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United States (Indian Quonecktacut—i. e., Long River, or River of Pines), one of the six New England and of the thirteen original States, lies between lat. 41° and 42° 3′ N. and long. 71° 55′ and 73° 50′ W. Massachusetts lies on the north, Rhode Island on the east, Long Island Sound on the south, and New York on the west. The southwest corner projects along the sound, south of the State of New York, for about 13 miles. Area, 4,990 square miles, in eight counties; population, 1890, 746,258; 1900, 908,420. Capital, Hartford.

Adrian Block, a Dutch navigator, first explores the Connecticut River as far as Hartford......1614

Robert, Earl of Warwick, president of the council of Plymouth, grants to Lord Say and Seal and eleven others, among them John Hampden and John Pym, all that part of New England which lies west from the Narraganset River, 120 miles on the coast, and thence in latitude and breadth aforesaid to the Pacific Ocean......March 19, 1631

[The council of Plymouth the previous year had granted the whole tract to the Earl of Warwick, and the grant had been confirmed to him by a patent from King Charles I.]

Wahquimacut, a sachem from the Connecticut River, visits Plymouth and Boston, asking colonial governors to send settlers to that river......1631

[Governor Winthrop, of Massachusetts, does not favor the movement.]

John Oldham, from Dorchester, Mass., and three others visit the Connecticut......September, 1633 [286]

William Holmes, of Plymouth, prepares the frame of a house with a board covering, places it on a vessel, and sails for the Connecticut River; passes a small Dutch fort, “The House of good hope,” at Hartford, and, landing on the west bank, erects the first English house in Connecticut (now Windsor) October, 1633

Dutch at New Netherlands, with seventy men, make a feeble attempt to drive the settlers away......1634

Rev. Thomas Hooker, of Newtown (now Cambridge), Mass., advocates new settlements on the Connecticut River 1634

About sixty men, women, and children, with horses, cattle, and swine, start through the wilderness from near Boston to the Connecticut River......Oct. 15, 1635

They reach the river about the middle of......November, 1635

Colonists from Massachusetts, led by John Winthrop, son of Governor Winthrop, fortify the mouth of the Connecticut, and call the fort Say-Brook, in honor of Lords Say and Brook......Nov. 9, 1635

A Dutch vessel appears off the mouth, but is not suffered to land......November, 1635

Great suffering at Windsor, on the Connecticut, during the winter of......1635-36

First court in Connecticut held at Newtown (Hartford)......April 26, 1636

Rev. Thomas Hooker, “the light of the Western churches,” and Rev. Mr. Stone, with 100 men, women, and children, and 160 head of cattle, leave Cambridge, Mass., for the Connecticut River through the wilderness......June, 1636

They reach the river early in......July, 1636

John Oldham murdered by the Indians near Block Island......July, 1636

War with the Pequods......July, 1636

[The Pequods, with at least 700 warriors, then occupied eastern Connecticut, and ruled part of Long Island.]

An expedition against the Pequods and Indians on Block Island is sent from Massachusetts under John Endicott......Aug. 25–Sept. 14, 1630

[It exasperated, but did not subdue, the Indians.]

Roger Williams, of Rhode Island, prevents a league between the Pequods and Narragansets......1636

Fort at Saybrook, at the mouth of the Connecticut, beleaguered by the Pequods all the winter of......1636-37

About thirty colonists of Connecticut killed by the Pequods during the winter of......1636-37

Court at Newtown (Hartford) applies to Massachusetts for aid against the Pequods......Feb. 21, 1637

[The name Newtown is changed to Hartford, Watertown to Wethersfield, and Dorchester to Windsor by this court. Hartford was so named in horor of the Rev. Mr. Stone, who was born at Hartford, England.]

