previous next


One of the original Middle States, being the seventh in geographical order of the thirteen, is known as the Keystone State. It lies between lat. 39° 43′ and 42° N.—except a small portion in the northwest corner, which extends north to 42° 15′, and thus borders on Lake Erie—and between long. 74° 40′ and 80° 36′ W. New York and a small portion of Lake Erie lie on the [497] north, Delaware River separates it from New Jersey on the east, the States of Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia bound it on the south, while West Virginia and Ohio are on the west. Area, 45,215 square miles, in sixty-seven counties. Population in 1890, 5,258,014; 1900, 6,302,115. Capital, Harrisburg.

Henry Hudson enters Delaware Bay, examines its currents and soundings, but leaves without landing......August, 1609

Delaware Bay visited by Lord de la Warr......1610

Cornelius Hendricksen, in the interest of the Dutch, explores Delaware Bay and river as far as mouth of the Schuylkill......1616

Cornelius Mey ascends the Delaware River, and builds Fort Nassau, on the east side, nearly opposite the present Philadelphia......1623

[This first occupation by the Dutch is soon abandoned.]

Swedish government sends out two vessels, the Key of Calmar and the Griffin, with a few Swedes; entering the Delaware, they erect a fort near the mouth of Christiana Creek, called Fort Christiana in honor of the then Queen of Sweden......1638

Swedish Governor Printz fixes his residence on Tinicum Island, a few miles below Philadelphia, and builds a fort for defence......1643

[First European settlement in Pennsylvania.]

Swedes settle Upland (now Chester), first town settled in Pennsylvania......1643

Dutch from New York capture the Swedish forts on the Delaware, and take possession of the country......Sept. 25, 1655

This territory surrendered to the English......September, 1664

Dutch recover possession for a few months, 1673, but the “peace of Westminster” restores it to the English......Feb. 19, 1674

William Penn receives from Charles II., in payment of £ 16,000 due his father from the English government, a charter for lands north of Maryland and west of the Delaware......March 4, 1681

Penn issues an address to his subjects in Pennsylvania concerning the grant......April 8, 1681

Penn appoints William Markham deputy governor, who sails in May, and arrives in Pennsylvania......June, 1681

Penn contracts to sell an association, “Company of free traders,” 20,000 acres for £ 400, subject to a quit-rent of 2 1/2 mills per acre......July 11, 1681

Court held at Upham by the deputygovernor......Sept. 13, 1681

Three vessels sail with emigrants, and three commissioners with plans for the proposed city of Philadelphia......October, 1681

Penn publishes “frame of government” : Council of seventy-two persons elected for three years, one-third to go out annually; governor or deputy to preside with triple vote; laws proposed to be submitted to the people, afterwards to delegates. Forty “fundamental laws” agreed upon by Penn and the intended emigrants, were added......April 25, 1682

Pennsylvania, though not included in Duke of York's charter, had been claimed by governors of New York; to perfect his title, Penn obtains from the duke a quit claim to Pennsylvania, also two deeds of feoffment, of town of New Castle with a circle of 12 miles round, and of district thence to Cape Henlopen......Aug. 21, 1682

Penn, accompanied by 100 colonists, sails in the Welcome, Sept. 1, and lands at New Castle......Oct. 27, 1682

[Twenty-three ships arrive in the Delaware this year with colonists for Pennsylvania.]

Penn reaches Upland and calls it Chester......Oct. 29, 1682

Spacious brick residence built at a cost of £ 7,000 for Penn on “Pennsbury Manor,” opposite Burlington, about 20 miles above Philadelphia......1682

Penn visits New Jersey, New York, and Long Island, and returns to Chester......Dec. 4, 1682

[Penn's famous treaty with the Indians under the elms at Shackamaxon, at the northern limits of Philadelphia, occurs about this time, according to Hildreth, Bancroft, and Lossing; the Narrative and critical history of America gives the date, June 23, 1683. It is the subject of a picture by Benjamin West. The whole story of this treaty has been doubted. Hildreth calls it “the famous traditionary treaty.” Bancroft says: “It is to be regretted that no original record of the meeting has been preserved.” ] [498]

First Assembly of the province meets at Chester in three days session......Dec. 4, 1682

[This meeting made changes in the “frame of government,” tending to strengthen the power of the proprietary. The territories (Delaware) were enfranchised by a joint act, and united with Pennsylvania on the basis of equal rights, and a code called the “great law” was enacted.]

