On July 12, 1689, about 1,200 of the Five Nations (see Iroquois Confederacy
) invaded the island of Montreal
, burned all the plantations, and murdered men, women, and children.
This event threw the whole French colony into consternation.
It was reported that 1,000 of the French
were slain during the invasion, besides twenty-six carried into captivity and burned alive.
It was this massacre that the French
sought to avenge the next year, when Frontenac
sent into the Mohawk
country the mongrel party that destroyed Schenectady
, and two others which attacked Salmon Falls
and Casco, in Maine
. Sir William Phipps
having been successful in an expedition against Port Royal
, in 1690, a plan for the conquest of Canada
was speedily arranged.
A fleet under Phipps
proceeded against Quebec
, and colonial land forces were placed under the supreme command of Fitz-John Winthrop
, son of Governor Winthrop
, of Connecticut
, son-in-law of Leisler
, undertook, as commissary, to provide and forward subsistence for the march.
with a party of Mohawks, the van of the expedition, pushed forward towards the St. Lawrence
, but was repulsed by Frontenac
(August). The remainder of the troops did not proceed farther than Lake George
, where they were stopped by a deficiency of provisions and the prevalence of the smallpox.
Mutual recriminations followed, and Leisler
actually caused Winthrop
The latter charged the failure to Milborne
, who, it was alleged, had failed to furnish needed provisions and transportation.
In 1711, within a fortnight after Colonel Nicholson
had given notice
of an intended expedition against Canada
, New York and the New England
colonies were busy in preparations for the movement.
issued bills of credit amounting to about $200,000 to guarantee bills drawn on the imperial treasury; New York issued bills to the amount of $50,000 to defray the expenses of her share of the enterprise; and Pennsylvania
, under the name of a present
View of Montreal and its walls in 1760 (from an old French print).|
to the Queen
, contributed $10,000 towards the expedition.
About 1,800 troops—the quotas of Connecticut
, New York, and New Jersey
—assembled at Albany
with the intention of attacking Montreal
simultaneously with the appearance of the fleet from Boston
was in general command; and at Albany
he was joined by 500 warriors of the Five Nations and 1,000 palatines, chiefly from the Mohawk Valley
, making the whole force about 4,000 strong.
was assisted by Colonels Schuyler
, and Ingoldsby
, and on Aug. 28 they began their march for Canada
At Lake George
heard of the miscarriage of the naval expedition, and returned to Albany
, abandoning the enterprise.
In 1775, when the republicans invaded Canada
, General Carleton
was in command of a few troops at Montreal
With about 800 men he marched to the relief of the garrison at St. John
, after he heard of the capture of Chambly
He crossed the St. Lawrence
in small boats, and when about to land at Longueil
was attacked by Col. Seth Warner
and about 300 Green Mountain
Boys, and driven back in great confusion.
The news of this repulse caused the speedy surrender of St. John
, when Montgomery
pressed on towards Montreal
, knowing the weakness of the fort, at once retreated on board a vessel of a small fleet lying in the river, and attempted to flee to Quebec
with the garrison.
without opposition, and sent a force under Colonel Easton
to intercept the intending fugitives.
He hastened to the mouth of the Sorel with troops, cannon, and armed gondolas.
The British fleet could not pass, and Prescott
, several other officers, members of the Canadian Council, and 120 private soldiers, with all the vessels, were surrendered.
wrote to the Congress
, “Until Quebec
is taken Canada
in command at Montreal
then pushed on towards Quebec
See Montgomery, Richard