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One of the central northern States of the United States, is situated between lat. 38° 27′ and 41° 57′ N. and long. 80° 34′ and 84° 49′ W. The Ohio River separates it from Kentucky on the south and from West Virginia south and east. Pennsylvania bounds it in part on the east, Indiana on the west, and Lake Erie on the north. Its greatest length from east to west is about 225 miles; greatest breadth from north to south is about 210 miles. Area, 39,964 square miles, in eighty-eight counties. The surface consists of an undulating plain, most of it arable without excessive outlay. Population, 1890, 3,672,316; 1900, 4,157,545. It ranks fourth in wealth and population among the States of the Union. Capital, Columbus.

Letters patent issued by James I. of England, under which England claimed Ohio afterwards......April 10, 1606

Charter of the London Company granted by James I. of lands west of the Alleghanies and northwest of the Ohio River......1609

Eries, of southern and eastern shores of Lake Erie, conquered by Iroquois......1656

La Salle enters the Ohio Valley from the Niagara region, discovers the Ohio River, and explores it as far as the rapids at Louisville......August, 1669

[It is now generally held that La Salle discovered the Ohio, descending to the falls at Louisville. This conclusion, while no doubt sound, is reached by cautious criticism of fragmentary documents.]

France takes formal possession of the Northwest “from the mouth of the great river on the eastern side, otherwise called the Ohio” ......1671

Joliet indicates the Ohio country on his map of the Northwest......1674

La Salle launches the Griffin on Lake Erie and coasts along the northern frontier of Ohio......August, 1679

Iroquois convey Western lands east of the Illinois to the English by treaty......1684

Nicholas Perrot, with twenty Frenchmen, marches into the Miami country; French establish a post near the Ohio boundary......1686

English traders crossing the Ohio country are arrested by the French......1687

Treaty of Ryswick, by which France claims the Ohio Valley......September, 1697

French erect a trading-post near the mouth of the Maumee......1705

Governor Spotwood, of Virginia, urges the English government to occupy the valley of the Ohio......1709

Vaudreuil, governor of Canada, opens a trading route to the Mississippi by Lake Erie, the Maumee and Ohio rivers......1720

Treaty of Lancaster, Pa.: territory “beyond the mountains” ceded by the Iroquois to the English......June, 1744

Virginia colonists form the Ohio Company for occupation and settlement of the Ohio Valley......1748

Celeron de Bienville's expedition to and down the Ohio River to the mouth of the great Miami......1749

England grants the Ohio Company 600,000 acres of land......1749

Gist and Croghan lead a party of English explorers into the Ohio country......1749

Charles Townshend, of the English ministry, urges the forcible seizure of the Ohio region......1752

French and Indians attack the English trading-post of Pickawillany (Piqua), capture and destroy it......June, 1752

Duquesne sends a French expedition of occupation into the Ohio Valley......1753

Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia, determines upon the forcible occupation of the Ohio country......1753

Expedition of Washington to St. Pierre at Le Boeuf......1753

Frederick Post, first Moravian missionary in Ohio, settles on the Muskingum......1761

Treaty of Paris: France cedes to England all Canada and the French possessions from the Alleghanies to the Mississippi......Feb. 10, 1763

First general conspiracy of the Northwestern Indians under Pontiac......1763

Bouquet's expedition into the Ohio country; treaty with the Indians; Indians return captives......1764

Ohio country made part of Canada......1765

Indian and Moravian village of Schonbrunn built on the Tuscarawas by David Zeisberger......1772 [487]

Lord Dunmore's expedition against the Indian towns on the Scioto......1774

Battle of Point Pleasant on the Ohio......Oct. 10, 1774

Two block-houses built on the site of Cincinnati......1780

Birth of Mary Heckewelder, daughter of John Heckewelder the Moravian missionary; first white child known to have been born in Ohio......April 16, 1781

English establish a fort at Sandusky......1782

Massacre of the Moravian Indians at Gnadenhutten on the Tuscarawas by a company of men from western Pennsylvania and Virginia under command of Colonel Williamson......March 8, 1782

Expedition under Col. William Crawford against the Ohio Indians on the Muskingum. Five hundred volunteers from Pennsylvania and Virginia, mounted, assemble in Ohio, about 75 miles below Pittsburg......May 20, 1782

March commences from Mingo Bottom in what is now Steubenville township, Jefferson county......May 25, 1782

They are defeated by the Indians near upper Sandusky......June 5-6, 1782

Colonel Crawford, being captured by the Indians, is put to death with barbarity......June 11, 1782