Counties of Bucks, Chester, and Philadelphia organized......December, 1682

Penn attends to laying out Philadelphia......December, 1682

Penn meets Lord Baltimore at New Castle to adjust boundary claims between Pennsylvania and Maryland......December, 1682

[Dispute not settled until 1760, when it was referred to two English mathematicians, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, who ran the boundary-line due west 244 miles (1763-67) in lat. 39° 43′ 26″; stones erected every mile up to 132, every fifth stone bearing the arms of the Baltimore and Penn families. Resurveyed, 1849. While debating in Congress the Missouri Compromise, in 1820, John Randolph introduced the phrase “Mason and Dixon's line,” as separating freedom from slavery, or the North from the South; the phrase became at once exceedingly popular.]

Penn summons the Assembly to Philadelphia, where changes are made in the “frame of government” ; and to settle disputes and prevent lawsuits, three “peacemakers” are appointed for each county......March 10, 1683

Weekly post established (letters carried from Philadelphia to Chester, 2d.; to New Castle, 4d.; to Maryland, 6d.)......July, 1683

First mill built at Chester......1683

Franfort Land Company, of Germany, purchase 25,000 acres of land around Germantown, and begin a settlement, consisting of twenty families under Francis D. Pastorius......Oct. 24, 1683

A woman tried as a witch; acquitted, but bound to keep the peace; Penn presides; first and only case of such trial in Pennsylvania......Feb. 27, 1684

Penn, establishing a provincial court of five judges, Nicholas Moore, chief-justice, and leaving the executive to the council, Thomas Lloyd, president, sails for England......Aug. 12, 1684

[Province has twenty settled townships and 7,000 inhabitants.]

William Bradford establishes the first printing-press in Philadelphia (the third in the colonies) ; first publication, an almanac, the Kalendarium Pennsilvaniense ......1685

Several members of the settlement at Germantown send a written protest against slavery to a Friends' meeting......1688

[First anti-slavery effort in America.]

William Penn charter” school established in Philadelphia......1689

First paper mill in America built by William Rittenhouse and William Bradford on a branch of the Wissahickon......1690

Penn sanctions the separation of the lower counties (Delaware) as a separate government under William Markham......April 11, 1691

Government of Pennsylvania taken from Penn......Oct. 31, 1692

Pennsylvania placed under Governor Fletcher of New York......1693

Penn's chartered rights restored......Aug. 30, 1694

First Episcopal place of worship built in Philadelphia......1695

Penn returns to Pennsylvania after absence of fifteen years......Dec. 1, 1699

Yellow fever in Philadelphia......1699

Discontent of the inhabitants leads Penn to summon an Assembly to prepare a new frame of government......Sept. 16, 1701

New charter, or “charter of privileges,” adopted......Oct. 28, 1701

[It gave the Delaware counties option of a separate administration, of which they availed themselves soon after, though under the same governor and council as Pennsylvania until 1776.]

Philadelphia incorporated as a city......Oct. 28, 1701

Anticipating that the British ministry were about to abolish the proprietary governments in America, Penn, to oppose this, sails for England and never visits America again......Nov. 1, 1701

Thomas Rutter establishes the first iron works in Pennsylvania, near Pottstown, 30 miles from Philadelphia......1716

Penn dies at Rushcombe, Buckinghamshire, England, aged seventy-four years......July 30, 1718 [499]

Andrew S. Bradford establishes the American weekly mercury at Philadelphia......Dec. 22, 1719

Pennsylvania puts in practice the “paper-money loan system” by the issue of £ 15,000 in 1722, followed by an additional issue of £ 30,000......March, 1723

