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One of the north central States of the United States, consists of two peninsulas; the upper peninsula lies wholly south of Lake Superior and north of Wisconsin, lakes Michigan and Huron, and is 318 miles long, east and west. The lower peninsula extends north between Lake Michigan on the west and Lake Huron and the Detroit River on the east to the Strait of Mackinaw, a distance of 280 miles. Canada lies to the east, Lake Erie touches the southeastern corner, while Ohio and Indiana form the southern boundary. In latitude the whole State is limited by 41° 42′ to 48° 22′ N., and in longitude by 82° 86′ to 90° 30′ W. Area, 58,915 square miles in eighty-three counties. Population in 1890, 2,093,889; 1900, 2,420,982. Capital, Lansing.

Claude Dablon and Jacques Marquette establish a permanent mission at Sault Ste. Marie......1668

Two Sulpician priests, with three canoes and seven men, pass through the Detroit River and Lake St. Clair......1670

French under M. de St. Lusson permitted to occupy Sault Ste. Marie by the Indians, erect a cross at that place bearing the arms of France......May, 1671

Marquette commences Fort Michilimackinac, starts a Huron settlement, and builds a chapel there......1671

Marquette is buried near present site of Ludington......May 18, 1675

Robert la Salle, accompanied by Father Louis Hennepin and Chevalier de Tonti, sails up lakes Erie and Huron in the Griffon, reaching Michilimackinac......Aug. 28, 1679

Antoine de la Motte Cadillac, lord of Bouaget and Montdesert, under a commission from Louis XIV., leaving Montreal in June with 100 men and a Jesuit missionary, commences the settlement of Detroit......July 24, 1701

First grant of land (thirty-two acres) made at Detroit by Cadillac to Francois Fafard Delorme......1707

Detroit attacked by the Fox Indians; after a three-weeks' siege the French garrison of twenty soldiers, under M. du Buisson, drive the Indians back with severe loss......May, 1712

Pontiac, with Ottawa Indians, assists in the defence of Detroit against the combined Northern tribes under Mackinac......1746

Further emigration from France to Detroit......1749

Maj. Robert Rogers is ordered by General Amherst, at Montreal, to take possession of the posts in Michigan and administer the oath of allegiance to the French subjects there......Sept. 12, 1760

Pontiac makes peace with Major Rogers, and attends the English to Detroit......Nov. 7, 1760

Detroit capitulates, English flag raised on the fort......Nov. 29, 1760

British seize the forts at Mackinaw and Green Bay......Sept. 8, 1761

Indian tribes in the Northwest, incited by Pontiac against the English, capture Fort St. Joseph......May 25, 1763

Pontiac plans an attack on the fort at Detroit. He asks for a council in the fort, so that the Indians allowed in the fort, at a given signal, might begin a general massacre; his plan is disclosed by an Indian woman to the commandant, Major Gladwin, who permits the council, but disposes the garrison so as to intimidate Pontiac......May 9, 1763

Twenty batteaux, with ninety-seven men under Lieutenant Cuyler, sailing to reinforce the garrison at Detroit, are attacked [410] by the Indians, taken, compelled to navigate the boats up the Detroit to Hog Island, and there massacred......May 30, 1763

By the strategy of a game of “baggatiway,” or lacrosse, played with bat and ball, Indians obtain entrance to the fort at Michilimackinac and massacre the garrison......June 4, 1763

British garrison at Detroit, reinforced by a fleet of gunboats and a detachment of 300 regular troops under Captain Dalzell, send a force of about 274 men to make a night attack on Pontiac, who was encamped near Detroit. The Indians, hearing of the intended attack, form an ambush at Bloody Bridge, and compel the British to retreat after losing twenty killed, among them Dalzell, and forty-two wounded......July 31, 1763

Pontiac remains before Detroit until forced to retire by the advance of Colonel Bradstreet......May, 1764

Charter granted in England to a company for working the copper-mines of Lake Superior. The miners blast 30 feet into the rock, and then abandon the mine......1773

Parliament includes Michigan with Canada......Jan. 22, 1774

Expedition from Detroit under Governor Hamilton against Gen. Roger Clark at Vincennes results in Hamilton's being captured and sent to Virginia; his troops allowed to return to Detroit......March, 1779

Formation of the Northwestern Company for fur trade......1783

Foundation of Frenchtown laid by a few Canadians who settle on the river Raisin......1784

