; born in Longwood, Va.
, Feb. 3, 1809; graduated at West Point
in 1829, and entered the artillery.
He served in the wars with the Florida
, and with Mexico
, in which he was twice wounded.
He became lieutenantcolonel of cavalry in 1855, and quartermaster-general, with the rank of brigadier-general, in June, 1860.
He joined the Confederates
in the spring of 1861, and was commissioned a major-general in
the Army of Virginia.
He was in command at the battle of Bull Run
, and fought gallantly on the Virginia peninsula
, until wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks
, or Seven Pines
(1862), when he was succeeded by Lee
. He afterwards opposed Grant
in the Mississippi Valley
He was in command during the Atlanta campaign
in 1864 until July, when he was superseded by General Hood
heard of Sherman
's raid, and perceived that Polk
could not resist him, he sent two divisions of Hardee
's corps, under Generals Stewart
, to assist Polk
, in command at Chattanooga
(February, 1864), sent General Palmer
with a force to counteract this movement.
moved with his corps directly upon Dalton
The Confederates were constantly pushed back and there was almost continual heavy skirmishing.
In the centre of Rocky Face Valley, on a rocky eminence, the Confederates
made a stand, but were soon driven from the crest by General Turchin
, after a severe struggle.
The Confederates rallied, and, returning with an overwhelming force, retook the hill.
, finding his adversaries gathering in force larger than his own, and learning that the object of his expedition had been accomplished, in the calling back of Hardee
, fell back and took post (March 10) at Ringgold
In this short campaign the Nationals lost 350 killed and wounded; the Confederates
With the surrender of Lee
, the Civil War
was virtually ended.
Although he was general-in-chief, his capitulation included only the Army of Northern Virginia.
That of Johnston, in North Carolina
, and smaller bodies, were yet in the field.
, who confronted Johnston
, heard of the victory at Five Forks
and the evacuation of Petersburg
, he moved on Johnston
(April 10, 1865), with his whole army.
The latter was at Smithfield
, on the Neuse River
, with fully 30,000 men. Jefferson Davis
and the Confederate
cabinet were then at Danville
, on the southern border of Virginia
, and had just proposed to Johnston
a plan whereby they might secure their own personal safety and the treasures they had brought with them from Richmond
It was to disperse his army, excepting two or three batteries of artillery, the cavalry, and as many infantry as he could mount, with which he should form a guard for the “government,” and strike for the Mississippi
and beyond, with Mexico
as their final objective.
spurned the proposition, and, deprecating the bad example of Lee
in continuing what he knew to be a hopeless war, had the moral courage to do his duty according to the dictates of his conscience and his nice sense of honor.
He refused to fight any more, or to basely desert his
army far away from their home, as the “government” proposed, and stated frankly to the people of North
and South Carolina
, and Florida
, ineluded within his military department, that “war could not be longer continued by them, except as robbers,” and that he should take measures to stop it and save the army and people from further evil, and “avoid the crime of waging a hopeless war.”
was pushing Johnston
with great vigor, when the former received a note from the latter (April 14, 1865), asking if a temporary suspension of active hostilities might be arranged to allow the “civil authorities to enter into the needful arrangements to terminate the existing war.”
promptly replied that he would do so, and was willing to hold a conference.
He said that, as a basis of action, he would undertake to abide by the terms made by Grant
at Appomattox Court-house.
met at Durham's Station, half-way between Raleigh
, at ten o'clock, April 17.
said he regarded the Confederate
cause as lost, and admitted that Grant
's terms were magnanimous; but he insisted upon conditions involving political guarantees, which Sherman
had no authority to grant.
At a second conference the next day, Sherman
consented to a memorandum of agreement as a basis for the consideration of the government, which, if carried out, would have instantly restored to all persons engaged in the rebellion every right and privilege, social and political, which they had enjoyed before the war, without any liability of punishment.
It was adroitly drawn up by Breckinridge
, and was signed by the respective commanding generals.
The national government instantly rejected it, and General Grant
was sent to Raleigh
to declare that rejection, which he did April 24, and proclaimed that the truce would end in forty-eight hours. This notification was accompanied by a demand for the surrender of Johnston
's army, on the terms granted to Lee
. The capitulation was agreed upon at the house of James Bennett
, near Durham's Station, April 26.
About 25,000 troops were surrendered.
The capitulation included all the troops in Johnston
's military department.
surrendered at Citronelle, Ala.
, to General Canby
, on the same terms, and the Confederate navy on the Tombigbee River
was surrendered by Commander Farrand
to Rear-Admiral Thatcher
Gen. Wade Hampton
, of Johnston
's surrendered forces, refused to comply with the terms, and dashed off, with a considerable body of cavalry, towards Charlotte
, to follow the fortunes of Jefferson Davis