The value of steam in navigation was demonstrated by Denys Papin
in a model steamboat on the Fulda
, near Cassel
, in 1707.
This was soon destroyed by a mob of boatmen.
Jonathan Hulls, of London
, set forth the idea in a patent obtained in 1736.
Bernouilli experimented with a steamboat, using artificial fins, and Genevois with one using the duck's-foot propeller, in 1757.
In 1775 M. Perier
navigated the Seine with a small steamboat, and in 1783 Claude, Comte de Jouffroy
, constructed an engine which propelled a boat on the Saone.
Immediately after the close of the Revolutionary War
, James Rumsey
, of Maryland
, propelled a vessel by steam on the Potomac River
, a fact certified to by Washington
In 1785 an association was formed to aid him, which was called the Rumsey Society, of which Benjamin Franklin
Nothing came of it. The next year John Fitch
, a native of Connecticut
, exhibited a boat on the Delaware
propelled by steam; and in 1788 he applied to the Continental Congress for a patent, saying his boat
could be propelled 8 miles an hour by the vapor.
A stock company was formed at Philadelphia
, and built a steam packetboat, which ran until the company failed in 1790.
's efforts in steam navigation also failed.
John C. Stevens
, of Hoboken, N. J.
, constructed a steamboat on the waters of the Hudson
that was driven by a Watt engine, moved by vapor from a tubular boiler of his own invention, and a screw propeller.
The same year Oliver Evans
put a steam dredgingmachine on the Delaware
and Schuylkill rivers
propelled by a steam paddle-wheel moved by a high-pressure engine, the first of its kind ever used.
Fulton's Clermont on its trial-trip up the Hudson.|
, a professional painter, had conceived a plan for steamboat navigation while an inmate of Joel Barlow
's residence in Paris
He met Chancellor Livingston
, and interested that gentleman in his projects.
He tried two experiments on the Seine in 1803.
, where a steamboat was in operation, and received from the inventor a description of its construction.
With these facts in his possession, Fulton
planned, and, on his return to New York in 1806, built, in conjunction with Livingston
, a steamboat, which he called the Clermont
, the title of the latter's country seat on the manor.
The vessel was 130 feet in length, 18 in width, and 7 in depth, and was of 160 tons burden.
She was propelled by a Watt & Boulton
was generally regarded as an unwise enthusiast, and when, on the morning of Friday, Aug. 7, 1807, the Clermont
left New York on a trial-trip to Albany
, bearing Fulton
and a few friends who had faith in his enterprise, and the boat stopped a while on account of a slight imperfection, he was greeted by jeers from a crowd on shore.
But she soon moved on out of sight of the deriding multitude, and made her way to Albany
and back against wind and tide, frightening many along the shores of the river, who regarded it, as it cast forth sparks, flame, and smoke during the night, a monster of the deep.
The great experiment then became a demonstration, and navigation by steam was then first successfully undertaken.
From that day vast improvements have been made in steam navigation, until now steam-vessels are seen in all parts of the world, even among the ice-packs of the polar seas.
began regular trips between New York and Albany
on Sept. 1, 1807, making the round trip of about 300 miles in 72 hours. On that day the following advertisement appeared in the New York newspapers: “The North River
steamboat will leave Paulus
's Hook (Jersey City
) on Friday, the 4th of September, at nine o'clock in the morning, and arrive at Albany
on Saturday at nine o'clock in the afternoon.
Provisions, good berths, and accommodations are provided.”
Before the breaking out of the War
of 1812-15 Fulton
had caused six steamboats to be built for navigating the Hudson
and for ferrying at New York.
Steam navigation was soon in operation on the rivers and lakes of the United States
and quite early on the sea. In
1808 Robert L. Stevens
, son of John C., went in the Phoenix
, then lately launched at Hoboken
, around to the Delaware River
; and in July, 1819, the steamship Savannah
crossed the Atlantic Ocean
from New York to Liverpool
in twenty-six days. Six years later the steamship Enterprise
went from Falmouth, England
, to the East Indies
, the first voyage of the kind ever made.
For this achievement her commander (Captain Johnson
) received $50,000. These were extraordinary voyages at that time.
