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Census, United States

The following table gives the total and the urban population of the United States at each decade, together with the percentage of increase, the balance of sexes, and the population to each square mile:

General table 1790-1900.

Date.TotalPer Cent. ofPopulation perSexes per 1,000 Population.Urban Population.Per Cent. of
Population.Increase.Square Mile.Male.Female.Urban Population to Total.
1790 3,929,2144.75509491131,4723.35
1800 5,308,48335.116.41512488210,8733.97
1810 .7,239,88136.403.62510490356,9204.93
1820 9,633,82233.064.82508492475,1354.93
1830 12,866,02033.556.25508492864,5096.72
1840 17,069,45332.678.295094911,453,9948.52
1850 23,191,87635.867.785114892,897,58612.49
1860 31,443,32135.5810.395114895,072,25616.13
1870 38,558,37122.6310.705074938,071,87520.93
1880 .50,155,78330.0813.9251049011,318,54722.57
1890 . 63,069,75624.8520.7851148918,235,67029.12
1900 76,295,22020.97(Not yet reported )

Previous to 1790 there were no definite figures of population; everything was estimate. During the life of the Continental Congress the taxation apportionment, as well as the calls for troops from the colonies, was made on meagre information, and that often of a purely conjectural character. Mr. DeBow, who edited the census returns in 1850, gave the following estimates of colonial population:


Mr. Bancroft gives the estimates of the Board of Trade, which had its agents in the colonies, as follows:


The Constitution of the United States provides for an enumeration of the population as often as once in every ten years, as follows: “Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within the Union according to their respective numbers, which may be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.” The first act of Congress for the census-taking was dated March 1, 1790; the enumeration was to begin the first Monday of August, and close within nine months thereafter. The free persons were to be distinguished from others, males and females, and Indians not taxed were to be omitted from the enumeration. Free males of sixteen years and over were to be distinguished from those under that age. By that census there were 3,929,214 persons in the United States, of whom 697,681 were slaves and 59,527 were free colored persons. In 1810 the act provided for an enumeration of the inhabitants, distinguishing between races, sexes, and ages.

In 1820 another step forward was taken, in that it was required of the enumerators that their reports show the number of persons engaged in agriculture, manufactures, and commerce.

In 1830 there was required an enumeration of the deaf, dumb, and blind, but there were no statistics of agriculture, manufactures, or commerce. In 1838 preparations were made for taking the sixth census, and the act is very comprehensive, embracing the enumeration of the population, with classification, according to age, sex, and color, the deaf, dumb, and blind, insane, idiots, free and slave colored; number of persons drawing pensions from the United States, with their names and ages; also statistical tables of mines, agriculture, commerce, manufactures, and schools. The returns made show the products of mines, manufactures, number of bushels of grain of every kind, of potatoes, tons of hay and hemp, pounds of tobacco and cotton and sugar, the value of dairy products, etc. The census of 1850 was placed under the charge of the newly created Department of the Interior. The first superintendent was Joseph C. G. Kennedy, of Pennsylvania. [76]

In the following table are given the comparative rank of all the States and Territories, exclusive of Porto Rico and the Philippines:

Comparative rank of States and Territories.

PopulationRank each Decade. FirstPopulation 1900.
District of Columbia14,093..1922252528333534363942278,718
Indian Territory.............................39392,060
New Hampshire141,885101116151822222731313336411,588
New Jersey184,139910121314181921171918161,883,669
New Mexico61,547............323437414345195,310
New York340,1205321111111117,268,012
North Carolina393,7513444571012141516151,893,810
North Dakota4,837..............4245404141319,146
South Dakota3737401,570
Rhode Island68,825151617202324282932333534428,556
South Carolina249,07376689111418222123241,340,316
Utah11, 3808............353739394043276,749
West Virginia442,014................27292828958,800

In the taking of the ninth census the act corporated villages; reports were proof 1850 was substantially followed, and Gen. Francis A. Walker was the superintendent. There were the volumes of statistics, of population, agriculture, and manufactures, and, besides, a compendium was issued Nov. 1, 1872, in which were wellprepared summaries of the more important reports. The tenth census act directed the establishment of a census office in the Department of the Interior. Additions were made to the previous acts, such as the indebtedness of cities, counties, and incorporated villages; reports were provided for from railways, to ascertain their condition, business, etc.; also, similar information was asked for in regard to express and telegraph companies; experts were employed in place of the enumerators to collect social and manufacturing statistics. General Walker was appointed superintendent of the census April 1, [77] 1879; resigned Nov. 3, 1881; and was succeeded by Charles W. Seaton, who died before the work was completed. The office of superintendent of the census was abolished in 1885, and was re-established by the act of March 1, 1889. Robert P. Porter was appointed superintendent of the

Population of the United States in 1890 and 1900.