Indians cede to the United States by treaty at Fort McIntosh a belt of land beginning at the river Raisin and extending to Lake St. Clair, 6 miles wide, also a tract of land 12 miles square at Michilimackinac......1785

Congress includes Michigan in the Northwestern Territory, formed by act......July 13, 1787

First American settlement established on the river Raisin at Frenchtown, which becomes a depot for trade for the Northwestern Fur Company......1793

Jay's treaty with Great Britain fixing the eastern boundary of the United States, and calling for the surrender of Detroit and other Western posts held by the British before June 1, 1796, concluded......Nov. 19, 1794

Robert Randall, of Pennsylvania, and Charles Whitney, of Vermont, enter into an agreement with seven merchants of Detroit to endeavor to obtain from the United States government, by bribing members of Congress, a pre-emption right to nearly 20,000,000 acres of land in Michigan, but are exposed and receive a public reprimand......1795

Forts Mackinac (Mackinaw) and Detroit evacuated by the British; Detroit garrisoned by a detachment of General Wayne's army, and Captain Porter first raises the United States flag upon the soil of Michigan......June 11, 1796

Thomas Powers, agent for the Spanish Governor Carondelet, arrives at Detroit to endeavor to interest General Wilkinson in the Spanish intrigues in the West......Aug. 24, 1797

Northwestern Territory assumes the second grade of territorial government; Michigan forms the single county of Wayne, and sends one representative to the General Assembly at Chillicothe. His election was the first held in Michigan under United States rule......1798

Act of Congress approved establishing Indiana Territory, in which Michigan is partially included......May 7, 1800

Article VI: of the constitution of Ohio, confirmed by the United States government, specifies that the northern boundary should be “a direct line from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the most northerly cape of Miami Bay” ......1862

First United States land office opened in Detroit under act of Congress......March 26, 1804

Indiana Territory divided; all north of a line east from the southerly extremity of Lake Michigan to Lake Erie, and north through the lake to the northern boundary of the United States to be the Territory of Michigan by act......Jan. 11, 1805

William Hull appointed first governor of the Territory......March 1, 1805

Town of Detroit destroyed by fire......June 11, 1805

First code of laws for the Territory adopted; called the “Woodward code” ......May, 1806

Congress authorizes the governor and [411] judges of Michigan to lay out a town, including old Detroit and 10,000 acres adjoining; grants to be made of lots to sufferers by the fire......1806

Act of Congress passed granting a confirmation of claims of those who had been possessors of land in Michigan since 1796......1807

Michigan essay or impartial observer, the first paper printed in Detroit, issued......Aug. 31, 1809

Memorial presented to Congress setting forth the defenseless condition of Michigan, and praying for aid against the Indians......Dec. 27, 1811

Governor Hull issues a proclamation from Sandwich, on the Detroit River, inviting people to come in under the American flag, and promising protection; but extermination to those who joined the British and savages against the United States......July 12, 1812

Lieutenant Hanks, commandant at Fort Mackinac, surrenders to the British......July 17, 1812

Battles of Brownstone, Aug. 4, and Maguaga......Aug. 9, 1812

General Hull surrenders Detroit to British under General Brock......Aug. 16, 1812

[The forces for its defence were estimated at about 2,000 men. These, with 2,500 stands of arms, twenty-five iron and eight brass pieces of ordnance, forty barrels of gunpowder, and a large quantity of other military stores, were delivered up to the British without even an attempt to defend them.]

Sudden attack upon the United States troops, under General Winchester, at the river Raisin by the British, and massacre of the panic-stricken United States troops by the Indians......Jan. 22, 1813

Naval victory over British fleet of six vessels, under Commodore Barclay, by United States squadron of nine vessels, under Com. Oliver Hazard Perry, off Sister Islands, Lake Erie, near Detroit......Sept. 10, 1813

General Harrison takes possession of Detroit......Sept. 29, 1813

Col. Lewis Cass appointed governor of the Territory......Oct. 29, 1813

Unsuccessful attempt of United States troops, under Colonel Croghan and Commodore Sinclair, to reduce Fort Mackinac......Aug. 4, 1814

Special commissioner arrives with the treaty of peace lately concluded at Ghent......Feb. 17, 1815

Detroit incorporated as a village......1815

President James Monroe visits Detroit......Aug. 13, 1817

By act of Congress Michigan Territory is extended westward to the Mississippi, thus including the present State of Wisconsin......1818