The beginning of the regular navigation of the ocean between Europe
was postponed until June, 1838, when the Great Western
crossed the Atlantic
to New York in eighteen days. From that time steam navigation between the continents has been regularly kept up, and the Atlantic
is now traversed by steam-vessels from New York to
A modern Ocean steamer.|
in about five and a half days. Steamships are seen on every sea. They are employed in Arctic explorations; and in the early part of 1879 a steamship made the first voyage from the waters of the Atlantic
to those of the Pacific
through the ocean lying at the north of Europe
The first American steam-vessel seen in the East India
seas was the schooner Midas
, which became a passengerboat in Chinese
waters in 1844.
See navigation acts
The following is a record of the chief events in the history of commercial steam navigation.
See navigation acts
; Navy of the United States
|James Rumsey, of Sheppardstown, Va., invents a steamboat propelled by a steam-engine expelling water through a horizontal trunk-opening in the stern (1782). He experiments publicly in the presence of General Washington, on the Potomac River. Sept.,||1784|
|John Fitch, of Philadelphia, Pa., launches a steamboat worked by vertical paddles, six on each side, on the Delaware River||1788|
|Patrick Miller, of Dalswinton, Scotland, constructs a pleasure boat with paddle-wheels (1787), to which William Symington applies a steam-engine||1788|
|John Fitch sails a steamboat 18 feet long on the Collect Pond, New York City, where the “Tombs” now stands||1796|
|First practical steamboat, the tug Charlotte Dundas, built by William Symington, and tried on the Forth and Clyde Canal, Scotland||March, 1802|
|Robert Fulton, in connection with Chancellor Livingston, United States ambassador in Paris, builds a steam paddle-boat, 60 feet long, which is tried on the Seine||Aug. 9, 1803|
|John Stevens, of Hoboken, N. J., builds a steamboat with twin-screw propellers and an engine supplied by a flue-boiler||1804|
|Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont, 160 tons, runs from New York to Albany in thirty-two hours, thus securing the|
|exclusive use of the Hudson for steam navigation under grant of legislature made in 1798||Aug., 1807|
|Phoenix, a single-screw propeller built by John Stevens, makes the first sea voyage of a steam-vessel from New York to Philadelphia||1808|
|First steamboat on the St. Lawrence River, the Accommodation, runs from Montreal to Quebec||1809|
|First steamboat on the western rivers, a stern-wheeler, is built by Fulton at Pittsburg||1811|
|Comet, first passenger steamboat built in Europe, by Henry Bell, runs on the Clyde 7 1/2 miles per hour.
|Steam ferry between New York and Jersey City||1812|
|First steam-vessel on the Thames, brought by Mr. Dodd from Glasgow||1815|
|First steamboat on the Great Lakes, the Ontario, built at Sackett's Harbor, N. Y.||1816|
|Walk-in-the-Water, a steamboat for Lake Erie, launched at Black Rock (now part of Buffalo, N. Y.）||May 28, 1818|
|Savannah, Capt. Stevens Rogers, a steamboat of 350 tons, built in New York City, crosses the Atlantic from Savannah to Liverpool in twenty-six days, during eighteen of which she uses her paddles Off Cape Clear she is mistaken for a ship on fire, and pursued by the British cutter Kite.
She sails from Savannah, Ga.||May 24, 1819|
|First sea-going steam-vessel of iron, the Aaron Manby, is constructed at the Horsley Iron Works, England||1821|
|First steam voyage to India made by the Enterprise, Captain Johnson, from London to Calcutta in 113 days, leaving Falmouth||Aug. 16, 1825|
|Fulton the First accidentally blown up at New York||June 4, 1829|
|Steamboat Royal William crosses the ocean from Quebec||1831|
|John Randolph, first iron vessel in American waters, built by John Laird, of Birkenhead, and shipped in pieces at Liverpool, built in the Savannah River as a tugboat||1834|
|Great Western Steamship Company formed, and keel of the Great Western (1,340 tons) laid at Bristol, England||1836|
|Peninsular Steamship Company founded||1837|
|Captain Ericsson's screw steamer, Francis B. Ogden, makes 10 miles per hour on the Thames||April, 1837|
|First voyage of the steamship Great Western, launched July 19, 1837, from Bristol to New York||April 8-23, 1838|
|Sirius, built at London, crosses the Atlantic in 18 1/2 days, reaching New York under steam a few hours before the Great Western||April 23, 1838|
|Thomas Petit Smith's propeller first tried in England on a large scale in the Archimedes of 237 tons||1839|
|Unicorn, first steam-vessel from Europe to enter Boston Harbor, arrives||June 2, 1840|
|First of the Cunard line, the Britannia, side-wheeler, crosses to Boston in 14 days 8 hours, leaving Liverpool||July 4, 1840|
|Pacific Steam Navigation Company established||1840|
|Screw steamer Princeton built for the United States navy||1843|
|Screw steamer Great Britain, first large ship with iron hull, designed by I. K. Brunel (3,443 tons, 322 feet long, 51 feet broad), launched July 19, 1843, sails from Bristol||Jan. 23, 1845|
|Pacific Mail Steamship Company organized||1847|
|Collins line of American steamships formed and subsidized by the United States government|
(It consisted of the Arctic, Baltic, Atlantic, and Pacific, and existed eight years. The barber-shops on shipboard were a new feature.)
