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Presidential elections.

Under the Constitution as originally adopted, the candidates for President and Vice-President were voted for in the electoral college of each State, without designating which the elector intended for the first and which for the second office. Lists of these were transmitted to the seat of government, and the candidate having the greatest [289] number (if a majority of the whole) became President, and the one having the next greatest number Vice-President. If the two highest candidates received an equal number of votes, the House of Representatives (as now) was to proceed immediately to choose by ballot one of them for President, voting by States, each State having one vote, and a majority of all the States being necessary to a choice. In case of a tie on the Vice-President, the Senate was to choose between the equal candidates.

The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution (declared in force Sept. 25, 1804) changed the mode of voting for the two officers, the electors being required to vote separately for President and Vice-President. They were to name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; distinct lists of all persons voted for as President and Vice-President, signed and certified, were sent to the seat of government, directed to “the President of the Senate,” whose duty it was, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, to open all the certificates, and count the votes, the person having the greatest number of votes for the respective offices (if a majority of the whole), to be declared elected.

Strictly speaking, the people do not vote for the Presidential candidates direct. The people vote for electors, the majority of whom elect the President. As a result, a candidate might have an overwhelming popular majority and yet be defeated in the electoral college.

In the elections of 1789, 1792, 1796, and 1800, each elector in the electoral college voted for two candidates for President. The candidate who received the largest electoral vote was declared President, and the candidate who received the next largest number of votes was declared Vice-President.

In 1804 the Constitution was amended (Twelfth Amendment). Beginning with the election of 1804, all the electors voted for a President and a Vice-President, instead of for two candidates as formerly.

The record of any popular vote for electors prior to 1824 is so meagre and imperfect that a trustworthy compilation would be impossible. In most of the States, for more than a quarter-century following the establishment of the government, the State legislatures “appointed” the Presidential electors, and the people's choice was expressed by their votes for members of the legislature. In the tabulation of the votes 1789-1820 only the aggregate electoral votes for candidates for President and Vice-President are given. See popular vote for President.

1789. George Washington, 69; John Adams, of Massachusetts, 34; John Jay, of New York, 9; R. H. Harrison, of Maryland, 6; John Rutledge, of South Carolina, 6; John Hancock, of Massachusetts, 4; George Clinton, of New York, 3; Samuel Huntingdon, of Connecticut, 2; John Milton, of Georgia, 2; James Armstrong, of Georgia; Benjamin Lincoln, of Massachusetts, and Edward Telfair, of Georgia, 1 vote each. Vacancies (votes not cast), 4. George Washington was chosen President and John Adams Vice-President.

1792. George Washington received 132 votes; John Adams, Federalist, 77; George Clinton, of New York, Republican (a), 50; Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, Republican, 4; Aaron Burr, of New York, Republican, 1 vote. Vacancies, 3. George Washington was chosen President and John Adams Vice-President.

1796. John Adams, Federalist, 71; Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 68; Thomas Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist, 59; Aaron Burr, of New York, Republican, 30; Samuel Adams, of Massachusetts, Republican, 15; Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, Independent, 11; George Clinton, of New York, Republican, 7; John Jay, of New York, Federalist, 5; James Iredell, of North Carolina, Federalist, 3; George Washington, of Virginia; John Henry, of Maryland, and S. Johnson, of North Carolina, all Federalists, 2 votes each; Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist, 1 vote. John Adams was chosen President and Thomas Jefferson Vice-Presi dent.

1800. Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 73; Aaron Burr, Republican, 73; John Adams, Federalist, 65; Charles C. Pinckney, Federalist, 64; John Jay, Federalist, 1 vote. There being a tie vote for Jefferson and Burr, the choice devolved upon the House of Representatives. Jefferson received the votes of ten States; Burr received the votes of four States. There were 2 blank votes. Thomas Jefferson was chosen President and Aaron Burr Vice-President.

1804. For President, Thomas Jefferson, Republican, 162; Charles C. Pinckney, Federalist, 14. For Vice-President, George Clinton, Republican, 162; Rufus King, of New York, Federalist, 14. Jefferson was chosen President and Clinton Vice-President.

