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A State occupying a mountainous and high plateau region, between Kansas and Nebraska on the east, Utah on the west, Wyoming on the north, and New Mexico and Texas on the south, organized as a Territory Feb. 28, 1861, from parts of its several contiguous neighbors, and admitted to the Union July 4, 1876, hence known as the “Centennial State.” The portion north of the Arkansas River, and east of the Rocky Mountains, was included in the Louisiana purchase of 1803 and the remainder in the Mexican cession of 1848. Francis Vasquez de Coronado is believed to have been the first European explorer of this region in 1540. In 1806 President Jefferson sent an expedition, under Lieut. Z. M. Pike, to explore this region, and it nearly crossed the territory from north to south in the mountain region, and discovered

State seal of Colorado.

the mountain known as Pike's Peak. In 1820 another expedition, under Col. S. H. Long, visited this region; and in 1842-44 Col. John C. Fremont crossed it in his famous passage over the Rocky Mountains. Before the beginning of the nineteenth century, it is believed that no white inhabitants lived in Colorado, excepting a few Mexicans and Spaniards in the southern portion. Gold was discovered there, near the mouth of Clear Creek, in 1852, by a Cherokee cattle-dealer. This and other discoveries of the precious metal brought about 400 persons to Colorado in 1858-59; and the first discovery of a gold-bearing lode was by John H. Gregory, May 6, 1859, in what is now known as the “Gregory mining District,” in Gilpin county. An attempt to organize government among the miners was made by the erection of Arapahoe county, and the election of a representative to the Kansas legislature, Nov. 6, 1858. He was instructed to urge the separation of the district from Kansas and the organization of a new Territory. The first movement for a territorial government was by a convention of 128 delegates held at Denver in the autumn of 1859, who decided to memorialize Congress on the subject. [247] The Territory was organized in 1861, and but for the veto of President Johnson statehood would have been granted in 1867. A further attempt was made in 1873, but Congress refused to pass an enabling act.

Colorado was long noted as a silver-producing State, but after the repeal of the silver-purchase clause of the Bland silver bill (q. v.) by the Sherman Act of 1890, the serious apprehensions of local mineoperators were proved groundless by the results of a general exploitation for gold, and within a few years Colorado passed from the status of a silver to that of a gold State. In the calendar year 1900 the State produced bullion of various kinds to the value of $50,303,964, and of this total $29,226,198 was in gold and $12,433,785 in silver, the State then breaking all its previous records as a gold-producer. Coal, both bituminous and anthracite, and iron, are found in great quantities; lead, zinc, copper, quicksilver, tellurium, salt, gypsum, and pottery clays are plentiful. Mining and smelting are the most important industries after that of agriculture. Cattle and sheep herding are declining in consequence of the multiplication of small farms. In 1899 the total assessed valuation of taxable property was $212,202,886, and the net debt $2,728,667. The population in 1890 was 412,198; in 1900, 539,700.

Territorial governors.

Name.Term.Remarks Appointed by
William Gilpin1861-62President Lincoln
John Evans1862-65President Lincoln
Alexander Cummings1865-67President Johnson
A. C. Hunt1867-69President Johnson
Edward M. McCook1869-73President Grant
Samuel H. Elbert1873-74President Grant
Edward M. McCook1874-75President Grant
John L. Routt1875-76President Grant

State governors.

Name. Term.
John L. Routt 1876 to 1878
Fred. W. Pitkin1879 to 1882
James B. Grant1883 to 1886
Benj. H. Eaton 1885 to 1886
Alvah Adams 1887 to 1888
Job A. Cooper 1889 to 1890
John L. Routt1891 to 1893
Davis H. Waite 1893 to 1895
A. W. McIntyre 1895 to 1897
Alvah Adams 1897 to 1899
Charles S. Thomas 1899 to 1901
James B. Orman 1901 to 1903

United States senators.

Name. No. of Congress. Term.
Jerome B. Chaffee44th to 45th1876 to 1879
Henry M. Teller44th to 47th 1877 to 1883
Nathaniel P. Hill46th to 48th1879 to 1885
Thomas M. Bowen48th to 50th1883 to 1889
Henry M. Teller 49th 1885 to —
Edward O. Wolcott51st to 57th1889 to 1901
Thomas Patterson57th to —1901 to —

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