|Inman line founded by William Inman, and the first vessel, an iron screw steamer, City of Glasgow, put in commission||1850|
|Emigrants first carried in steamships of the Inman line||1850|
|Allan line organized||1852|
|First trip around the world by a merchant steamer, the English screw steamship Argo||1854|
|Hamburg-American and Anchor lines established||1856|
|Great Western broken up for firewood at Vauxhall||1857|
|North German Lloyd line established||1857|
|Great Eastern launched, Nov. 3, 1857-Jan. 31,||1858|
|Iron-clad steamships introduced||1860|
|French line established||1862|
|Far East, with two screw-propellers, launched at Millwall||Oct. 31, 1863|
|Guion line established||1864|
|Trial trip of the Nautilus, with a hydraulic propeller (Ruthven's patent, 1849) worked by steam and no paddles or screw||March 24, 1866|
|White Star line begins with the Oceanic, with saloons and state-rooms amidships instead of in the stern||1870|
|Netherlands line established, 1872; Red Star line||1873|
|Steamship Faraday, 5,000 tons, 360 feet long, 52 feet wide, and 36 feet deep, launched at Newcastle||Feb. 17, 1874|
|First export of live cattle by steamer, 373 head, shipped from United States to England in the steamship European||July, 1874|
|Dead-meat trade between United States and England by refrigeration commences on White Star liners Celtic and Britannic||1874|
|Bessemer saloon steamer launched at Hull, Sept. 24, 1874, makes first voyage to Gravesend||March 5, 1875|
|Thingvalla line established||1879|
|Anthracite, a steamer 84 feet long, planned by Loftus Perkins, of England, with very high-pressure engines, crosses the Atlantic, 3,316 miles, in 22 1/2 days, consuming only twenty-five tons of coal||1880|
|Cunard steamer Etruria arrives at Quarantine, port of New York, one hour before the McKinley bill goes into effect, and Captain Haines reaches the custom-house barely a minute before midnight, saving thousands of dollars in increased duties||Midnight, Oct. 4, 1890|
| “Whaleback” Charles W. Wetmore steams from the head of Lake Superior to Liverpool||1891|
|Campania, twin-screw Cunard liner, with a gross tonnage of 12,500 tons, 620 feet long, 65 feet 3 inches broad, and 43 feet deep, launched on the Clyde||Sept. 8, 1892|
|Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, twin-screw,|
|North German Lloyd, 649 feet long, 66 feet wide, 43 feet deep, 13,800 tonnage, 28,000 horse-power, launched at Stettin, Germany||May 4, 1897|
|Oceanic, White Star liner, 685 feet long, 68 feet wide, 44 feet deep, 17,250 tonnage, launched at Belfast||Jan. 14, 1899|
|Deutschland, twin-screw Hamburg-American liner, 687 feet long, 67 feet wide, 44 feet deep, registered tonnage of 16,500 tons, 37,800 horse-power, launched at Stettin, Germany||1900|
|[This vessel made the record voyage from Plymouth, over the long course, at an average speed of 23.51 knots per hour.
On this trip 601 knots, equivalent to 692 statute miles, were covered in one day (July 30, 1901）].|
|Celtic, twin-screw, White Star liner, 700 feet long, 75 feet broad, 49 feet deep, 20,900 tonnage, built at Belfast, first voyage to New York||July 27, 1901|
|Queenstown to New York||Lucania||Cunard||Oct. 21-26, 1894||5||7||23|
|New York to Queenstown||Lucania||Cunard||Sept. 8-14, 1894||5||8||38|
|Cherbourg to New York||Deutschland||Hamburg-American||Aug. 26–Sept. 1, 1900||5||12||29|
|Southampton to New York||Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse||North German Lloyd||March 30–April 5, 1898||5||20|
|New York to Southampton||Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse||North German Lloyd||Nov. 23-29, 1897||5||17||8|
|Havre to New York||La Touraine||French||July 16-23, 1892||6||14||26|
|New York to Havre||La Touraine||French||Oct. 29–Nov. 5, 1892||6||20||6|
|New York to Cherbourg||Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse||North German Lloyd||Jan. 4-10, 1900||5||16|
|New York to Plymouth1||Deutschland||Hamburg-American||Sept. 5-10, 1900||5||7||38|
|Plymouth to New York||Deutschland||Hamburg-American||July 7-12, 1900||5||15||46|
Best records of other steamships.