(a) For foot-note reference, see page 291. [290]

1808. For President, James Madison, of Virginia, Republican, 122; Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina, Federalist, 47; George Clinton, of New York, Republican, 6. For Vice-President, George Clinton, Republican, 113; Rufus King, of New York, Federalist, 47; John Langdon, of New Hampshire, 9; James Madison, 3; James Monroe, 3. Vacancy, 1. Madison was chosen President and Clinton Vice-President.

1812. For President, James Madison, Republican, 128; De Witt Clinton, of New York, Federalist, 89. For Vice-President, Elbridge Gerry, of Massachusetts, 131; Jared Ingersoll, of Pennsylvania, Federalist, 86. Vacancy, 1. Madison was chosen President and Gerry Vice-President.

1816. For President, James Monroe, of Virginia, Republican, 183; Rufus King, of New York, Federalist, 34. For Vice-President. Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, Republican, 183; John Eager Howard, of Maryland, Federalist, 22; James Ross, of Pennsylvania, 5; John Marshall, of Virginia, 4; Robert G. Harper, of Maryland, 3. Vacancies, 4. Monroe was chosen President and Tompkins Vice-President.

1820. For President, James Monroe, of Virginia, Republican, 231; John Q. Adams, of Massachusetts, Republican, 1. For Vice-President, Daniel D. Tompkins, Republican, 218; Richard Stockton, of New Jersey, 8; Daniel Rodney, of Delaware, 4; Robert G. Harper, of Maryland, and Richard Rush, of Pennsylvania, 1 vote each. Vacancies, 3. James Monroe was chosen President and Daniel D. Tompkins Vice-President.

The popular vote for the principal Presidential candidates since 1824 was as follows:

Electoral and popular votes.

Year of Election and Candidates for President.States.Political Party.Popular Vote.Plurality.Electoral Vote.Candidates for Vice-President.States.Political Party.Electoral Vote.
Andrew JacksonTennDem155,87250,551(b) 99John C. Calhoun1S. C.Dem182
John Q. Adams2Mass.Nat. R.105,32183Nathan SanfordN. Y.Rep30
Henry ClayKyRep46,58737Nathaniel MaconN. C.Rep24
William H. CrawfordGaRep44,28241Andrew JacksonTennDem13
Martin Van BurenN. Y.Rep9
Henry ClayKyRep2
Andrew Jackson3TennDem647,231138,134178John C. Calhoun4S. C.Dem171
John Q. AdamsMass.Nat. R.509,09783Richard RushPaNat. R.83
William SmithS. C.Dem7
Andrew Jackson5TennDem687,502157,313219Martin Van Buren6N. Y.Dem189
Henry ClayKyNat R.530,18949John SergeantPaNat. R.49
John FloydVaInd.33,10811Henry LeeMass.Ind.11
William Wirt (c)MdAnti-M.7Amos Ellmaker (c)PaAnti-M.7
William WilkinsPaDem30
Martin Van Buren7N. Y.Dem761,54924,893170R. M. Johnson (d)8KyDem147
W. H. HarrisonO.Whig73Francis GrangerN. Y.Whig77
Hugh L. WhiteTennWhig26John TylerVaWhig47
Daniel WebsterMass.Whig736,65614William SmithAlaDem23
Willie P. MangumN. C.Whig11
W. H. Harrison9O.Whig1,275,017146,315234John Tyler10VaWhig234
Martin Van BurenN. Y.Dem1,128,70260R. M. JohnsonKyDem48
James G. BirneyN. Y.Lib7,059L. W. TazewellVaDem11
James K. PolkTennDem1
James K. Polk11TennDem1,337,24338,175170George M. Dallas12PaDem170
Henry ClayKyWhig1,299,068105T. FrelinghuysenN. J.Whig105
James G. BirneyN. Y.Lib62,300Thomas MorrisO.Lib
Zachary Taylor13LaWhig1,360,101139,557163Millard Fillmore14N. Y.Whig163
Lewis CassMich.Dem1,220,544127William O. ButlerKyDem127
Martin Van BurenN. Y.F. Soil291,263Charles F. AdamsMass.F. Soil
Franklin Pierce15N. H.Dem1,601,474220,896254William R. King16AlaDem254
Winfield ScottN. J.Whig1,380,57642William A. GrahamN. C.Whig42
John P. HaleN. H.F. D. (i)156,149George W. JulianInd.F. D.
Daniel Webster (k)Mass.Whig1,670
James Buchanan17PaDem1,838,169496,905174J. C. Breckinridge18KyDem174
John C. FremontCalRep1,341,264114William L. DaytonN. J.Rep114
Millard FillmoreN. Y.Amer874,5388A. J. DonelsonTennAmer8
Abraham Lincoln19Ill.Rep1,866,352491,195180Hannibal Hamlin20MeRep180
Stephen A. DouglasIll.Dem1,375,15712H. V.JohnsonGaDem12
J. C. BreckinridgeKyDem845,76372Joseph LaneOreDem72
John BellTennUnion589,58139Edward EverettMass.Union39