Wethersfield attacked by the Pequods, several killed......April, 1637

The court at Hartford, bent on offensive war against the Pequods, call for eightyeight men—forty-two from Hartford, thirty from Windsor, sixteen from Wethersfield......May 1, 1637

These are joined by Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans, with seventy warriors, at Say-Brook fort......May 15, 1637

Capt. John Mason, of Windsor, commanding the expedition, sails from Fort Say-Brook for Narraganset Bay, to surprise the Pequod fort......May 19, 1637

At Narraganset Bay about 200 Narraganset warriors join him. He approaches the Pequod fort on the evening of May 25, and next morning, at early light, he attacks and completely destroys it, together with about 600 Indians, men, women, and children, losing two killed and about twenty wounded......May 26, 1637

Court of Connecticut calls for forty more men for the war against the Pequods......June 26, 1637

Pequods attempt to escape into the wilderness westward. Captain Stoughton, with a Massachusetts company, pursues along Long Island Sound. With Sassacus, their sachem, the Pequods take shelter in a swamp near Fairfield, and after another severe fight surrender, but their sachem and a few followers escape......July 13, 1637

[These fled to the Mohawks, who treacherously murdered them. The prisoners were sold into slavery or incorporated with other tribes. “There remained not a sannup nor a squaw, not a warrior nor a child.” ] the Hector lands at Boston Rev. John [287] Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and Edward Hopkins......July 26, 1637

Mr. Eaton and others explore the lands and harbors of Connecticut on the seacoast, and select Quinipiack (now New Haven) for a settlement in the autumn of......1637

Rev. John Davenport, Mr. Eaton, and others sail from Boston and arrive at Quinipiack about the middle of......April, 1638

Gloomy prospects of the colonists. Great earthquake......June 1, 1638

Colonists purchase land in and about New Haven of the Indians......Nov. 24, 1638

All free planters convene at Hartford and frame a constitution for civil government......Jan. 14, 1639

First constitution of Connecticut adopted at Hartford......April, 1639

General election held at Hartford......April, 1639

[John Haynes chosen governor.]

General election held at Quinipiack (New Haven)......Oct. 25, 1639

[Theophilus Eaton chosen governor.]

Milford and Guildford purchased of the Indians and settled......1639

[Laws founded upon and administered according to the Scriptures.]

Settlement made at Saybrook by George Fenwick......1639

Fourteen capital laws of Connecticut enacted, founded on passages of Scripture......April 2, 1642

Boundary-line between Connecticut and Massachusetts first run by Woodward and Saffrey......1642

Colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven confederate under the name of the United Colonies of New England......May 19, 1643

Connecticut purchases of Col. George Fenwick the old Connecticut patent for £1,600, and assumes jurisdiction over the whole territory......1644

New London settled......1648

Governors and magistrates receive no salaries in Connecticut up to......1648

[Then the governor's salary was fixed at £ 30.]

Governor Stuyvesant, of the New Netherlands, visits Hartford to settle certain boundary questions with the New England United Colonies......Sept. 11, 1650

Norwalk settled......1651

Middletown settled......1651

French agents from Quebec visit the Connecticut colonists, asking aid against the five nations of New York (the Iroquois)......1651

Alarm and distress of the colonists owing to trouble with the Dutch......1653

Commissioners are for war, but Massachusetts refuses assistance......1653

They address Parliament and Cromwell for aid......1653

Colony, ordered by Parliament to treat the Dutch as enemies, seize the Dutch house and lands at Hartford......1654

Death of Governor Haynes......1654

Law against Quakers: to be fined and sent out of jurisdiction......October, 1656

Gov. John Winthrop obtains for Connecticut a charter, with ample privileges, from Charles II......April 20, 1662

Charles II. grants a patent to his brother, the Duke of York, of extensive tracts, including the west side of Connecticut River......March 12, 1664

Col. Richard Nichols, governor of New York, and commissioners from Connecticut, fix the western boundary of Connecticut, beginning on the east side of Mamaroneck Creek and thence northnorthwest to the Massachusetts line. The southern line was determined to be the Sound, Connecticut losing her possessions on Long Island......Nov. 30, 1664

United colony elects John Winthrop governor......1665

Lyme made a town......May, 1667

Haddam made a town......October, 1668

Major Andros, the new governor of New York, claims under the Duke of York all land west of the Connecticut River......1675

Major Andros appears before the fort at Saybrook with an armed force and demands its surrender......July 11, 1675

[It is refused by Captain Bull, and the patent and commission forbidden to be read.]