States and Territories.Population.Increase Since
District of Columbia278,718230,39248,326
Indian Territory391,960180,182211,778
New Hampshire411,588376,53035,058
New Jersey1,883,6691,444,933438,736
New Mexico195,310153,59341,717
New York7,268,0125,997,8531,270,159
North Carolina1,893,8101,617,947275,863
North Dakota319,146182,719136,427
Rhode Island428,556345,50683,050
South Carolina1,340,3161,151,149189,167
South Dakota401,570328,80872,762
West Virginia958,800762,794196,006
* Decrease.

tenth census; served till 1893; and was succeeded by Carroll D. Wright. The eleventh census (1900) was taken under the directorship of William R. Merriam A table showing the centre of population from 1790 to 1900 will be found under “Centre of population.”

The following table shows the population, according to the census of 1900, by States and Territories, with the totals of the census of 1890, and the increase: The following table shows the population of all cities having 25,000 and upward inhabitants in the census years 1890 and 1900, together with their change. [78]

Cities with population exceeding 25,000.

City.population.increase since
New York, N. Y.3,437,2022,492,591944,611
Chicago, Ill.1,698,5751,099,850598,725
Philadelphia. Pa.1,293,6971,046,964246,733
St. Louis. Mo.575,238451,770123,468
Boston, Mass.560,892448,477112,415
Baltimore, Md.508,957434,43974,518
Cleveland, O.381,768261,353120,415
Buffalo, N. Y.352,387255,66496,723
San Francisco, Cal.342,782298,99743,785
Cincinnati, O.325,902296,90828,994
Pittsburg, Pa.321,616238,61782,999
New Orleans, La.287,104242,03945,065
Detroit, Mich.285,704205,87678,828
Milwaukee, Wis.285,315204,46880,847
Washington, D. C.278,718230,39248,326
Newark, N. J.246,070181,83064,240
Jersey City, N. J.206,433163,00343,430
Louisville, Ky.204,731161,12943,602
Minneapolis, Minn.202,718164,73837,980
Providence, R. I.175,597132,14643,451
Indianapolis, Ind.169,164105,43663,728
Kansas City, Mo.163,752132,71631,036
St. Paul, Minn.163,065133,15629,909
Rochester, N. Y.162,608133,89628,712
Denver, Col.133,859106,71327,146
Toledo, O.131,82281,43450,388
Allegheny, Pa.129,896105,28724,609
Columbus, O.125,56088,15037,410
Worcester, Mass.118,42184,65533,766-
Syracuse, N. Y.108,37488,14320,231
New Haven, Conn.108,02781,29826,729
Paterson, N. J.105,17178,34726,824
Fall River, Mass.104,86374,39830,465
St. Joseph, Mo.102,97952,32450,655
Omaha, Neb.102,555140,452*37,897
Los Angeles, Cal.102,47950,39552,084
Memphis, Tenn.102,32064,49537,825
Scranton, Pa.102,02675,21526,811
Lowell, Mass.94,96977,69617,273
Albany, N. Y.94,15194,923*772
Cambridge, Mass.91,88670,02821,858
Portland, Ore.90,42646,38544,041
Atlanta. Ga.89,87265,53324,339
Grand Rapids, Mich.87,56560,27827,287
Dayton, O.85,33361,22024,113
Richmond, Va.85,05081,3883,662
Nashville, Tenn.80,86576,1684,697
Seattle, Wash.80,67142,83737,834
Hartford, Conn.79,85053,23026,620
Reading, Pa.78,96158,66120,300
Wilmington, Del.76,50861,43115,077
Camden, N. J.75,93558,31317,622
Trenton, N. J.73,30757,45815,849
Bridgeport, Conn.70,99648,86622,130
Lynn, Mass.68,51355,72712,786
Oakland, Cal.66,96048,68218,278
Lawrence, Mass.62,55944,65417,905
New Bedford. Mass.62,44240,73321,709
Des Moines, Ia.62,13950,09312,046
Springfield, Mass.62,05944,17917,880
Somerville, Mass.61,64340,15221,491
Troy, N. Y.60,65160,956*305
Hoboken, N. J.59,36443,64815,716
Evansville, Ind.59,00750,7568,251
Manchester. N. H.56,98744,12612,861
Utica, N. Y.56,38344,00712,376
Peoria. Ill.56,10041,02415,076
Charleston, S. C.55,80754,955852
Savannah, Ga.54,.24443,18911,055
Salt Lake City, Utah.53,53144,8438,688
San Antonio, Tex.53,32137,67315,648
Duluth, Minn.52,96933,11519,854
Erie, Pa.52,733 40,63412,099
Elizabeth, N. J.52,13037,76414,366
Wilkesbarre, Pa.51.72137,71814,003
Kansas City, Kan.51,41838,31613,102
Harrisburg, Pa.50,16739,38510,782
Portland, Me.50,14536,42513,720
Yonkers, N. Y.47,93132,03315,898
* Decrease.


