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Indian Territory,

A division of the United States definitely set apart for the Indians, June 30, 1834, lat. 33° 35′ to 37° N., long. 94° 20′ to 103° W. Oklahoma and Kansas are on the north, Missouri and Arkansas to the east, and Texas on the south and west. Area, 31,400 square miles. Population, 1890, about 75,000; 1900, 392,060. Its former area has been reduced by the loss of the “Cherokee strip,” added to Oklahoma.

Cherokees get lands west of the Mississippi by treaty......May 6, 1828

Grant (5,000,000 acres in the north and northwest) further confirmed by treaty......Feb. 4, 1833

Their final removal effected by treaty......Dec. 29, 1835

Choctaws receive lands (6,668,000 acres in the southwest) by treaty......Sept. 27, 1830

Their removal was gradual, mostly in......1838

Creeks are granted land in the Territory by treaty......March 24, 1832

Grant defined, 3,215,495 acres in the eastern part by a further treaty......Feb. 14, 1833

Their removal was gradual, mostly in......1838

Seminoles are allotted lands here by treaty......March 28, 1833

It was not until after the Seminole War that they were removed to the Territory, the last leaving Florida......1858

[They have some 200,000 acres, central.]

Chickasaws receive land in the Territory by treaty......May 24, 1834

[Removal effected gradually, mostly in 1838. They occupy about 4,377,000 acres in the south.]

Besides these five civilized tribes, Congress has from time to time located other tribes and fragments of tribes in this Territory. Large sections of the Territory being occupied, the Creek, Seminole, and other tribes cede lands to the United States, which are incorporated into Oklahoma.

The Cherokee strip opened for public settlement......Sept. 16, 1893

Choctaws and Chickasaws agree to distribute the common land to the individual members of the tribes......April 23, 1897

Creek or Muscogee Indians agree to give each citizen member of the tribe 160 acres of the common land......March 1, 1901

Seminole Indians agree to divide their lands into three classes, valued at $5, $2.50 and $1.25 per acre respectively, and to allot an equal value in lands to each member of the tribe......April 23, 1897


In 1900 there were thirty-three national banks in operation, having $1,400,630 in capital, $482,970 in outstanding circulation, and $437,500 in United States bonds. There were also thirty-one State banks, with $473,833 capital, and $44,051 surplus; and three private banks, with $80,000 capital.

Churches and education.

The strongest denominations in the Territory are the Methodist Episcopal, South; regular Baptist, South; Disciples of Christ; Presbyterian, North; Roman Catholic; Cumberland Presbyterian; Church of God; and African Methodist. In 1899 there were 387 Evangelical Sunday-schools, with 2,942 officers and teachers, and 16,393 scholars. There are no general school statistics, but the Five Nations, the United States government, and religious societies support over 400 schools. There were in 1899 four public high and ten private secondary schools, the Indian University at Bacone, and Henry Kendall College at Muscogee.


The total length of railroads within the Territory, Jan. 1, 1901, was 1,501 miles, of which 158 miles were constructed during the previous year.

Post-offices and periodicals.—In 1901 there were 527 post-offices of all grades, [329] and ninety-four periodicals, of which nine were daily, eighty-one weekly, three monthly, and one bimonthly.

Territorial government.

Each of the five great nations is allowed self-government under officers chosen by popular election. Each nation maintains educational institutions in addition to those supported by the United States government and by religious organizations. The United States treasury holds trust funds for the Territory exceeding $8,000,000, the interest of which is paid regularly to the national treasuries.


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