War with Philip, sachem of the Wampanoags......1675

Connecticut furnishes 315 men in the fight at Narraganset fort......Dec. 19, 1675

Death of Gov. John Winthrop......April 5, 1676

Boundary between Connecticut and New York of 1664 superseded by that of......1683 [288]

Sir Edmund Andros, the royal governor, comes to Hartford and demands the charter in the name of King James II......Oct. 31, 1687

[After a long discussion in the assembly, early in the evening the lights are extinguished, and the charter is taken from the table and secreted by Capt. Willliam Wadsworth, of Hartford, in a hollow oak-tree, known since as the “charter oak,” on the estate of the Wyllyses, across the river.]

Sir Edmund Andros assumes the governments, selects councillors, seizes the records of the colony, and rules arbitrarily......Oct. 31, 1687

Overthrow of Sir Edmund Andros's government at Boston on hearing of the revolution in England and flight of James II......April 18, 1689

Charter recovered and free government restored in Connecticut......May 9, 1689

William and Mary proclaimed at Hartford with great ceremony and joy......June 13, 1689

Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, governor of New York, comes to Hartford while the Assembly is in session and demands command of the militia under commission from the King......Oct. 26, 1693

[The Assembly refusing, he orders the militia under arms, and attempts to read his commission to them and assume command. Captain Wadsworth prevents this by ordering the drums to beat, threatening death to the governor if he persists.]

Charter ratified by William III.......April, 1694

Boundary of 1683 between New York and Connecticut confirmed by William III.......1700

Charter for a college at New Haven (Yale) granted by the General Court......Oct. 9, 1701

First issue of bills of credit by Connecticut, £ 8,000 for an anticipated expedition against Canada......1709

First printer in the colony, Thomas Short, from Boston, at New London......1709

He publishes the Saybrook platform of Church discipline......1710

Settlement of the boundary with Massachusetts......1713

[Massachusetts grants to Connecticut 107,793 acres, the amount that Massachusetts had encroached upon Connecticut. The tract was sold by Connecticut in 1716 for about $2,274; given to Yale College. Boundary run as it now is, 1826, leaving indentation to Massachusetts about 2 miles square, as compensation for towns previously lost.]

First State-house built at Hartford......1720

Gurdon Saltonstall, governor for sixteen years, dies......Sept. 20, 1724

Final boundary established with Rhode Island......1728

Joint survey made between New York and Connecticut......1731

Connecticut furnishes 1,000 men for land and marine service against Louisburg......1745

First silk coat and stockings of New England production were worn by Governor Law, of Connecticut......1747

Phineas Lyman, major-general of the Connecticut forces, second in command at the battle of Lake George......Sept. 6, 1755

[Sir William Johnson being disabled, General Lyman conducted the engagement successfully to Dieskau's defeat.]

Citizens of Connecticut known as the Susquehanna Company purchase from the Six Nations land 70 miles in length on the Susquehanna River, and extending from 10 miles east of that river west 140 miles, for about $10,000, July 11, 1754. It includes the Wyoming Valley, where they make a settlement......1763

[This leads to a long controversy between Connecticut and Pennsylvania.]

Connecticut Courant, published by Thomas Green, at Hartford, first issued......Oct. 26, 1764

Jared Ingersoll sent by Connecticut to England to oppose the Stamp Act......1764

He accepts the position of stamp-master, and is compelled by the citizens to resign......Sept. 19, 1765

Gov. Thomas Fitch consents to take the oath for the support of the Stamp Act......1766 [He is dismissed at the next election.]

