; horn in Warren county, N. C.
, March 22, 1817; was graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1837; entered the artillery; and served in the Seminole War
and in the war with Mexico
, receiving for good conduct in the latter several brevets and promotions.
The last brevet was that of lieutenant-colonel, for Buena Vista
Feb. 23, 1847.
He was made major in 1855; resigned the next year, and lived (an extensive planter) in Louisiana
until the breaking out of the Civil War
, when (March, 1861) he was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate army.
Made major-general in February, 1862, he took an important part in the battle of Shiloh
He was made general in place of A. S. Johnson
, killed; and in May succeeded Beauregard
John H. Morgan
, the guerilla chief, and N. B. Forrest
, the leader of a strong cavalry force, had for some time (in 1862) roamed, with very little serious opposition, over Kentucky
, preparatory to the invasion of the former by a large Confederate force under General Bragg
. Gen. E. Kirby Smith
, a native of Connecticut
, led Bragg
He entered Kentucky
from eastern Tennessee
, pushed rapidly to Lexington
, after defeating a National force near Richmond
, in that State, and was warmly welcomed by the Confederates
The alarmed legislature, sitting at Frankfort
, fled to Louisville
; while Smith
pressed on towards the Ohio
, where he was confronted by strong fortifications opposite Cincinnati
The invader recoiled, and, falling back to Frankfort
, awaited the arrival of Bragg
, who entered Kentucky
(Sept. 5) with forty regiments and as many cannon.
His advance, 8,000 strong, under General Chalmers
, encountered a National force under Colonel Wilder
at Mumfordsville, on the line of the Nashville and Louisville Railway.
The Confederates were repulsed; but Wilder
was compelled to yield to General Polk
a few days later.
, where the combined armies numbered about 65,000 effective men. He now expected to make an easy march to Louisville
, but was confronted by General Buell
, who had been marching abreast of Bragg
suddenly turned upon Bragg
with about 60,000 troops, and a fierce battle ensued near Perryville
(Oct. 8, 1862), in which the invaders were so roughly handled that they fled in haste towards eastern Tennessee
, followed by their marauding bands, who had plundered the inhabitants in every direction.
soon afterwards abandoned Kentucky
The armies of Rosecrans
confronted each other for several months in Tennessee
after the battle of Stone River
(q. v.). Rosecrans
remained on the scene of the battle; Bragg
was below the Duck River
Finally the Army of the Cumberland, in three divisions, commanded respectively by Generals Thomas
, and Crittenden
, began its march (June 23, 1863) from Murfreesboro
, in Kentucky
, was ordered to move through the mountains into eastern Tennessee
to co-operate with Rosecrans
At that time Bragg
's left wing, under General (Bishop
, lay at Shelbyville
, behind formidable intrenchments about 5 miles in length, cast up by legally emancipated slaves drawn from northern Georgia
. General Hardee
, with 12,000 men, was at
War Trace, on the railway between Murfreesboro
, and holding the front of rugged hills, behind which was a strongly intrenched camp at Tullahoma
had about 40,000 men, and Rosecrans
By skilful movements he manoeuvred Bragg
out of his strong position.
The latter was pressed back to Tullahoma
meanwhile had seized mountain passes on Bragg
's front and seriously menaced his flank.
Perceiving this, Bragg
turned and lied without giving a blow, the Nationals pressing hard upon his rear.
Having the advantage of railway communication, the retreating forces very easily kept ahead of their pursuers; and passing rapidly over the Cumberland Mountains
towards the Tennessee River
, they crossed that stream at Bridgeport
, destroying the bridge behind them, and made a rapid march to Chattanooga
The expulsion of Bragg
alarmed and disheartened the Confederates
, and they felt that everything depended upon their holding Chattanooga
, the key to eastern Tennessee
and northern Georgia
Towards that point the Army of the Cumberland pressed on slowly; and late in August it had crossed the mountains, and was stretched along
the Tennessee River
from above Chattanooga
many a league westward.
was relieved of his command soon after his defeat by General Grant
at Missionary Ridge
in November. He died in Galveston, Tex.
, Sept. 27, 1876.