Virginia legislature authorizes her delegates to convey the Northwest Territory to the United States......Dec. 20, 1783

Virginia deed of cession dated......March 1, 1784

New Ohio Company formed in Boston......1786

Rufus Putnam, Samuel Parsons, and Manasseh Cutler made directors of the Ohio Company......March, 1787

Northwest territorial government established......July 13, 1787

Gen. Samuel H. Parsons appointed judge in and over the territory of the United States northwest of the Ohio River......1787

Mayflower leaves Sumrill's Ferry on the Youghiogheny with pioneers from Danvers, Mass., and Hartford, Conn., to form a permanent settlement in Ohio......April 2, 1788

They land at Marietta......April 7, 1788

First meeting of the agents and directors of the Ohio Company west of the Alleghanies; they name the place Marietta, after Marie Antoinette, Queen of France......July 2, 1788

Gen. Arthur St. Clair arrives at Fort Harmar as governor of Northwestern Territory......July 9, 1788

Washington county formed......July 12, 1788

Governor St. Clair establishes civil government......July 15, 1788

Losantiville, afterwards Cincinnati, laid out......August, 1788

First court held in Ohio at Marietta......Sept. 2, 1788

Act confirming the territorial government passed first session, first Congress......1789

Gen. James M. Varnum, pioneer of the State, and a judge of Northwestern Territory, dies at Marietta......1789

Hamilton county formed......Jan. 2, 1790

Fort Washington erected at Cincinnati......1790

First Masonic lodge of the West established at Marietta......1790

Whites at Big Bottom, Morgan county, massacred by Indians......1790

Gen. Joseph Harmar's expedition against the Miami Indians......Sept. 30, 1790

Partially defeated near the Miami villages, the expedition fails......Oct. 22, 1790

Expedition of General St. Clair against the Indians; surprised and defeated near Miami villages (now in Darke county,......Nov. 4, 1791

[Except Braddock's, the worst defeat ever experienced in Indian warfare; of about 1,800 men he lost 800.]

Benjamin Tupper, chief promoter of the settlement of Marietta, dies there......1792

First newspaper of the Northwest, the Sentinel, editor William Maxwell, appears at Cincinnati......1793

After the defeat of St. Clair, General Wayne was appointed to command against the Indians. Marching into the Indian country late in the autumn of 1793, he built a stockade near the scene of St. Clair's defeat, naming it Fort Recovery; here he remained until the spring of 1794, when he proceeded through the wilderness to the Maumee. Before meeting the Indians in battle, Wayne offered to treat, but on their refusal advanced with his usual dash and vigor, with about 2,000 men, and defeated them at Fallen Timbers, or Maumee Rapids......Aug. 20, 1794

General Wayne's treaty with the Indians at Greenville, Darke county......Aug. 3, 1795 [488]

Town of Dayton laid out......Nov. 4, 1795

First settlement on the Western Reserve begun at Conneaut, “the Plymouth of the Reserve” ......July 4, 1796

Town of Chillicothe laid out......1796

Settlement started at Cleveland......September, 1796

William Henry Harrison appointed secretary of Northwestern Territory......1798

Steubenville settled......September, 1798

Governor St. Clair directs an election of delegates for a territorial assembly......Oct. 29, 1798

First territorial Assembly meets at Cincinnati......Jan. 22, 1799

First weekly newspaper in the Northwest, the Western spy and Hamilton gazette, Joseph Carpenter editor, appears at Cincinnati......May 28, 1799

William Henry Harrison elected delegate to Congress......Oct. 3, 1799

Zanesville settled......Oct. 3, 1799

Territory divided into: (1) Territory northwest of the Ohio River (now Ohio) and (2) Territory of Indiana......May 7, 1800

Chillicothe made the seat of government for Ohio......1800

St. Clair reappointed governor......1800

Four land-offices established to sell public lands, at Steubenville, Marietta, Cincinnati, and Chillicothe......May 10, 1800

First State-house erected at Chillicothe......1801

Abraham Whipple takes the first ship, 100 tons, built at Marietta, down the Ohio and Mississippi to Havana, and thence to Philadelphia......1801

By authority from Congress, a convention meets at Chillicothe, Nov. 3, which signs and ratifies for the people the first constitution of Ohio......Nov. 29, 1802

Ohio is admitted into the Union as the fourth under the Constitution of the United States, and the seventeenth in the roll of States......Nov. 29, 1802

St. Clair deposed as governor by Jefferson......December, 1802

State legislature meets at Chillicothe, the capital......March 1, 1803

Ohio University (non-sectarian) opened at Athens......1804

[This university was founded in 1802 by the territorial legislature, and endowed by Congress with two townships, or 46,000 acres of land. In 1804 the act was confirmed by the State legislature. In 1810 a grammar school was opened, and in 1821 a college was organized.]