Connecticut Journal first published at New Haven......1767

Jonathan Trumbull elected governor......1769

[The only colonial governor who favored independence in 1776. He was elected [289] governor annually until 1784. The name “Brother Jonathan,” humorously bestowed upon him by General Washington, has been applied to the United States.]

Eliphalet Dyer, Roger Sherman, and Silas Deane elected at Norwich to the first Continental Congress......June 6, 1774

Israel Putnam, of Pomfret, Conn., hastens to Boston on hearing of the battle of Lexington; arrives......April 21, 1775

[Riding on one horse 100 miles in eighteen hours.]

Col. Samuel H. Parsons and Benedict Arnold, at Hartford, plan the capture of Ticonderoga......April 27, 1775

Benedict Arnold marches from New Haven with his company and reaches Boston......April 29, 1775

Surrender of Ticonderoga to Col. Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold......May 10, 1775

General Assembly authorize bills of credit to $500,000 to equip eight regiments......May 11, 1775

Ex-Governor Tryon, with 2,000 men, destroys Danbury......April 26, 1777

[Gen. David Wooster, of Connecticut, is mortally wounded.]

General Tryon lands at New Haven with about 3,000 men and plunders it......July 5, 1778

Fairfield, Green's Farm, and Norwalk burned......1778

General Tryon, from Kingsbridge, N. Y., with 1,500 troops, destroys the salt-works at Horseneck, Conn. Here General Putnam is said to have ridden down a declivity in escaping......March 26, 1779

Benedict Arnold plunders and burns New London......Sept. 6, 1781

[Fort Griswold across the river is captured the same day, and out of a garrison of 150 men seventy-three are killed, including their commander, Colonel Ledyard, and thirty wounded, mostly after the surrender. Connecticut furnished during the Revolution 31,959 troops, only Massachusetts furnishing more.]

Samuel Seabury, D. D., seeks in England consecration as bishop of Connecticut; being refused, he is consecrated by three bishops of the Episcopal Church in Scotland......Nov. 14, 1784

Connecticut frees her slaves......1784

Connecticut makes a qualified cession to the United States of all territory south of lat. 41° N. and west of a line 120 miles west of Pennsylvania......Sept. 14, 1786

[The space left to Connecticut in Ohio is known as the Western Reserve, and is claimed as a compensation for the territory relinquished in Pennsylvania.]

Constitution of the United States ratified by Connecticut; vote 128 to 40......Jan. 9, 1788

Wooden clocks first made at Waterbury......1790

Gen. Israel Putnam dies at Brookline, Conn.......May 19, 1790

Connecticut bestows upon citizens, especially those of Danbury, Fairfield, Groton, New London, and Norwalk, who had suffered during the Revolution, half a million acres at the west end of the Western Reserve in Ohio, hence known as “Fire lands” ......1792

Connecticut sells to the Connecticut Land Company, of 320 citizens, 3,200,000 acres, the remainder of the tract between Lake Erie and lat. 41° N..1795

[The price, $1,200,000, was made a State school fund.]

Connecticut through Governor Trumbull, executes surrender to the United States of jurisdiction over the Western Reserve, Ohio......May 30, 1800

Connecticut opposed to war of......1812

New London blockaded by Sir Thomas Hardy with British ships for twenty months......June, 1813

Stonington bombarded by Sir Thomas Hardy's fleet......Aug. 9-12, 1814

Delegates from the several New England legislatures meet in convention at Hartford to consider the grievances caused by the war, and to devise measures for its termination......Dec. 15, 1814

Connecticut adopts a State constitution in place of the royal charter, by a vote of 13,918 to 12,361......Oct. 5, 1818

Washington College (Episcopal) chartered at Hartford......1823

[Name changed to Trinity, 1845.]

Wesleyan University at Middletown (Methodist) chartered......1831

Prudence Crandall opens a school for colored children at Canterbury......1833

[She is arrested and sent to jail. On failure to convict her the school-house is sacked by a mob and the inmates expelled.]