Remains of soldiers massacred at the Raisin River removed to Detroit, and buried with honors of war......Aug. 8, 1818

Steamboat Walk-in-the-water arrives at Detroit, from Buffalo, N. Y., on her first trip......Aug. 27, 1818

Congress provides for the election of a delegate to Congress by citizens of Michigan......Feb. 16, 1819

William Woodbridge elected territorial delegate......Sept. 2, 1819

Treaty with Indians at Saginaw; they cede lands, 60 miles wide, west of Detroit, north to Thunder Bay......1819

Expedition under Governor Cass starts out in bark canoes to explore the northwestern lake coast of Michigan......May 24, 1820

Treaty with the Indians perfected through Governor Cass; all country within the boundaries of Michigan south of Grand River not before ceded is granted to the United States......1821

Congress establishes a legislative council of nine members, appointed by the President out of eighteen elected by the people......March 3, 1823

Detroit incorporated as a city......1824

First legislative council at the council house in Detroit......June 7, 1824

Congress grants the governor and council power to divide the Territory into townships and incorporate the same, and increases the legislative council to thirteen......1825

Right of electing members of the legislative council granted to the electors of the Territory......Jan. 29, 1827

Pontiac and Detroit Railroad chartered......July 31, 1830

Governor Cass resigns; appointed United States Secretary of War......Aug. 1, 1831

George B. Porter appointed governor......Sept. 17, 1831

Troops raised in Michigan at the call [412] of the United States government to engage in the Black Hawk War......May 22, 1832

Congress adds to Michigan the territory between the Mississippi River and the Missouri and White Earth rivers, thus including the whole of the present Minnesota, Iowa, and parts of North and South Dakota......June 28, 1834

Governor Porter dies; Stevens T. Mason acting governor......July 6, 1834

Question of southern boundary being agitated, Ohio commissioners, running a line about 12 miles southwest of Adrian, are captured by Michigan troops after several shots......April 26, 1835

Michigan having attained a population of over 60,000, a constitutional convention convenes at Detroit....... May 11, 1835

New constitution ratified by the people......Nov. 2, 1835

Enabling act for Michigan approved......June 15, 1836

Wisconsin Territory formed, comprising all of Michigan Territory west of Lake Michigan......1836

Convention at Ann Arbor rejects the enabling act, as giving Ohio 470 square miles belonging to Michigan since 1787......Sept. 26, 1836

New convention of delegates at Ann Arbor accepts the enabling act......Dec. 14, 1836

After protracted discussion Congress admits Michigan, adding to the State in the upper peninsula 2,500 square miles; act approved......Jan. 26, 1837

Legislature passes an act to provide for the organization and support of primary schools......March 20, 1837

Board of seven commissioners of internal improvement appointed by act of legislature......March, 1837

Meeting of citizens of Detroit friendly to the Canadian patriot cause is held, Jan. 1, 1838. Jan. 5 the schooner Ann is seized, loaded with 450 stands of arms stolen from the Detroit jail, and sails away with 132 men and provisions for the patriots. Meeting of the public to preserve neutrality is held......Jan. 8, 1838

William Woodbridge elected governor......November, 1839

Governor Woodbridge, elected United States Senator, is succeeded by James W. Gordon as acting governor......May 31, 1841

Gen. Lewis Cass nominated for President of the United States by the National Democratic Convention at Baltimore......May 22, 1842

University of Michigan, planned by the governor and people in 1817, established by law, March 18, 1837, and located at Ann Arbor, is opened for reception of students......Sept. 20, 1842

State land office established at Marshall by law, to take charge of and dispose of 500,000 acres granted by Congress......April, 1843

James G. Birney, of Michigan, nominated as Liberty candidate for President of the United States......1844

Copper-mining in the upper peninsula of Michigan begun......1845

Seat of government permanently located at Lansing by act approved......March 16, 1847

Michigan and Wisconsin troops enlisted for the Mexican War leave Detroit by boat for Vera Cruz......April 24, 1847

Capital punishment, except for treason, abolished in the State......1847

Epaphroditus Ransom elected governor......November, 1847

Constitution framed by a convention which met at Lansing June 3; adopted by vote of the people......Nov. 5, 1850

Governor McClelland made United States Secretary of the Interior, Lieut.-Gov. Andrew Parsons acting governor......March 6, 1853