Aaron Burr's expedition to Southwestern Territory......1805

Portsmouth, Scioto county, settled.1805

Indians cede to the United States the tract known as the Connecticut Reserve; treaty concluded at Fort Industry......July 4, 1805

State legislature orders the seizure of the boats building on the Muskingum for the “Aaron Burr expedition” ......Dec. 2, 1806

State capital removed from Chillicothe to Zanesville......1810

Population of the State, 230,760......1810

Matthew Simpson, bishop Methodist Episcopal Church, born Cadiz......June 21, 1810

First steamboat on the Ohio, the New Orleans, 400 tons, built at Pittsburg, descends the Ohio to New Orleans in fourteen days......1811

War with England declared; three regiments raised in Ohio......1812

Columbus laid out......1812

Col. Israel Putnam, one of the pioneers of the State, and a son of Gen. Israel Putnam, dies at Belpre......1812

Solomon Spaulding writes a work of fiction, The manuscript found, at Salem, which afterwards furnishes the basis of the Mormon Bible......1812

General Harrison builds Fort Meigs, Wood county......February, 1813

General Harrison defends this fort against the combined attack of 2,800 British and Indians under General Proctor and the Indian chief Tecumseh......May 1-8, 1813

Fort Meigs again besieged by about 4,000 British and Indians under the same commanders without success......July 21, 1813

Fort Stephenson held by Maj. George Croghan, with 150 men against 1,300 British and Indians......Aug. 2, 1813

Judge John C. Symms, one of the first settlers of Cincinnati, dies there......Feb. 26, 1814

Edwin McMasters Stanton, Secretary of War, 1862-68, born at Steubenville......Dec. 19, 1814

Great financial distress......1815

Columbus made the capital of the State......1816

First steamboat built at Cincinnati......1816 [489]

United States bank opened at Cincinnati......Jan. 28, 1817

German community established at Zoar......1817

United States bank opened at Chillicothe......October, 1817

Indians of Ohio cede all their remaining lands in that State, about 4,000,000 acres, to the State......Sept. 27, 1818

Medical college opened at Cincinnati......1819

First steamboat on Lake Erie......1819

William S. Rosecrans born at Kingston......Dec. 6, 1819

William Tecumseh Sherman born at Mansfield......Feb. 8, 1820

Population: 581,295, 14.1 to the square mile; fifth State in population......1820

Ulysses S. Grant born at Point Pleasant......April 27, 1822

Rutherford B. Hayes born at Delaware......Oct. 4, 1822

County tax of 1/2 mill levied for the support of common schools......1825

Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr., one of the first settlers of Marietta and governor of the State, 1810-14, dies at Marietta......March 29, 1825

Great tornado, “the Burlington storm,” passes through Licking county......May 18, 1825

Ohio and Lake Erie Canal begun, Governor Clinton, of New York, removing the first shovelful of earth......July 4, 1825

Maumee Canal begun......1825

Lafayette visits Ohio; received with great honor......1825

Ohio Mechanics' Institute established at Cincinnati......1828

County school tax increased to 3/4 mill......1829

Population: 937,903, 22.7 to square mile......1830

College of Teachers organized at Cincinnati......1831

James A. Garfield born at Orange, Cuyahoga county......Nov. 19, 1831

Great floods throughout Ohio......1832

Lane Theological Seminary (Presbyterian) opened at Cincinnati......1832

Charter granted to the Cincinnati, Sandusky, and Cleveland Railroad......June 5, 1832

Mormons, under Joseph Smith, settled at Kirtland, Lake county......1832

Ohio and Lake Erie Canal, from Portsmouth on the Ohio to Cleveland on Lake Erie, 307 miles, cost $5,000,000, finished......1832

Law School opened at Cincinnati College......1833

Oberlin College opened at Oberlin......1833

School tax increased to 1 mill......1834

Maumee Canal, Cincinnati to Defiance, 178 miles, where it meets the Wabash and Erie; whole distance to Lake Erie, 265 miles, cost $3,750,000, finished......1834

County school tax increased to 1 1/4 mills......1835

Charter granted to the Sandusky, Mansfield, and Newark Railroad......March 11, 1835

Charter granted to the Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati Railroad; capital, $3,000,000......March 16, 1835

Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, from Dayton to Sandusky, 153 miles, commenced (first in the State)......September, 1835

