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One of the northern frontier States of the Union, containing Lake Itasca, the source of the Mississippi River, is bounded north by Manitoba and Ontario, of the Dominion of Canada; east by Lake Superior and Wisconsin, south by Iowa, and west by North Dakota and South Dakota. It is limited in latitude from 43° 30′ to 49° N., and in longitude from 89° 29′ to 97° 15′ W. Area, 84,287 square miles, in eighty counties. Population, 1890, 1,301,826; 1900, 1,751,394. Capital, St. Paul.

Daniel Greysolon du Luth, a native of Lyons, builds a trading-post at the entrance of Pigeon River, on north shore of Lake Superior (whence the name Duluth)......1678

Father Louis Hennepin ascends the Mississippi from the mouth of the Illinois, passes through Lake Pepin, and reaches the falls, which he names St. Anthony......October, 1680

Sieur du Luth, with four Frenchmen and an Indian, in two canoes, from his trading-post reaches a lake whose outlet enters the Mississippi, and on the river he meets Father Hennepin......1680

Nicholas Perrot erects a fort on Lake Pepin, and takes possession of the Minnesota country in the name of the King of France......May 8, 1689

Le Seur builds a trading-post on an island in the Mississippi, just above Lake Pepin......1695

Sieur le Seur, on a search for mines in Minnesota, builds Fort l'huillier on the St. Pierre, now the Minnesota......October, 1700

Jonathan Carver, the first British explorer of Minnesota, arrives at Mackinaw from Massachusetts, August, 1766; Green Bay, Wis., Sept. 18; at Prairie du Chien, Oct. 10; Falls of St. Anthony, Nov. 17; and ascends the Minnesota River to the stream which now bears his name......1766

Northwestern Fur Company builds a stockade at Sandy Lake......1794

Heirs of Carver's American wife dispose of their interest in an alleged grant of land in Minnesota to Carver (made by the Naudowessies Indians, May 1, 1767) to Edward Houghton, of Vermont, in consideration of £50,000......1794

Indiana Territory created, including part of present State of Minnesota......May, 1800

Territory of Upper Louisiana formed, including a large portion of Minnesota......March 20, 1804

Minnesota east of the Mississippi a part of Michigan Territory......1805

Lieut. Z. M. Pike, ordered by General Wilkinson to visit Minnesota and expel the British traders, arrives at the site of Fort Snelling, and in council with the Dakota Indians obtains a grant of land for the use of the United States 9 miles square on both sides of the river......Sept. 23, 1805

Rev. Samuel Peters alleges, in a petition to Congress, that he has purchased from the Carver American heirs their right to the grant made in 1767......1806

Minnesota east of the Mississippi included in Illinois Territory......1809

Part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi becomes a part of Michigan Territory......1819

Barracks erected at Mendota and occupied by a garrison which came from Green Bay, Wis., by the Wisconsin River......1819

Corner-stone of Fort Snelling laid; first called Fort St. Anthony......Sept. 20, 1820

Three Mackinaw boats laden with seed wheat, oats, and pease, leave Prairie du Chien, April 15, 1820, for the Scotch settlement at Pembina, where the crops were destroyed by grasshoppers the previous year. Proceeding entirely by water, except a portage from Big Stone Lake to Lake Traverse, 1 1/2 miles, they arrive at Pembina......June 3, 1820 [415]

Governor Cass, of Michigan, with an exploring party from Detroit under sanction of the United States government, reaching the Mississippi by Sandy Lake, ascends to Cass Lake......July 21, 1820

General Leavenworth reports to the commissioners of the land office that the Indians do not recognize grant to Carver in 1767......1821

First mill in Minnesota, erected under the supervision of the officers of Fort Snelling on the site of Minneapolis......1822

Committee on public lands report to the Senate on Rev. Samuel Peters's claim to the Carver grant of 1767; the original deed not being produced, and for other reasons, it is resolved that the petition be not granted......Jan. 23, 1823

First steamboat to navigate the Mississippi from St. Louis to the Minnesota River, the Virginia, reaches Fort Snelling......May, 1823

An expedition fitted out by government, in charge of Maj. S. H. Long, discovers that Pembina, the fort of the Hudson Bay Company on Red River, is within the United States. Long erects an oak post on the line, raises the United States flag, and proclaims the territory a part of the United States......Aug. 5, 1823

A colony of Swiss from the Red River settlement establish themselves near Fort Snelling......1827

Henry R. Schoolcraft, with an expedition for exploring the Mississippi, Crow Wing, and St. Croix rivers, reaches the Mississippi by Lake Superior and Sandy Lake, and reaches the source of the west fork in Itasca Lake......July 13, 1832

Rev. W. T. Boutwell establishes at Leech Lake the first mission among the Indians in Minnesota west of the Mississippi......October, 1833

Jean N. Nicollet leaves Fort Snelling to explore the sources of the rivulets that feed Itasca Lake......July 26, 1836

Governor Dodge, of Wisconsin Territory, meets the Ojibways at Fort Snelling, and they cede to the United States the pine forests of the valley of the St. Croix and its tributaries......July 29, 1837

