Second daughter of James II.
: born at Twickenham
, near London
, Feb. 6, 1664.
Her parents became Roman Catholics: but she, edueated in the principles of the Church
, remained a Protestant.
In 1683 she was married to Prince George of Denmark
She took the side of here sister Mary and her husband in the revolution that drove her father from the throne.
She had intended to accompany her father in his exile to France
, but was dissuaded by Sarah Churchill
, chief lady
of the bed-chamber (afterwards the imperious Duchess
), for whom she always had a romantic attachment.
By the act of settlement at the accession of William and Mary, the crown was guaranteed to her in default of issue to these sovereigns.
This exigency happening.
Anne was proclaimed queen (March 8. 1702) on the death of William.
Of her seventeen children, only one lived beyond infancy--Duke
— who died at the age of eleven years. Feeble in character, but very amiable, Anne's reign became a conspicuous
one in English history, for she was governed by some able ministers, and she was surrounded by eminent literary men. Her reign has been called the “Augustan age of English Literature.”
the husband of her bosom friend, was one of her greatest
A greater part of her reign was occupied in the prosecution of the War
of the Spanish Succession
, known in America
as “Queen Anne's War.”
She died Aug. 1, 1714.
The treaty of Ryswick
produced only a lull in the inter-colonial war in America
It was very brief.
died in France
in September, 1701, and Louis XIV., who had sheltered him, acknowledged his son, Prince
lames (commonly known as The Pretender), to be the lawful heir to the English
This naturally offended the English
, for Louis had acknowledged William as king in the Ryswick treaty.
The British Parliament had also settled the crown on Anne.
so as to secure a Protestant succession.
were also offended because Louis had placed his grandson, Philip of Aragon.
on the Spanish
throne, and thus extended the influence of France
among the dynasties of Europe
On the death of William III.
（March 8, 1702) Anne ascended the throne, and on the same day the triple alliance between England
, and the German Empire
Soon afterwards, chiefly because of the movements of Louis above mentioned, England
declared war against France
, and their respective colonies in America
took up arms against each other.
The war lasted eleven years. Fortunately, the Five Nations had made a treaty of neutrality (Aug. 4, 1701) with the French
, and thus became an impassable barrier against the savages from the St. Lawrence
The tribes from the Merrimac
to the Penobscot
had made a treaty of peace with New England
(July, 1703); but the French
induced them to violate it; and before the close of that summer a furious Indian raid occurred along the whole frontier from Casco
So indiscriminate was the slaughter that even Quakers were massacred.
The immediate cause of this outbreak seems to have been an attack upon and plunder of the trading-post of the young Baron de Castine
, at the mouth of the Penobscot
In March, 1704, a party of French and Indians attacked Deerfield
, on the Connecticut River
, killed forty of the inhabitants, burned the village, and carried away 112 captives.
Similar scenes occurred elsewhere.
Remote settlements were abandoned, and fields were cultivated only by armed parties united for common defence.
This state of things became insupportable, and in the spring of 1707 Massachusetts
. Rhode Island
, and New Hampshire
prepared to chastise the Indians in the east.
had not suffered, for Massachusetts
sheltered that colony, but the inhabitants humanely helped their afflicted neighbors.
, though threatened from the north, refused to join in the enterprise.
Early in June (1707), 1,000 men under Colonel Marsh
sailed from Nantucket
for Port Royal
, convoyed by an English man-of-war.
were prepared for them, and only the destruction of property outside the fort there was accomplished.
The war continued, with occasional distressing episodes.
In September. 1710, an armament of ships and troops left Boston
and sailed for Port Royal
, in connection with a fleet from England
with troops under Colonel Nicholson
They captured Port Royal
and altered the name to Annapolis
, in compliment to the Queen
(q. v.) was annexed to England
under the old title of Nova Scotia
, or New Scotland.
The following year an expedition moved against Quebec
. Sir Hovenden Walker
arrived at Boston
(June 25, 1711) with an English fleet and army, which were joined by New England
forces; and on Aug. 15 fifteen men-of-war and forty transports, bearing about 7,000 men, departed for the St. Lawrence
had proceeded to Albany
, where a force of about 4,000) men were gathered, a portion of them Iroquois Indians
These forces commenced their march towards Canada
, like Braddock
nearly fifty years later.
haughtily refused to listen to experienced subordinates, and lost eight ships and about 1,000 men on the rocks at the mouth of the St. Lawrence
on the night of Sept. 2.
Disheartened by this calamity, Walker
returned to England
with the remainder of the fleet.
and the colonial troops went back to Boston
On hearing of this failure, the land force marching to attack Montreal
retraced their steps.
Hostilities were now suspended, and peace was, concluded by the treaty of Utrecht
, April 11, 1713.
The eastern Indians sued for peace.
and at Portsmouth
the governors of Massachusetts
and New Hampshire
made a covenant of peace July 24) with the chiefs of the hostile tribes.
A peace of thirty years ensued.