Ship Amistad, Spanish, brought into [290] New London by Lieutenant Geding, of the United States brig Washington......Aug. 29, 1839

John W. Niles appointed postmastergeneral in Van Buren's cabinet......May 25, 1840

Amendment to article VIII. of the State constitution abolishing freehold qualification for electors, etc., ratified......October, 1845

State Teachers' Association organized......April 7, 1846

Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University opened......1847

Act passed for registering births, marriages, and deaths......1848

Isaac Toucey appointed attorney-general......June 21, 1848

Samuel Colt begins the manufacture of revolvers at Hartford......1852

Samuel D. Hubbard appointed postmaster-general......Aug. 31, 1852

Legislature establishes the Supreme Court of Errors and the Superior Court, and abolishes the county courts......May, 1855

Amendment to State constitution ratified, making ability to read the constitution a qualification for electors......October, 1855

Act abolishing school societies and putting the support of schools upon towns, who are to elect a board of school visitors of three, six, or nine members......July 1, 1856

Charter Oak at Hartford blown down......Aug. 21, 1856

State constitution amended by vote of 7,290 to 6,062, so that judges of the Supreme Court of Errors and Superior Court shall sit eight years, but may be removed by impeachment......October, 1856

Isaac Toucey appointed Secretary of the Navy......March 6, 1857

Governor Buckingham issues a proclamation ordering the purchase of equipments for an army of 5,000 men, and urging militia companies to fill their ranks......Jan. 17, 1861

Gideon Welles appointed Secretary of the Navy......March 5, 1861

First infantry, 780 three-months' men, leaves New Haven for Washington, under Col. Daniel Tyler......May 9, 1861

First regiment enlisted for three years, the 4th Connecticut Infantry, leaves Hartford under Col. Levi Woodhouse......June 10, 1861

Brig.-Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, born in Ashford, July 14, 1819; killed in battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo.......Aug. 10, 1861

Gen. Joseph K. F. Mansfield, born in New Haven, Dec. 22, 1803; killed in battle of Antietam......Sept. 17, 1862

Rear-Admiral Andrew Hull Foote, born in New Haven, Sept. 12, 1806; dies at New York City......June 26, 1863

Maj.-Gen. John Sedgwick, born in Cornwall, Sept. 13, 1813; killed in battle of Spottsylvania......May 9, 1864

Fifty thousand six hundred and twenty-three three-years' troops furnished during the war......1861-65

State board of fish commissioners created......1865

State board of education organized, with Daniel C. Gilman as secretary......1865

Lydia Sigourney, poet, dies at Hartford......June 10, 1865

Legislature which convened at Hartford, May 3, adjourns after the longest session on record up to date......July 21, 1865

An exciting election for governor; President Johnson's influence favoring James E. English; Joseph R. Hawley, Republican, elected by only 541 majority......April, 1866

Legislature ratifies the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution......June 30, 1866

Legislature ratifies the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution......March 16, 1869

Election for governor being close, a joint committee of the General Assembly, appointed to examine returns May 3, report total vote 94,860; for Marshall Jewell, Republican, 47,473; for James E. English, Democrat, 47,373; scattering, 14; declare Jewell elected......May 10, 1871

Governor Jewell assumes office......May 16, 1871

Noah Porter elected president of Yale University in place of Theodore D. Woolsey, resigned......1871

Temperance party, represented by about 100 delegates, meets at New Haven and nominates a full State ticket......Dec. 13, 1871

Labor-reform party holds a State convention [291] at Bridgeport and nominates a State ticket......Jan. 3, 1872

Jesse Olney, geographer, born in 1798, dies at Stratford......July 30, 1872

State constitution amended; all sessions of the General Assembly, from May, 1875, to be held at Hartford......Oct. 7, 1873

Ex-Gov. and United States Senator W. A. Buckingham dies at Norwich......Feb. 4, 1875