Franklin, seventeen years old, arrives in Philadelphia......October, 1723

Pennsylvania Gazette started by Franklin......Sept. 28, 1729

Franklin founds the Library of Philadelphia, forty persons subscribing “forty shillings” each and agreeing to pay “ten shillings” annually......Nov. 8, 1731

Franklin commences the publication of Poor Richard's Almanack......1732

To secure their friendship against the overtures of the French, a treaty is made with the Six Nations......1733

Masonic lodge formed in Philadelphia, the second in America......1734

A Catholic church built and mass celebrated in Philadelphia......1734

County of Lancaster organized......1737

George Whitefield arrives at Philadelphia......November, 1739

American philosophical society established in Philadelphia by Benjamin Franklin......1743

Hostilities with the Six Nations, after a bloody collision between them and the backwoodsmen of Virginia, are averted by a treaty at Lancaster between Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Maryland and the Six Nations, the Indians ceding the whole valley of the Ohio for £ 400......July, 1744

War of England with France, termed “King George's War” ......1744

For the reduction of Louisburg, Pennsylvania furnishes £ 4,000 in provisions......1745

Thomas and Richard Penn the sole proprietors of Pennsylvania, Thomas holding three-quarters of the whole by bequest from his brother John, who dies this year ......1746

Over 5,000 immigrants, mostly Germans, arrive in Pennsylvania......1750

Franklin identifies lightning and electricity......June 5, 1752

French build a fort at Presque Isle, now Erie......1753

One at Le Boeuf, on French Creek......1753

Another at Venango......1753

George Washington sent by the governor of Virginia to meet the French commander at Fort Le Boeuf and learn his reasons for invading British dominions......November, 1753

Thirty-three men of the Ohio company begin a fortification at the junction of the Alleghany and Monongahela, now Pittsburg, but on the approach of the French capitulate......April 17, 1754

French occupy and finish the fort, calling it Duquesne, in honor of the governor of Canada......1754

Washington sent with about 150 men by Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia, to the Great Meadows......April, 1754

Congress of commissioners of the colonies at Albany, N. Y.......June 19, 1754

Gen. Edward Braddock, commander-inchief of the British in America, arrives in the Chesapeake with two British regiments......February, 1755

General Braddock meets Shirley, governor of Massachusetts, De Lancey, of New York, Morris, of Pennsylvania, Sharpe, of Maryland, and Dinwiddie, of Virginia, in a congress at Alexandria, Va.......April 14, 1755

[Object of the meeting was the establishing of a colonial revenue, and the advice to the British government, in which all concurred, was taxation by act of Parliament.]

Assembly appropriates £ 30,000 for carrying on the war......April, 1755

General Braddock is twenty-seven days on the march from Alexandria to Fort Cumberland, and arrives with 2,150 men......May 10, 1755

Braddock advances from Fort Cumberland for Fort Duquesne, distance, 130 miles......June 10, 1755

Braddock leaves Colonel Dunbar to bring up the heavy baggage, and pushes on with 1,200 chosen men......June 19, 1755

Battle of Monongahela; Braddock defeated......July 9, 1755

Colonel Dunbar burns public stores and heavy baggage worth £ 100,000, destroys the remaining artillery, and retreats......July 13, 1755

[Fort Cumberland is evacuated, leaving the frontier of Pennsylvania without a post of defence.]

Assembly levy a tax of £ 55,000, from which the proprietary estates are exempted......November, 1755 [500]

Quakers cease to act with the government on its declaring war against the Delawares and Shawnees......November, 1755

Estimated annual value of rents, etc., to the proprietary estates, £ 30,000; not subjected to taxation......1755

Franklin undertakes the military command and defence of the frontier with the rank of colonel......January, 1756

Active hostilities between the English and the French along the entire frontier of the colonies from the spring of 1753, but war was not declared until......May 18, 1756

Indian village at Kittanning, on the Alleghany, 45 miles to the north of Pittsburg, headquarters of the Delaware Indians, is surprised and destroyed by Col John Armstrong with 300 Pennsylvanians......Sept. 7, 1756

Franklin sent to England in support of the Assembly's petition against the proprietaries Thomas and Richard Penn, who oppose taxing their vast estate, and controlled the deputy governor. He arrives in London......July 27, 1757 [Succeeds in securing the assessment of taxes on the surveyed lands at the usual rate to others.]