Electoral and popular votes—Continued.

Year of Election and Candidates for President.States.Political Party.Popular Vote.Plurality.Electoral Vote.Candidates for Vice-President.States.Political Party.Electoral Vote.
Abraham Lincoln*Ill.Rep2,216,067407,342(e) 212Andrew Johnson*TennRep212
George B. McClellanN. J.Dem1,808,72521George H. PendletonO.Dem21
Ulysses S. Grant*Ill.Rep3,015,071305,456(f) 214Schuyler Colfax*Ind.Rep214
Horatio SeymourN. Y.Dem2,709,61580F. P. Blair, JrMoDem80
Ulysses S. Grant*Ill.Rep3,597,070762,991286Henry Wilson*Mass.Rep286
Horace GreeleyN. Y.D. & L.2,834,079(g)B. Gratz BrownMoD. L.47
Charles O'ConorN. Y.Dem29,408John Q. AdamsMass.Dem
James BlackPa.Temp5,608John RussellMich.Temp
Thomas A. HendricksInd.Dem42George W. JulianInd.Lib5
B. Gratz BrownMo.Dem18A. H. ColquittGaDem5
Charles J. JenkinsGa.Dem2John M. PalmerIll.Dem3
David DavisIll.Ind.1T. E. BramletteKyDem3
W. S. GroesbeckO.Dem1
Willis B. MachenKyDem1
N. P. BanksMass.Lib1
Samuel J. TildenN. Y.Dem4,284,885250,235184T. A. HendricksInd.Dem184
Rutherford B. Hayes*O.Rep4,033,950(h) 185William A. Wheeler*N. Y.Rep185
Peter CooperN. Y.Gre'nb81,740Samuel F. CaryO.Gre'nb
Green Clay SmithKyPro.9,522Gideon T. StewartO.Pro
James B. WalkerIll.Amer2,636D. KirkpatrickN. Y.Amer
James A. Garfield*O.Rep4,449,0537,018214Chester A. Arthur*N. Y.Rep214
W. S. HancockPa.Dem4,442,035155William H. EnglishInd.Dem155
James B. WeaverIowaGre'nb307,306B. J. ChambersTexGre'nb
Neal DowMe.Pro10,305H. A. ThompsonO.Pro
John W. PhelpsVt.Amer707S. C. PomeroyKanAmer
Grover Cleveland*O.Dem4,911,01762,683219T. A. Hendricks*Ind.Dem219
James G. BlaineMe.Rep4,848,334182John A. LoganIll.Rep182
John P. St. JohnKanPro151,809William DanielMdPro
Benjamin F. ButlerMass.Peop133,825A. M. WestMissPeop
P. D. WiggintonCalAmer
Grover ClevelandN. Y.Dem5,538,23398,017168Allen G. ThurmanO.Dem168
Benjamin Harrison*Ind.Rep5,440,216233Levi P. Morton*N. Y.Rep233
Clinton B. FiskN. J.Pro249,907John A. BrooksMo.Pro
Alson J. StreeterIll.U. L.148,105C. E. CunninghamArkU'd L.
R. H. CowdryIll.U'd L.2,808W. H. T. WakefieldKan.U'd L.
James L. CurtisN. Y.Amer1,591James B. GreerTennAmer
Grover Cleveland*N. Y.Dem5,556,918380,810277Adlai E. Stevenson*Ill.Dem277
Benjamin HarrisonInd.Rep5,176,108145Whitelaw ReidN. Y.Rep145
James B. WeaverIowaPeop1,041,02822James G. FieldVaPeop22
John BidwellCal.Pro264,133James B. CranfillTexPro
Simon WingMass.Soc. L.21,164Charles H. MatchettN. Y.Soc. L.
William McKinley*O.Rep7,104,779601,854271Garret A. Hobart*N. J.Rep271
William J. BryanNeb.Dem6,502,925176Arthur SewallMeDem176
William J. BryanNeb.PeopThomas E. WatsonGaPeop
Joshua LeveringMd.Pro132,007Hale JohnsonIll.Pro
John M. PalmerIll.N. Dem133,148Simon B. BucknerKyN. Dem
Charles H. MatchettN. Y.Soc. L.36,274Matthew MaguireN. J.Soc. L.
Charles E. BentleyNebNat. (j)13,969James H. SouthgateN. C.Nat. (j)
William McKinley*O.Rep7,206,677832,280292Theodore Roosevelt*N. Y.Rep292
William J. BryanNeb.Dem. P.6,374,397155Adlai E. StevensonIll.Dem. P.155
John G. WoolleyIll.Pro208,555Henry B. MetcalfO.Pro
Wharton BarkerPa.M. P. (m)50,337Ignatius DonnellyMinnM. P. (m)
Eugene V. DebsInd.Soc. D.84,003Job HarrimanCalSoc. D.
Joseph F. MalloneyMass.Soc. L.39,537Valentine RemmelPaSoc. L.
J. F. R. LeonardIowaU. C. (n)1,060John G. WoolleyIll.U. C. (n)
Seth H. EllisO.U. R. (o)5,698Samuel T. NicholasPaU. R.(o)

