Soldier and statesman; born in Medford, Mass.
, May 31, 1752; received a common-school education, studied medicine, and settled in its practice at Reading
, where he commanded a company of minute-men when the Revolution began.
With his men he was engaged in the affairs of April 19, 1775, at Lexington
was active in intrenching Breed's Hill
(see Bunker Hill
) on the night of June 16, 1775, and was major of a regiment that assisted in fortifying Dorchester Heights
Early in 1776 he accompanied it to Long Island
, and fought there.
The battle of White Plains
tested his capacity as a disciplinarian and leader; and early in 1777 he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Massachusetts Regiment, which was chiefly recruited by himself.
He became colonel of the 7th Massachusetts Regiment late in 1778; and he accompanied Arnold
on his expedition to relieve Fort Stanwix
He led his regiment in battle with great prowess and success at Saratoga
, Oct. 7, 1777; and in the battle of Monmouth
(q. v.) he was acting adjutant-general.
resumed the practice of medicine at Medford
after the war, and was for many years major-general of militia.
He served cheerfully and efficiently in various civil and military duties to which his countrymen called him; was adjutant-general of Massachusetts
during the War
of 1812-15; and was governor of that commonwealth from 1816 to 1823, when he retired to private life.
In 1816 Harvard University
conferred upon him the degrees of M. D. and Ll.D. From 1817 until his death, March 1, 1825, he was president of the Massachusetts
Medical Society; of the State
Society of the Cincinnati from 1787: and of the Massachusetts Bible Society.