In the United States
, were cast at Lynn, Mass.
, by Henry Leonard
, in 1647, and at Orr
's foundry, Bridgewater
In 1735 the Hope Furnace
was established in Rhode Island
, where six heavy cannon, ordered by the State
, were cast in 1775.
The heaviest guns used at this time were 18-pounders.
makes wrought-iron cannon of staves bound together with wrought-iron bands, and boxed and breeched, 1790.
, of the United States
ordnance department, invents a cannon called the columbiad, a long-chambered piece for projecting solid shot and shell with a heavy charge of powder, 1812.
foundry established under special patronage of the government, 1817.
First contract of Gouverneur Kemble
, president, for the West Point Foundry Association, for thirty-two 42-pounders, long guns, July 11, 1820.
First gun rifled in America
South Boston Iron Company's foundry, 1834.
patents and makes the first malleable iron guns cast and converted in an oven, 1836.
Earliest piece of heavy ordnance cast at the South Boston foundry, a 10-in.
columbiad, under the supervision of Colonel Bomford
; weight, 14,500 lbs.; shot, 130 lbs.; shell, 90 lbs.; charge of powder, 18 lbs., Sept. 6, 1839.
Character of “gun iron” definitely fixed by the “metallo-dynamoter,” a testing-machine invented by Major Wade
columbiad; weight, 25,510 lbs.; extreme range, 5,761 yds.; weight of shell, 172 lbs.; charge of powder, 20 lbs.; cast at the South Boston foundry, July 8, 1846.
gun, of iron, cast solid and cooled from the exterior, very thick at breech and diminishing to muzzle; first cast, May, 1850.
gun, a columbiad model, smooth-bore, made by the Rodman process of hollow casting, cooled from the interior; adopted by the United States
for all sea-coast cannon, 1860.
Parrot gun, of iron, cast hollow, cooled from the inside and strengthened by an exterior tube made of wrought-iron bars spirally coiled and shrunk on; made at the West Point
gun, weighing 49,000 lbs., cast by the South
Boston Iron Company, 1860.
gun first put to test of active warfare in the battle of Bull Run
, July 21, 1861.
rapid-firing gun, from five to ten barrels around one common axis; tenbarrel Gatling
discharges 1,200 shots a minute; range, 3,000 yds.; invented in 1861.
S. B. Dean
, of South
Boston Iron Company, patents a process of rough boring bronze guns and forcibly expanding the bore to its finished size by means of mandrels, 1869.
Pneumatic dynamite torpedo-gun built and mounted at Fort Lafayette (founded on invention of D. M. Mefford
, of Ohio
Congress makes an appropriation for the establishment of a plant for gunmaking at the Watervliet arsenal, West Troy
Manufacture of heavy ordnance begun at the Washington
gun, English make, five barrels, revolving around a common axis, placed upon block weighing about 386 tons, fires thirty rounds a minute; adopted by the United States
Automatic rapid-firing gun, invented by John and Matthew Browning
, of Ogden, Utah
; firing 400 shots in one minute and forty-nine seconds; adopted by the United States
's dynamite gun, calibre 15 ins.; throws 500 lbs. of explosive gelatine 2,100 yds.; also discharges smaller shells.
Three of the guns of this class were used with tremendous effect by the United States
dynamite cruiser Vesuvius
at the bombardment of Santiago de Cuba
in 1898, and larger ones have been installed at Fort Warren
; Fort Schuyler, N. Y.; Fort Hancock, N. J.
, and at San Francisco
dynamite gun, calibre 15 ins.; using 3,000 lbs. of compressed air to the square inch; throws 600 lbs. of dynamite 3 miles.
gun, calibre 6 ins.; weight of shot, 69.7 lbs.; of powder, 34 lbs.; pressure per square inch, 31,000 lbs.
, double-charge gun, same principles apply as in the Armstrong
wire-wound gun, made in segments; kind authorized by Congress, 37 1/2 ft. long; weight, 30,000 lbs.
Maxim-Nordenfeldt quick-firing gun; lowest weight, 25 lbs.: maximum firing ability, 650 rounds a minute.