*The candidates starred were elected. (a) The first Republican party is claimed by the present Democratic party as its progenitor. (b) No candidate having a majority of the electoral vote, the House of Representatives elected Adams. (c) Candidate of the Anti-masonic party. (d) There being no choice, the Senate elected Johnson. (e) Eleven Southern States, being within the belligerent territory, did not vote. (f) Three Southern States disfranchised. (g) Horace Greeley died after election, and Democratic electors scattered their vote. (h) There being a dispute over the electoral votes of Florida, Louisiana, Oregon, and South Carolina, they were referred by Congress to an electoral commission composed of eight Republicans and seven Democrats, which, by a strict party vote, awarded 185 electoral votes to Hayes and 184 to Tilden. (i) Free Democrat. (j) Free Silver Prohibition party. (k) In Massachusetts. There was also a Native American ticket in that State, which received 184 votes. (m) Middle-of-the-road, or Anti-fusion People's party. (n) United Christian party. (o) Union Reform party. [292]

1 For foot-note references see page 291.

2 For foot-note references see page 291.

3 For foot-note references see page 291.

4 For foot-note references see page 291.

5 For foot-note references see page 291.

6 For foot-note references see page 291.

7 For foot-note references see page 291.

8 For foot-note references see page 291.

9 For foot-note references see page 291.

10 For foot-note references see page 291.

11 For foot-note references see page 291.

12 For foot-note references see page 291.

13 For foot-note references see page 291.

14 For foot-note references see page 291.

15 For foot-note references see page 291.

16 For foot-note references see page 291.

17 For foot-note references see page 291.

18 For foot-note references see page 291.

19 For foot-note references see page 291.

20 For foot-note references see page 291.

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