civil and military officer; born in Stra-
, Sept. 3, 1724; entered the Guards at an early age, and became a lieutenant-colonel in 1748.
He was aide to the Duke
in the German campaign of 1757; was with Amherst
in the siege of Louisburg
in 1758; with Wolfe
(1759) as quartermaster-general; and was a brigadier-general at the siege of Belle Isle
, where he was wounded.
He was also quartermaster-general in the expedition against Havana
in 1762, and in 1767 he was made lieutenant-governor of Quebec
The next year he was appointed governor.
In 1772 he was promoted to major-general, and in 1774 was made governor-general of the Province of Quebec
In an expedition against the forts on Lake Champlain
in 1775 he narrowly escaped capture; and at the close of the year he successfully resisted a siege of Quebec
The next spring
he drove the Americans
out of Canada
, and totally defeated the American
flotilla in an engagement on Lake Champlain
Sir John Burgoyne
had been in England
during the earlier part of 1777, and managed, by the help of Sir Jeffrey Amherst
, to obtain a commission to take command of all the British
forces in Canada
To do this he played the sycophant to Germain
, and censured Carleton
When Sir John arrived at Quebec
(May 6, 1777), Carleton
was amazed at despatches brought by him rebuking the governor for his conduct of the last campaign, and ordering him, “for the speedy quelling of the rebellion,” to make over to Burgoyne
, his inferior officer, the command of the Canadian
army as soon as it should leave the boundary of the Province of Quebec
The unjust reproaches and the deprivation of his military command greatly irritated Carleton
, but, falling back on his civil dignity as governor, he implicitly obeyed all commands and answered the requisitions of Burgoyne
As a soothing opiate to his wounded pride, Burgoyne
conveyed to the governor the patent and the jewel of a baronet.
was a strict disciplinarian, and always obeyed instructions to the letter.
, after the capture of Ticonderoga
(July, 1777), pushing on towards the valley of the Hudson
, desired Carleton
to hold that post with the 3,000 troops which had been left in Canada
, the governor refused, pleading his instructions, which confined him to his
This unexpected refusal was the first of the embarrassments Burgoyne
endured after leaving Lake Champlain
He was compelled, he said, to “drain the life-blood of his army” to garrison Ticonderoga
and hold Lake George
No doubt this weakening of his army at that time was one of the principal causes of his defeat near Saratoga
wished to gratify a spirit of retaliation because of Burgoyne
's intrigues against him, the surrender of the latter must have fully satisfied him. Carleton
was made lieutenant-general in 1778; was appointed commander-in-chief of the British
forces in America
in 1781; and sailed for England
Nov. 25, 1783.
In 1786 he was created Baron Dorchester
, and from that year until 1796 he was governor of British North America
He died Nov. 10, 1808.