Deputation of Dakotas conclude a treaty with the United States at Washington, ceding all lands east of the Mississippi......September, 1837

Minnesota, west of the Mississippi River, is included in Iowa, set off in 1838 from Wisconsin, which was set off from Michigan in 1836......1838

By order of Secretary of War, troops from Fort Snelling expel Swiss squatters on the military reservation east of the Mississippi, between St. Paul and the fort......May 6, 1840

A log-chapel, erected by Father Lucian Galtier and dedicated to St. Paul (whence the name of the city)......Nov. 1, 1841

Settlement begun at Stillwater by four proprietors, who erect a saw-mill......Oct. 10, 1843

Capt. J. Allen, with a detachment of dragoons, ascends the Des Moines River and crosses to the St. Peter (Minnesota) and Big Sioux rivers......1844

First meeting in Minnesota on the subject of claiming territorial privileges for that part of Wisconsin Territory not included in State constitution adopted March 13, 1848, is held in Jackson's store, St. Paul......July 12, 1848

Convention at Stillwater to consider territorial government......Aug. 26, 1848

H. H. Sibley, of St. Peter, elected delegate to Congress from Wisconsin Territory not included in the State......Oct. 30, 1848

Extract from the diary of Harriet E. Bishop, first school-teacher in St. Paul: “J. R. Clewett came into Mr. Irwine's house and said, ‘My! how this town is growing! I counted the smoke of eighteen chimneys this morning’ ” ......winter of 1848

Congress establishes the territorial government of Minnesota; bounded on south by Iowa and Missouri River, west by the Missouri and White Earth rivers, north by the British possessions, and east by Wisconsin, with St. Paul as capital......March 3, 1849

Alexander Ramsey, of Harrisburg, Pa., appointed governor of Minnesota Territory, organizes the government at St. Paul......June 1, 1849

First legislature, consisting of nine councillors and eighteen representatives, meets at the Central House in St. Paul......Sept. 3, 1849

Act passed to send the Washington Monument Association a slab of red pipestone from the Minnesota quarry......1849

St. Paul incorporated as a town......November, 1849 [416]

Minnesota Historical Society organized by law......Nov. 15, 1849

Congress appropriates $20,000 for a territorial prison......1851

Treaty at Traverse des Sioux, on Minnesota River, the Sioux cede lands in Iowa and in Minnesota east of the Red River of the North, Lake Traverse, and the Sioux River......July 23, 1851

Dog-train with explorers, under Dr. Rae, after search for Sir John Franklin, arrives at St. Paul from the north......Feb. 14, 1852

Prohibitory liquor law passed; ratified by the people April 5, but declared void by Supreme Court......1852

College of St. Paul, chartered as the Baldwin School, dedicated......Dec. 29, 1853

City of St. Paul incorporated......March 4, 1854

Convention held at St. Anthony, and the Republican party of Minnesota formed......March 29, 1854

Duluth founded......1856

Bill to remove the government to St. Peter passes the House, but the council is dissolved without acting on the bill......1857

Inkpadootah, a Dakota Indian, at the head of a band, massacres a settlement of whites at Springfield, capturing a number of women and children......March, 1857

Congress grants to Minnesota six alternate sections of land per mile to aid in the construction of railroads......March, 1857

Constitutional convention assembles at St. Paul, July 14, 1857. Republicans and Democrats organize separately, prepare drafts, but unite and submit one constitution to the people (ratified 36,240 to 700), St. Paul the capital......Aug. 29, 1857

State issues $2,275,000 in bonds, out of $5,000,000 authorized by an amendment to the constitution, article IX., section 10, called Minnesota State railroad bonds, the credit of the State being pledged for interest and principal......April 15, 1858

Minnesota admitted into the Union......May 11, 1858

State normal school at Winona opened......1860

Railroads default in interest and the State forecloses......1860

Amendment to constitution, article IX., section 10, amended 1858, forbidding more bonds to aid railroads, and to section 2, providing that no tax or provision for interest or principal of bonds shall be in force until ratified by the people......November, 1860

First regiment of Minnesota volunteers leaves Fort Snelling for Washington......June 22, 1861

Sioux Indians, under Little Crow, massacre the whites at Yellow Medicine agency, Aug. 18, 1862; at New Ulm, in Brown county, Aug. 21; attack New Ulm and are repulsed, Aug. 23; besiege Fort Ridgely for nine days; attack Cedar City, McLeod county, Sept. 3; State troops under Col. H. H. Sibley march against them, Aug. 26; United States troops under Major-General Pope are despatched to the seat of war, and after a sharp battle at Wood Lake the Indians are defeated, and 500 are taken prisoners, 300 of whom are sentenced to be hung......Sept. 22, 1862

Ninety-one captive white women and children surrendered by the Indians to Colonel Sibley near the Chippewa River......Sept. 26, 1862

Thirty-eight of the 300 Indians sentenced are executed......Dec. 26, 1862

Little Crow killed by a settler in the neighborhood of Hutchinson, McLeod county......July 3, 1863

Minnesota school for the deaf opened at Faribault......1863

Professor Eames, State geologist, reports rich silver-bearing quartz near Vermilion Lake, in the northeast part of the State......1865

