; born in Savannah, Ga.
, Oct. 10, 1815; graduated at West Point
in 1838, entering the dragoons; and in 1860 was lieutenant of the 1st Cavalry.
In 1856 he published United States rifle and light Infantry tactics
, being mainly a compilation from French sources.
Resigning in January, 1861, he joined the Confederates
, and in June was appointed brigadier-general in their army.
For bravery in the battle of Shiloh
(q. v.) lie was promoted to major-general, and in October, 1862, lieutenant-general
He was very active in military operations in Arkansas
, and Georgia
; and after the defeat of the Confederates
at Missionary Ridge
, late in 1863, he succeeded Bragg
in the chief command, until relieved by General Johnston
He commanded at Savannah
at the time of their capture, early in 1865; fought at Averasboro
and Bentonville, N. C.
; and surrendered with Johnston
's army, April 27, 1865.
He died in Wytheville, Va.
, Nov. 6, 1873.