the other troops, Ewell's division leading. As the Federal cavalry subsequently displayed unusual activity, and, from reports received by me, was seriously endangering the train of Jackson's division, I directed General Lawton to guard it with his brigade. He was thus thrown in rear of the division, and prevented from taking part in the battle of the following day.

On the ninth, as we arrived within about eight miles of Culpeper Court-House, we found the enemy in our front, near Cedar Run, and a short distance west and north of Slaughter's Mountain. When first seen, his cavalry, in large force, occupied a ridge to the right of the road. A battery, under Lieutenant Terry, opened upon the cavalry, which soon forced it to retire. Our fire was responded to by some guns beyond the ridge, from which the Federal advance had just been driven. Soon after this, the enemy's cavalry returned to the position where it was first seen. General Early was ordered forward, keeping near the Culpeper road, whilst General Ewell, with his two remaining brigades, Trimble's and Hays's, (the latter commanded by Colonel Forno,) diverged from the road to the right, advancing along the western slope of Slaughter's Mountain. General Early, forming his brigade in line of battle, moved into the open field, and passing a short distance to the right of the road, but parallel to it, pushed forward, driving the Federal cavalry before him to the crest of a hill which overlooked the ground between his troops and the opposite hill, along which the enemy's batteries were posted. In his front, the country was, for some distance, open and broken. A cornfield, and, to the left of it, a wheatfield, upon which the shocks were yet standing, extended to the opposite hill, which was covered with timber. So soon as Early reached the eminence described, the Federal batteries were opened upon him. Large bodies of cavalry were seen in the wheatfield to the left. General Early having retired his troops under the protection of the hill, Captain Brown, with one piece, and Captain Dement, with three pieces of artillery, planted their guns in advance of his right, and opened a rapid and well-directed fire upon the Federal batteries. By this time, General Winder, with Jackson's division, had arrived, and, after having disposed Campbell's brigade, Lieutenant-Colonel Garnett commanding, to the left, under cover of the wood, near the wheatfield; Taliaferro's brigade, parallel to the road, in rear of the batteries of Poague, Carpenter, and Caskie, (then being placed near the road, under the direction of Major Andrews, chief of artillery of the division;) and Winder's brigade, Colonel Ronald commanding, as a reserve, he was proceeding to direct, with his usual skill and coolness, the movements of those batteries, when he was struck by a shell, from which he expired in a few hours. It is difficult, within the proper reserve of an official report, to do justice to the merits of this accomplished officer. Urged by the medical director to take no part in the movements of the day, because of the then enfeebled state of his health, his ardent patriotism and military pride could bear no such restraint. Richly endowed with those qualities of mind and person which fit an officer for command, and which attract the admiration and excite the enthusiasm of troops, he was rapidly rising to the front rank of his profession. His loss has been severely felt. The command of Jackson's division now devolved upon Brigadier-General William B. Taliaferro, whose brigade, during the remainder of the action, was commanded by Colonel A. G. Taliaferro.

In the mean time General Ewell, with the brigades of Trimble and Hays, reached the north-west termination of Slaughter's Mountain, and upon an elevated spot about two hundred feet above the valley below, had planted Lattimer's guns, which opened with marked effect upon the enemy's batteries. For some two hours a rapid and continuous fire of artillery was kept up on both sides. Our batteries were well served, and damaged the enemy seriously. Especial credit is due Major Andrews for the success and gallantry with which his guns were directed until he was severely wounded and taken from the field. About five o'clock, the enemy threw forward his skirmishers through a cornfield, and advanced his infantry, until then concealed in the wood, to the rear and left of his batteries. Another body of infantry, apparently debouching from one of those valleys hid from the view by the undulating character of the country, moved upon Early's right, which rested near a clump of cedars, where the guns of Brown and Dement were posted.

The infantry fight soon extended to the left and centre. Early became warmly engaged with the enemy on his right and front. He had previously called for reenforcements. As General Hill had arrived with his division, one of his brigades, General Thomas's, was sent to Early, and joined him in time to render efficient service. Whilst the [541] attack upon Early was in progress, the main body of the Federal infantry moved down from the wood, through the corn and wheatfields, and fell with great vigor upon our extreme left, and, by the force of superior numbers, bearing down all opposition, turned it, and poured a destructive fire into its rear.

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