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Corinth, operations at

General Halleck arrived on the battle-ground of Shiloh (q. v.) from his headquarters at St. Louis on April 12, 1862, and, being Grant's superior in rank, took command of the National troops. Grant was preparing to pursue and strike Beauregard while his shattered army was weak; but Halleck restrained Grant, and twenty days after the victory he began a march against Beauregard at Corinth. On May 3 his advance, under General Sherman, was within six or seven miles of Beauregard's lines. His forces had been reorganized under the name of the Grand Army of the Tennessee, and Grant was made his second in command. His whole force, approaching Corinth with great caution, numbered, with the accession of Buell's army, about 108,000 men. Beauregard had been reinforced by Van Dorn and Price, with Missouri and Arkansas troops, and by the command of Gen. Mansfield Lovell, who had come up from New Orleans. For twenty-seven days the National troops were busy piling up fortifications in the approaches to Corinth, interrupted by frequent sorties from that town. Then the Confederates were driven from their advanced works (May 29), and Halleck prepared for a conflict the next day. Although much strengthened, Beauregard was unwilling to risk a battle with the Grand Army of the Tennessee. All the night of May 29 the National sentinels had heard the incessant roar of moving railway-cars at Corinth; and at daybreak, just as Halleck sent out skirmishers to “feel the enemy,” the earth was shaken with a series of explosions, and dense columns of smoke arose above the town. There was no enemy to “feel” ; Beauregard had evacuated Corinth during the night, burned and blown up whatever of stores he could not carry away, and fled [369] in haste to Turpelo, many miles southward, where he left General Bragg in command of the Confederate forces (now called the Army of the Mississippi), and repaired to Mineral Springs, in Alabama, for the restoration of his impaired health. Halleck took possession of Corinth, and was soon afterwards called to Washington to perform the duties of general-inchief of all the armies of the republic. He left General Thomas in command at Corinth, and General Grant of his old army, with enlarged powers.

At Ripley, Miss., the troops of Price and Van Dorn were concentrated, 40,000 strong, after the battle at Iuka (q. v.), and at the close of September, 1862, they moved on Corinth. They bivouacked within 10 miles of Corinth on the night of Oct. 2. On the morning of the 3d Rosecrans was prepared to meet an attack. Hamilton's division formed his right, Davies's his centre, and McKean's his left, on the front of Corinth. A brigade, under Colonel Oliver, with a section of artillery, was then formed, while the cavalry watched every approach. Early in the morning the Confederate advance, under Colonel Lovell, encountered Oliver. The latter being hard pressed, General McArthur was sent to his support, but both were pushed back. To these both McKean and Davies sent help. Very soon afterwards the Confederates made a desperate charge, drove the Nationals, and captured two guns. The Confederates had resolved to capture Corinth, with its immense stores. They now pressed heavily on the National centre. Davies was pushed back, when Stanley sent Colonel Mower with a brigade to his assistance; and Hamilton was pressing through a thick mire on Lovell's left, when darkness fell, and the struggle ceased. The Confederates enveloped Rosecrans's front, and rested on their arms. Van Dorn believed he would have possession of Corinth before sunrise. He had sent a shout of triumph to Richmond by telegraph. The battle was resumed before the dawn. Both parties had prepared for it. The National

Plan of battle at Corinth.

batteries around Corinth were well manned, and a new one, mounting five guns, had been constructed during the night. After a considerable cannonading, the Confederates, in heavy force, came out at a little past nine o'clock, advanced rapidly, and fell violently, in wedge-form, upon Davies, intending to break his line and rush into Corinth. The struggle was very severe. Grape and canister shot made fearful lanes through the Confederate ranks, yet they pressed on. Davies's forces gave way, but soon rallied. The Confederates captured Fort Powell on Davies's right, and fully twenty men penetrated Corinth to the headquarters of Rosecrans, on the public square, which they captured. But the victorious Confederate column was soon pushed back, and Fort Powell was retaken by the 56th Illinois Regiment. At the [370] same time Hamilton's guns were making fearful havoc in the Confederate ranks. The latter soon fled to the woods. Meanwhile Lovell had fallen upon Fort Robinett and the adjacent lines, and a terrible battle ensued. The fort was stormed by a strong Confederate force, led by Colonel Rogers, of Texas. Within lay prone Colonel Fuller's Ohio brigade, who, aroused, delivered such a murderous fire that the assailants recoiled. In a moment they rallied, and again charged. The 11th Missouri and 27th Ohio poured a terrific storm of bullets upon them, and at the command “Charge!” the Nationals swarmed over the parapet, and sent the assailants flying in confusion to the forest. By noon the battle at Corinth was ended, and the whole Confederate force was retreating southward, vigorously pursued. The National loss in the battle at Corinth and in the pursuit was 2,363, of whom 315 were killed. Of the Confederate loss there is no positive record. One of their historians (Pollard) admits a loss of 4,500, and Rosecrans estimated it at 9,363, of whom 1,423 were killed and 2,248 made prisoners. The Confederates had 38,000 men in the battle; the Nationals less than 20,000.

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