; born in Ohio
, Nov. 9, 1865; attended the Kansas State University, but did not graduate; became a newspaper reporter in Kansas City
in 1890; botanist of the United States Death Valley Expedition
in 1891; and special commissioner of the Department of Agriculture to explore Alaska
, with a view of reporting on its flora, 1893-94; joined the Cubans in 1896 and served in their army for a year and a half.
At the beginning of the war with Spain
he was commissioned colonel of the 20th Kansas Volunteers, which he accompanied to the Philippines, where he subsequently made an exceptionally brilliant record.
On March 31, 1899, he was the first man to enter Malolos
, the Filipino insurgents' capital.
On May 2, 1899, President McKinley
promoted him to brigadiergeneral in the newly organized volunteer service, on the recommendation of Generals Otis
, for signal skill and gallantry in swimming across the Rio Grande
at Calumpit in the face of a heavy fire from the insurgents, and establishing a rope ferry by means of which the American
troops were enabled to make a crossing and to successfully engage the insurgents.
On May 2, 1900, while making a personal reconnoissance up the Rio Grande de la Pampanga
he discovered a perpendicular ladder leading up a cliff crowned with a dense forest.
Beside the ladder hung a rope which, when pulled, rang an alarm bell in the woods back of the precipice.
Deeming these appearances suspicious, he ascended the ladder and at the summit found many large wooden cases filled with documents comprising a great number of the archives of the insurgents, including all the correspondence of Aguinaldo
from the time of his earliest communications with Dewey
down to the flight
, and also including Aguinaldo
's personal letter-book, with press copies of his correspondence.
These boxes were hidden in a ravine, but were all recovered and taken to Manila
, where their contents were delivered to the American
On March 23, 1901, he captured Aguinaldo
(q. v.), and on the 30th following was commissioned brigadiergeneral in the regular army.