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An Algonquian tribe found by the French missionaries, towards the close of the seventeenth century, on the Wisconsin River. They were great rovers; were closely allied to the Miamis; and in 1712 joined the Foxes in an attack upon Detroit, and in wars long afterwards. They were reduced in 1747 to about eighty warriors, and when the English conquered [250] Canada in 1763 there were about 100 Kickapoos on the Wabash. They joined Pontiac in his conspiracy, but soon made peace; and in 1779 they joined George Rogers Clarke in his expedition against the British in the Northwest. Showing hostility to the Americans, their settlement on the Wabash was desolated in 1791; but they were not absolutely subdued until the treaty at Greenville in 1795, after Wayne's decisive victory, when they ceded a part of their land for a small annuity. In the early part of the nineteenth century the Kickapoos made other cessions of territory; and in 1811 they joined Tecumseh and fought the Americans at Tippecanoe. In the War of 1812 they were the friends of the English; and afterwards a larger portion of them crossed the Mississippi and seated themselves upon a tract of land on the Osage River. Some cultivated the soil, while others went southward as far as Texas, in roving bands, plundering on all sides. For some time Texas suffered by these inroads; but in 1854 some of them, peaceably inclined, settled in Kansas, when, becoming dissatisfied, many of them went off to Mexico, where they opposed the depredations of the Apaches. In 1899 there were 237 Kickapoos at the Pottawattomie and Great Nehama agency in Kansas, and 246 Mexican Kickapoos at the Sac and Fox agency in Oklahoma.

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