Cities with population exceeding 25,000.—Continued.

City.population.increase since
Norfolk, Va 46,62434,87111,753
Waterbury, Conn 45,85928,64617,213
Holyoke, Mass.45.71235.63710,075
Fort Wayne, Ind. 45,11535,3939,722
Youngstown, O.44,88533.22011,665
Houston, Tex44,63327,55717,076
Covington, Ky42,93837,3715,567
Akron, O.42,72827,60115,127
Dallas, Tex 42,63838,0674,571
Saginaw, Mich.42,34546 322*3,977
Lancaster, Pa41,45932,0119,448
Lincoln, Neb40,16955,154*14,985
Brockton, Mass.40,06327,29412,769
Binghamton, N. Y 39,64735.0054,642
Augusta, Ga39,41133,3006,141
Pawtucket, R. I.39,23127.63311,598
Altoona, Pa38,97330,3378,636
Wheeling. W. Va 38,87834,5224,356
Mobile, Ala38,46931,0767,393
Birmingham, Ala 38,41526,17812,237
Little Rock, Ark38,30725,87412,433
Springfield, O.38,25331,8956,358
Galveston, Tex 37,78929,0848,705
Tacoma, Wash37,71436,0061,708
Haverhill, Mass. 37,17527,4129,763
Spokane. Wash36,84819,92216,926
Terre Haute, Ind.36,67330,2176,456
Dubuque, Ia 36,29730,3115,986
Quincy, Ill. 36,25231,4944,758
South Bend, Ind.35,99921,81914,180
Salem, Mass. 35,95630,8015,155
Johnstown, Pa35,93621,80514,131
Elmira, N. Y 35,67230,8934,779
Allentown, Pa 35,41625,22810,188
Davenport, Ia35,25426,8728,382
McKeesport, Pa 34,22720,74113,486
Springfield. Ill.34,15924,9639,196
Chelsea, Mass. 34,07227,9096,163
Chester, Pa33,98820,22613,762
York, Pa33,70820,79312,915
Malden, Mass.33,66423,03110,633
Topeka, Kan33.60831,0072,601
Newton, Mass.33,58724,3799,208
Sioux City, la33,11137,806*4,695
Bayonne, N. J.32,72219,03313,689
Knoxville, Tenn32,63722,53510,102
Chattanooga, Tenn32,49029,1003,390
Schenectady, N. Y 31,53119,90211,780
Fitchburg, Mass.31,68222,0379,494
Superior, Wis 31,09111,98319,108
Rockford, Ill. 31,05123,5847,467
Taunton, Mass.31,03625,4485,588
Canton, O 30,66726,1894.478
Butte, Mont30,47010,72319,747
Montgomery, Ala30,34621,8838,463
Auburn, N. Y.30,34525,8584,487
East St. Louis, Ill.29,65515,16914,486
Joliet, Ill.29,35323,2646,089
Sacramento, Cal29,28226,3862,896
Racine, Wis 29,10221,0148,088
La Crosse. Wis 28.89525,0903,805
Williamsport, Pa 28,75727,1321,625
Jacksonville. Pa 28,42917,20111,228
Newcastle, Pa28,33911,60016,739
Newport, Ky 28.30124,9183,383
Oshkosh. Wis28,28422.8365,448
Noonsocket. R. I.28,20420,8307,374
Pueblo. Col 28,15724,5583,599
Atlantic City, N. J.27,83813.05514,783
Passaic, N. J.27,77713,02814,749
Bay City, Mich.27,62827.839*211
Fort Worth. Tex26.68823,0763,612
Lexington, Ky26,36921,5674,802
Gloucester. Mass.26,12124,6511,470
South Omaha, Neb26.0018,06217,939
New Britain. Conn 25,99816,5199.479
Council Bluffs, Ia.25,80221.4744,328
Cedar Rapids, Ia 25,65618,0207,636
Easton, Pa25,23814,48110,757
Jackson. Mich.25,18020,7984,382


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