State constitution amended: Tuesday after first Monday in November made general election day; Wednesday after first Monday in January the day of meeting of General Assembly......Oct. 2, 1875

Orris S. Ferry, United States Senator from Connecticut, dies at Norwalk......Nov. 21, 1875

“Greenback men” meet in convention at New Haven......Feb. 22, 1876

William H. Barnum, Democrat, elected to fill the unexpired term of United States Senator Ferry, deceased......May 17, 1876

Agricultural experiment station established by law......1877

Gideon Welles, ex-Secretary of Navy, dies at Hartford......Feb. 11, 1878

Act passed for State Board of Health of six members......March 13, 1878

Legislature occupies the new capitol for the first time......March 26, 1878

There being no choice for State officers, November, 1878, the legislature elects Charles B. Andrews governor......Jan. 9, 1879

Boundary dispute between New York and Connecticut, begun in 1856, is settled, the southern boundary being fixed through the middle of Long Island Sound; the “oblong tract,” 4.68 square miles in area, lying 20 miles east of the North River, goes to New York......1880

Board of Pardons, consisting of the governor, a judge of the Supreme Court of Errors, and four persons appointed by the General Assembly, who must all concur in a pardon, is created by legislature......Jan. 3–May 3, 1883

Bronze memorial statue of William A. Buckingham, Connecticut's war governor, is unveiled in Hartford......June 18, 1884

State constitution amended; biennial legislative sessions to begin in 1887; ratified by 30,520 to 16,380......Oct. 6, 1884

President Noah Porter, of Yale University, resigns......1886

Republican candidates for State officers elected by the legislature, there being no choice in State election of Nov. 2, 1886......January, 1887

First text-book ever published by the State, a small treatise on the effect of alcohol on the human system, is issued and distributed to the schools......September, 1887

Equestrian statue of Gen. Israel Putnam erected at Brooklyn, Windham county, and unveiled......Jan. 14, 1888

First Monday in September designated a public holiday (Labor Day), a State normal school established at Willimantic, and an “anti-screen” saloon law and modified Australian ballot law passed by legislature in session......Jan. 9–June 22, 1889

Alfred H. Terry, major-general, United States army, born 1827, dies at New Haven......Dec. 16, 1890

Deadlock between the two houses of the legislature on the governorship......Jan. 7, 1891

Democratic candidates for State offices sworn in by the Senate, refused possession by Republican incumbents......Jan. 13, 1891

Governor Bulkeley by proclamation warns the citizens against recognizing the Democratic State officers......Jan. 19, 1891

P. T. Barnum, born 1810, dies at Bridgeport......April 7, 1891

Superior Court decides in favor of Governor Bulkeley......June 24, 1891

Both claimants to governorship agree to take the matter into the State Supreme Court......Oct. 1, 1891

Ex-Gov. Hobart B. Bigelow dies at New Haven......Oct. 12, 1891

In the suit of Morris, Democrat, v. Bulkeley, Republican, the Supreme Court holds Bulkeley to be governor......Jan. 5, 1892

Daniel Grant, one of the famous triplets of Torrington, dies, aged seventy-one years, his two brothers surviving......Oct. 5, 1892

Celebration of the 250th anniversary of the founding of Stamford......Oct. 16, 1892

Governor Morris recommends constitutional revision......March, 1893

Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's cabin, dies at Hartford......July 1, 1896

President Dwight, of Yale, resigns his office......Nov. 17, 1898 [292]

Arthur T. Hadley elected president of Yale University......May 25, 1899

Sons of the Revolution of New York present the Nathan Hale school-house and grounds to East Haddam......June 6, 1900

Camp Field and a soldiers' monument at Hartford dedicated......Oct. 4, 1900

The following anniversaries were observed in 1900: East Haddam, bicentennial; Middletown, 250th year; Bridgeport, centennial; Trinity Parish, Fairfield, 175th year.

Yale bicentennial at New Haven......Oct. 20-23, 1901


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