; born in Westernville, Oneida co., N. Y.
, Jan. 16, 1815; graduated at West Point
in 1839, entering the engineer corps.
Until June, 1840, he was assistant professor at West Point
, and from 1841 to 1844 was employed on the fortifications in New York Harbor.
In 1845 he visited the military establishments of Europe
In the winter of 1845-46 he delivered at the Lowell Institute, Boston
, a series of lectures on the science of war, afterwards published in book form with the title of Elements of military art and Science
He served in California
and on the Pacific coast
during the war with Mexico
, in which he distinguished himself.
He was on the staff of Commodore Shubrick
at the capture of Mazatlan
, and was made lieutenant-governor.
From Aug. 13, 1847, to Dec. 20, 1849, he was secretary of the province and Territory of California
, and had a large share in preparing the State
He left the army in 1854, and began the practice of law in San Francisco
In August, 1861, he was appointed a major-general of the regular army, and succeeded Fremont
in command of the Western Department in November.
In 1862 he took command of the army before Corinth
, and in July of that year he was appointed general-in-chief, and held that post until superseded by Grant
, when he became chief of staff of the army, remaining such till April, 1865, when he was placed in command of the Military Division of the James, with his headquarters at Richmond
In August he was transferred to the Division
of the Pacific
, and in March, 1869, to that of the South
, with headquarters at Louisville
, where he died Jan. 9, 1872. General Halleck
published several works upon military and scientific topics.