City charter granted Cleveland......1836

Northern boundary of the State changed from parallel of the most southern point of Lake Michigan to a direct line running from this point to the most northern cape of Maumee Bay, giving the State its present boundary......1836

Prof. W. W. Mather makes the first geological survey of the State......1837

A portion of the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad opened; first in the State......1838

Population: 1,519,467, 37.3 to square mile......1840

First railroad completed; Cincinnati to Springfield......1842

William McKinley, born at Niles, O.......Jan. 29, 1843

Corner-stone of the Cincinnati Observatory laid......1843

Cincinnati Historical Society organized......1844

Ohio Wesleyan University opened at Delaware......1844

Five volunteer regiments raised for the Mexican War......1846

Otterbein University opened at Westerville......1847

Philip H. Sheridan, general United States army, born at Albany, N. Y., 1831, appointed to West Point from Ohio......1848

Columbus and Xenia Railroad opened to Cincinnati......1850 [490]

Population, 1,980,329; 48.6 to square mile......1850

Railroad opened from Cleveland to Columbus, 135 miles......1851

Second constitution of the State: Convention met at Columbus, May 6, 1850; adjourned, July 7, on account of the cholera; reassembled at Cincinnati, Dec. 2; completed its labors......March 10, 1851

Ratified by the people, 126,663 to 109,699......1852

Governor's term of office two years from......Jan. 1, 1852

Cleveland and Pittsburg Railroad opened......1852

Laws reorganizing common schools, creating State school commissioner, board of education, abolishing rate bills, State tax of 1/2 mill yearly in place of county tax......March 14, 1853

Cleveland and Toledo Railroad opened......1853

Railroad opened from Wheeling, Va., to Columbus, 137 miles......1854

Baldwin University opened at Berea......1856

Ohio State and Union Law School opened at Cleveland......1856

It is made a penitentiary offence to claim or hold slaves in the State, or to attempt to carry from the State as a slave any person of color......1857

Arrest and confinement in the county jail at Cleveland of Prof. Henry E. Peck, of Oberlin College, and others, under the fugitive slave law, for rescuing at Wellington the negro “Little John,” taken from Oberlin as a slave by a United States deputy marshal......Sept. 13, 1858

Indicted in the United States court......December, 1858

Bushnell, one of the rescuers, is found guilty in the federal court at Cleveland......April 15, 1859

Supreme Court of Ohio refuse Bushnell's application for a habeas corpus, the proceeding against him in the federal court not being terminated......April 28, 1859

Severe frosts throughout the State destroy most of the wheat......June 5, 1859

Governor Dennison, on the requisition of Governor Letcher, refuses to arrest Owen Brown and Francis Merriam, indicted in Virginia for acts at Harper's Ferry......March 8, 1860

Tornado on the Ohio River from Louisville, Ky., to Marietta; 150 lives lost and property destroyed to the amount of $1,000,000. Great damage done in Cincinnati......May 21, 1860

Population, 2,339,511; 57.4 to square mile......1860

United States calls for thirteen regiments from Ohio......April 15, 1861

Law authorizing the acceptance of ten regiments beyond required number, and providing $500,000 to support them......1861

Two regiments organized at Columbus and sent forward without arms or uniforms to Washington......April 18, 1861

$1,000,000 appropriated to prepare the State for war......1861

Law declaring the property of volunteers free from execution for debt during term of service......1861

Adjutant-general of the State reports that the following troops have been raised: Infantry, 67,546; cavalry, 7,270; artillery, 3,028; total for three years service, 77,844, up to......Dec. 31, 1861

Under the “three months call” the State had furnished 22,000 infantry, 180 cavalry, and 200 artillerymen......1861

Gen. Kirby Smith threatens Cincinnati......Sept. 6, 7, 1862

Ohio State University founded......1862

Clement L. Vallandigham arrested by General Burnside......May 5, 1863

Democratic convention nominates Clement L. Vallandigham for governor......June 11, 1863

Confederate Gen. John H. Morgan, with cavalry, crosses the Ohio on a raid through Indiana and Ohio......July 3, 1863

Captured with most of his command at New Lisbon......July 26, 1863

Confined in Ohio penitentiary, he escapes......November, 1863

Soldiers' monument erected at Cincinnati......1864

Number of men, reduced to a threeyears' standard, furnished by Ohio for the Civil War, 240,514, from April 15, 1861, to......April 9, 1865

University of Wooster established at Wooster......1866

Cincinnati suspension bridge opened to the public......1867

Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, State control, opened at Columbus......1870 [491]