State insane hospital at St. Peter opened......Dec. 6, 1866

State reform school at St. Paul opened......1866

City of Minneapolis incorporated......1867

Amendment to article VII., section 1 of the constitution, striking out the word “white,” ratified by the people......November, 1868

State university created by law, 1851; Congress grants it 46,000 acres of land, 1857, and same year the first building erected at St. Anthony; chartered 1868, opened......1869

Bill to remove seat of government from St. Paul to a place in Kandiyohi county passes both Houses, but is vetoed......1869

Convention at St. Paul organizes a State temperance society......Oct. 6, 1869

Construction of the Northern Pacific [417] Railroad commenced at the Dalles of the St. Louis......Feb. 15, 1870

Ship-canal across Minnesota point at Duluth begun......1870

Legislature ratifies the Fifteenth Amendment, establishes a board of immigration, and amends the liquor law so as to allow local option......1870

Minneapolis and St. Anthony incorporated as one city......1872

Act passes legislature establishing a State board of health......1872

Act passed to create a fund for an inebriate asylum at Rochester, by tax upon saloon-keepers......1873

State Treasurer William Seeger impeached by the House of Representatives, Feb. 26; pleads guilty, May 22, “without any corrupt or wilful intent,” and is removed from office......1873

Amendment to the constitution ratified by popular vote, permitting women to vote for school-officers or on school questions, and to be eligible to any office pertaining to schools......Nov. 2, 1875

Amendment adopted providing for biennial instead of annual sessions of the legislature......November, 1877

Act passed, creating a public examiner to superintend the books and financial accounts of public educational, charitable, penal, and reformatory institutions of the State......1878

Minnesota Amber-cane Growers' Association organized at Minneapolis......1878

State insane asylum at Rochester, provided for by act of legislature in 1878, opened......Jan. 1, 1879

Minnesota school for the feeble-minded opened at Faribault......1879

Act of legislature creating farmers' board of trade, to assume supervision over the agricultural interests of the State; one member appointed by the judge of each judicial district......1879

Alexander Ramsey appointed United States Secretary of War......Dec. 10, 1879

Second centenary of the discovery of the Falls of St. Anthony celebrated at Minneapolis......July 4, 1880

North wing of asylum for the insane at St. Peter destroyed by fire; thirty lives lost......Nov. 15, 1880

State capitol destroyed by fire......March 1, 1881

Supreme Court decides that the amendment to article IX. of the State constitution, ratified in 1860, is invalid, as impairing the obligation of contracts; the legislature provides for the settlement of State railroad bonds at 50 cents on the dollar......1881

William Windom, Secretary of the Treasury......March 5, 1881

State normal school located by law at Moorhead......1885

State public school for dependent children at Owatonna founded......1885

State insane hospital located at Fergus Falls......1886

Acts passed: For a State reformatory at St. Cloud; a municipal government for Duluth; a high-license law where local option does not prohibit, and to abolish the State board of immigration, created in 1878......1887

Soldiers' home opened at Minnehaha Falls......November, 1887

State normal school at Moorhead opened......Aug. 29, 1888

William Windom again Secretary of Treasury......March, 1889

Secret (Australian) ballot law, established in cities of over 10,000 inhabitants, by act......1889

State reformatory at St. Cloud opened......September, 1889

Memorial Day (May 30) made a legal holiday......1889

Nearly 100 lives lost by a tornado on Lake Pepin......July 13, 1890

State insane hospital at Fergus Falls opened......July 29, 1890

William Windom, Secretary of Treasury, dies suddenly after responding to a toast at a banquet given by the New York board of trade at Delmonico's, evening of......Jan. 29, 1891

Gen. H. H. Sibley, first governor of Minnesota, dies in St. Paul, aged eighty......Feb. 18, 1891

Whaleback steamer Charles W. Wetmore leaves Duluth with a cargo of grain for Liverpool......June 11, 1891

Washburn-Crosby Company, of Minneapolis, sends out 175 cars containing 22,000 barrels of flour, consigned to the Russian relief committee of Philadelphia......March 23, 1892

Republican National Convention assembles at Minneapolis......June 7, 1892 [418]

Fire in Minneapolis; loss, $2,000,000......Aug. 13, 1893

Forest fires destroy towns of Hinckley and Sandstone, causing the death of 417 people; 2,200 homeless and destitute; property loss about $1,000,000......Sept. 1, 1894

Red Lake Indian reservation diminished to about a quarter part of its former area; the remainder opened for settlement......May 15, 1896

Minnesota supplied four regiments for the Spanish war, being the first State to respond to the President's call......May 7, 1898

Corner-stone of new capitol laid......July 27, 1898

Semi-centennial of the Territory and State celebrated by the old settlers......June 1, 1899

Semi-centennial of the historical society celebrated......Nov. 15, 1899

Population of Minnesota, at the national census, 1,751,394; of its five leading cities: Minneapolis, 202,718; St. Paul, 163,065; Duluth, 52,969; Winona, 19,714, and Stillwater, 12,318......1900

Senator Cushman K. Davis dies......Nov. 27, 1900


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