Maine liquor law passed......1853

State asylum for deaf, dumb, and blind, established by act of legislature in 1848, opens in rented rooms at Flint......February, 1854

Ship-canal around St. Mary's Falls opened......1855

Lands granted by Congress to aid in building a railroad from Ontonagon to the Wisconsin State line......1856

State reform school at Lansing opened......Sept. 2, 1856

State agricultural college at Lansing, established by act of legislature, Feb. 12, 1853, opened for students......May, 1857

State confers the grant of Congress made in 1856 on the Ontonagon and State Line Railroad Company......1857

State asylum for the insane at Kalamazoo opened for reception of patients......1859

First Michigan Regiment, ready and [413] equipped four days after the President's call, leaves Detroit under orders of the War Department......May 13, 1861

State receives from the federal government a grant of 5,891,598 acres of swamp land in Michigan......1868

All departments of Michigan University open to women......1870

Constitution amended; all distinction of civil and political rights based upon color abolished; ratified by the people......Nov. 8, 1870

Two State relief committees, with headquarters at Detroit and Grand Rapids, for the relief of sufferers by forest fires in northern Michigan, disburse $462,106.30 in cash, and about $250,000 in clothing and supplies from almost every State in the Union, Canada, and abroad......October, 1871

Soldiers' monument at Detroit, erected by voluntary contributions from citizens of the State, the corner-stone of which was laid July 4, 1867, is unveiled......April 9, 1872

Board of fish commissioners appointed to organize a State fish-breeding establishment......1872

Corner-stone of the new capitol at Lansing laid......Oct. 2, 1872

State board of health appointed......1873

Commission under legislative authority selects Ionia as the location for a State house of correction......1873

Constitutional commission of eighteen members convenes at Lansing and draws up a constitution......Aug. 27, 1873

State public school for dependent children at Coldwater, organized 1871, is opened for reception of children......May 21, 1874

Revised State constitution ratified by people; a separate vote on woman suffrage stands 40,077 for and 135,957 against......Nov. 3, 1874

Prohibitory liquor law repealed, and an annual tax imposed on dealers in and manufacturers of liquors......1875

Constitution amended, striking out article IV., section 47, which prohibits any act authorizing the license for selling intoxicating liquors......1876

State insane asylum at Pontiac opened......July. 1878

New capitol at Lansing dedicated......Jan. 1, 1879

State school for the blind opened in a leased building at Lansing......Sept. 29, 1880

Legislature, after heated discussion and opposition, confirms grant of 1857 to the Ontonagon and State Line Railroad Company, although the road had not been constructed, and limitation of time had long expired......1881

Michigan reform school for girls at Adrian, opened......August, 1881

Forest fires break out in Huron and Sanilac counties, and burn over some 1,800 square miles of territory, rendering 2,900 families homeless, and destroying 138 lives......September, 1881

Site purchased for State insane asylum near Traverse City......1882

Josiah W. Begole, union or fusion candidate of the Democratic and Greenback parties, elected governor......November, 1882

National Prison Association meets at Detroit......Oct. 17, 1885

State soldiers' home near Grand Rapids dedicated......Dec. 30, 1886

Local option law passed by legislature......1887

Acts passed to incorporate the Women's Christian Temperance Unions throughout the State......1887

Ten counties hold local-option elections, and in each case they resulted in prohibition......December, 1887

Secret ballot law, on the Australian ballot system, passed......1889

Edwin B. Wimans, Democrat, elected governor by 183,725 votes; the Prohibition candidate received 28,651 votes......1890

Ex-Senator Thomas W. Palmer, of Detroit, appointed chairman of the national commission of the World's Columbian Exposition......June 27, 1890

Henry B. Brown, commissioned associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, Dec. 30, 1890, is sworn in......Jan. 5, 1891

Prof. Alexander Winchell, geologist, born 1824, dies at Ann Arbor......Feb. 19, 1891

Legislature places all penal and reformatory institutions under a single board, extends the Australian ballot system, and requires Presidential electors to be elected by congressional districts, instead of by general State ticket......1891 [414]

Twenty-fifth annual reunion of the Grand Army of the Republic opens at Detroit......Aug. 4, 1891

Railroad accident at Battle Creek; twenty-six persons killed and many injured......Oct. 20, 1893

Ex-United States Senator Thomas W. Ferry dies at Grand Haven......Oct. 14, 1896

State tax commissioner established......1899

The National Educational Association meets at Detroit......July 9, 1901


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