Cincinnati University opened at Cincinnati......1870

Population, 2,665,260; 65.3 to square mile......1870

Vallandigham accidentally kills himself with a revolver while illustrating in court a case of homicide......June 18, 1871

Completion of the canal around Louisville......1872

Revised constitution rejected by the people......1873

Population, 3,198,062; 78.5 to square mile......1880

Train bearing the remains of President Garfield arrives at Cleveland......Sept. 24, 1881

Western Reserve College removed to Cleveland and renamed Adelbert, after a son of Amasa Stone, who gave the College $500,000......1882

Great flood in the Ohio, submerging parts of Cincinnati and Louisville; at Cincinnati the river rose 66 feet......Feb. 10-15, 1883

Ninety-fifth anniversary of the settlement of Ohio celebrated at Marietta......1883

Great flood of the Ohio; thousands rendered homeless. Congress appropriates $500,000 for relief......Feb. 12-15, 1884

Riots at Cincinnati, because of failure to punish criminals by law; forty-two killed and 120 wounded......March 28-30, 1884

Dow law passed, taxing the liquor traffic......1885

State board of health established......1885

John Sherman is re-elected United States Senator......Feb. 12, 1886

Waterspout at Xenia kills twenty-five persons, destroys 100 houses......May 19, 1886

Centennial celebration of the first settlement in Ohio at Marietta......April 7, 1888

Sunday liquor law passed......1888

Ohio Valley and Central States Centennial Exhibition opens at Cincinnati......July 4, 1888

Organization of “White Caps” disband on promise from authorities not to proceed against them; last outbreak, the whipping of Adam Berkes in Sardinia, Brown county, accused of immoral conduct......Nov. 17, 1888

Population, 3,672,316; 92.1 to square mile......1890

Calvin S. Brice elected United States Senator......Jan. 14, 1890

Woman's Christian Temperance League organized at Cleveland......Jan. 23, 1890

Lieutenant-Governor Lampson, Republican, unseated by Democratic majority in the Senate......Jan. 30, 1890

First Monday in September (Labor Day) made a legal holiday by legislature, which adjourns......April 28, 1890

Garfield memorial at Lakeview Cemetery, Cleveland, dedicated......May 30, 1890

Ex-Gov. Edward F. Noyes dies at Cincinnati, aged fifty-eight......Sept. 7, 1890

Legislature meets in extraordinary session, Oct. 14, passes a bill suggested by Governor Campbell, abolishing two public boards of Cincinnati, and creating a nonpartisan board of improvement, appointed by the mayor, and adjourns......Oct. 24, 1890

Charles Foster, Secretary of the United States Treasury......Feb. 25, 1891

Modified Australian ballot act passed at an adjourned session of the legislature......Jan. 6–May 4, 1891

People's party organized at the National Union Conference, held at Cincinnati, 1,418 delegates from thirty-two States......May 19, 1891

City of Hamilton celebrates its centennial......Sept. 19, 1891

William McKinley, Jr., inaugurated governor......Jan. 11, 1892

National Prohibition Convention meets at Cincinnati......June 29, 1892

Gen. John Pope, born in 1823, dies at Sandusky......Sept. 23, 1892

Ex-President Hayes, born in 1822, dies at his home at Fremont......Jan. 17, 1893

Gen. J. S. Coxey's army of the commonweal, numbering seventy-five men, organizes at Massillon, moves from that place to Canton, 8 miles......March 26, 1894

Strike affecting 150,000 miners ordered at Columbus......April 20, 1894

Allen G. Thurman dies at Columbus......Dec. 12, 1895

The centenary of the settlement of Cleveland celebrated......July 22, 1896

Militia fires upon a lynching-party at Urbana, four persons killed......June 4, 1897

Coal-miners went on strike......July 2, 1897

[Ended by compromise Sept. 11.] [492]

Accident at Robinson's Opera-house in Cincinnati, thirty-five killed or injured......Oct. 15, 1897

Ex-Secretary of the Interior Jacob D. Cox dies at Oberlin......Aug. 4, 1900

Race riot at Akron......Aug. 22, 1900

John Sherman dies at Washington, D. C.......Oct. 22, 1900

Tom L. Johnson elected mayor of Cleveland......April 1, 1901

International Christian Endeavor convention meets at Cincinnati......July 6, 1901

President McKinley shot at Buffalo, Sept. 7; dies......Sept. 14, 1901

[Private funeral service in Buffalo, Sept. 16; the body lies in State at the Capitol, Washington, D. C., Sept. 18; the interment at Canton, O., Sept. 19.]


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