|Queenstown to New York||Paris||American||Oct. 14-19, 1892||5||14||24|
|Southampton to New York||St. Paul||American||Aug. 8-14, 1896||6||0||31|
|New York to Southampton||St. Louis||American||Sept. 1-8, 1897||6||10||14|
|New York to Southampton||Furst Bismarck||Hamburg-American||Oct. 20-27, 1898||6||10||15|
|New York to Queenstown||Alaska||Guion||Sept. 12-19, 1882||6||18||37|
|Queenstown to New York||Alaska||Guion||Sept. 16-22, 1883||6||21||40|
|New York to Queenstown||Teutonic||White Star||Oct. 21-27, 1891||5||21||3|
|Queenstown to New York||Teutonic||White Star||Aug. 13-19, 1891||5||16||31|
|Glasgow to New York||City of Rome||Anchor||Aug. 18-24, 1886||6||20||35|
|New York to Glasgow||City of Rome||Anchor||Aug. 13-19, 1885||6||18||25|
|New York to Antwerp||Friesland||Red Star||August, 1894||8||22||13|
Approximate Distances: Sandy Hook
(Light-ship). New York, to Queenstown
), 2,800 miles; to Plymouth
(Eddystone), 2,962 miles; to Southampton
(The Needles), 3.100 miles; to Havre, 3,170 miles; to Cherbourg
), 3,184 knots.
The fastest (lay's run was made by the Deutschland
, of the Hamburg-American Line, August, 1900—584 knots, or 23.02 knots per hour.
the record-breakers in thirty-five years.
The following is the succession of steamships which have broken the record since 1866, with their running time.
The route in all cases was that between New York and Queenstown
, east or west:
|1869||City of Brussels||7||22||3||1888||Etruria||6||1 ||55|
|1873||Baltic||7||20||9||1889||City of Paris||5||19 ||18|
|1875||City of Berlin||7||15||48||1891||Majestic||5||18 ||8|
|1877||Britannic||7||10||53||1892||City of Paris||5||15 ||58|
|1880||Arizona||7||7||23||1892||City of Paris||5||14 ||24|
Lost Atlantic steamships.
|Name of Vessel.||Owners.||Nationality.||Persons on Board.||Date of Leaving Port.|
|President||British and American S. N. Company||British||136||March 11, 1841|
|Pacific||Collins Line||American||240||Sept. 23, 1856|
|Tempest||Anchor Line||British||150||Feb. 26, 1857|
|United Kingdom||Anchor Line||British ||80||April 17, 1868|
|City of Boston||Inman Line||British||177||Jan. 28, 1870|
|Scanderia||Anglo Egyptian Line||British|| 38||Oct. 8, 1872|
|Ismailia||Anchor Line||British ||52||Sept. 27, 1873|
|Colombo||Wilson Line||British||44||January, 1877|
|Herman Ludwig||German||50||Sept. 28, 1878|
|Homer||British||43||Dec. 17, 1878|
|Zanzibar||British||48||Jan. 11, 1879|
|Surbiton||British||33||Feb. 18 1879|
|Bcrnicia||British||45||March 19, 1879|
|City of Limerick||British||43||Jan. 8, 1881|
|City of London||British||41||Nov. 13, 1881|
|Straits of Dover||British||27||Jan. 3, 1883|
|Coniston||British||27||Dec. 24, 1884|
|Ferwood||British||25||Jan. 20, 1885|
|Preston||British||29||Jan. 20, 1885|
|Clandon||British||27||Jan. 24, 1885|
|Humber||British||56||Feb. 15, 1885|
|Erin||National Line ||British||72||Dec. 31, 1889|
|Thanemorc||Johnston Line||British||43||Nov. 26, 1890|
|Naronic||White Star Line||British||February, 1893|
steamboats, Hudson River