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City, port of entry and county seat of Erie county, N. Y.; at the eastern extremity of Lake Erie and the western extremity of the Erie Canal; has extensive lake commerce with all western points, large live-stock and grain trade, and important manufactures; population in 1890, 255,664; in 1900, 352,387.

General Riall, with his regulars and Indians, recrossed from Lewiston (see Niagara, Fort), when his forces had returned from the desolation of the New York frontier. Full license had been given to his Indians, and the desolation was made perfect almost to Black Rock. Riall marched up from Queenston (Dec. 28) to Chippewa, Lieutenant-General Drummond in immediate command. By this time all western New York had been alarmed. McClure had appealed to the people to hasten to the frontier. Gen. Amos Hall called out the militia and invited volunteers. Hall took chief command of troops now gathered at Black Rock and Buffalo, 2,000 strong. From Drummond's camp, opposite Black Rock, Riall crossed the river (Dec. 30) with about 1,000 white men and Indians. The night was dark. They drove the Americans from Black Rock. The militia were alarmed, and at dawn Hall ascertained that 800 of them had deserted. Hall. with the rest of his force, proceeded to attack the invaders. He, too, had a force of Indians: but these, with more of the militia, soon gave way, and, the commander's force broken, he was in great peril. Deserted by a large portion of his troops, vastly outnumbered. and almost surrounded. Hall was compelled to retreat and leave Buffalo

The Port of Buffalo in 1813.

to its fate. It was presently in possession of the British and their Indian allies, who proceeded to plunder, destroy, and slaughter. Only four buildings were [439]

A view of Buffalo's waterfront to-day.

left standing in the village. At Black Rock only a single building escaped the flames. Four vessels which had done good service on Lake Erie — the Ariel, Little Belt, Chippewa, and Trippe--were burned; and so were completed the measures of retaliation for the burning of Newark. Six villages, many isolated country-houses, and four vessels were consumed, and the butchery of many innocent persons attested the fierceness of the revenge of the British.

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