Gen. John Forbes begins the advance against Fort Duquesne with some 7,000 troops......July, 1758

[Pennsylvania furnished 2,700 under Col. John Armstrong, among them Benjamin West, afterwards the painter, and Anthony Wayne, a lad of thirteen years; Virginia 1,900, with Washington as leader The Virginia troops rendezvous at Fort Cumberland, Md., and the Pennsylvania and other troops at Raystown, now Bedford, Pa. Washington advised the Braddock route for the advance, while Cols Bouquet and Armstrong recommended a more central one, which was adopted.]

Extensive emigration to the western part of Pennsylvania......1759-62

Beginning of the Pontiac War......1763

Treaty of peace between England and France, termed the treaty of Paris......Feb. 10, 1763

Attack made by the Indians along the frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia......May, 1763

Fort Le Boeuf burned by Indians; garrison escapes......June 18, 1763

Fort Venango destroyed, garrison and all......June 18, 1763

Presque Isle, now Erie, garrison of twenty-four men, surrenders......June 22, 1763

Fort Pitt, with a garrison of 330 men, and 200 women and children, besieged by the Indians......June–July, 1763

Colonel Bouquet, at the head of 500 British troops, advances from Carlisle to the relief of Fort Pitt......July, 1763

When within a half-mile of “Bushy Run,” and about 25 miles from Fort Pitt, he is attacked by the Indians......Aug. 5, 1763

Battle continues during the day, and begins again at early dawn. Bouquet feigns a retreat, bringing the Indians within the circle of his troops and defeating them. His loss was eight officers and 115 privates. He reaches and relieves Fort Pitt......Aug. 10, 1763

Connecticut colony in the Wyoming Valley driven out by the Indians......Oct. 15, 1763

Surveyors Mason and Dixon begin running the southern boundary-line (see this record, 1682)......Dec. 9, 1763

Barbarities of Indians at this time disposed the frontiersmen to destroy every Indian—enemy or not. A remnant of a friendly tribe at Conestoga is massacred by frontiersmen termed “Paxton boys” ; a few escape and flee to Lancaster for refuge, but are followed and killed. The pursuers hearing of friendly Indians in Philadelphia, march towards them, but are met by Franklin, who, after a long negotiation, persuades them to disperse......Dec. 27, 1763–January, 1764

Colonel Bouquet's expedition against the Ohio Indians from Fort Pitt......Oct. 30, 1764

Dr. Shippen begins in Philadelphia the first course of lectures upon anatomy ever delivered in America......1764

Franklin, having returned from England in 1762, is sent again by the Assembly to petition for a change of government from proprietary to royal authority; sails......Nov. 7, 1764

[The petition, however, was dropped, owing to other matters of more weight. See this record, 1779.]

Pittsburg was first occupied by peaceful settlers in 1760, but the settlement was [501] destroyed by Indians during the Pontiac War, 1763. A permanent settlement was begun......1765

Franklin examined before the English House of Commons on the effect of the passage of the Stamp Act......Feb. 13, 1766

First appearance of the Pennsylvania Chronicle and universal Advertiser......1767

Treaty with the Six Nations at Fort Stanwix, N. Y......Nov. 5, 1768

[This treaty extinguished the Indian claim to the whole region of the Alleghanies from New York to Virginia, so that Thomas and Richard Penn were proprietaries of more than 25,000,000 acres, 250,000 inhabitants, and one of the largest cities in America.]

First course of instruction in chemistry attempted in America by Dr. Benjamin Rush at the College of Philadelphia......1769

American Philosophical Society instituted at Philadelphia......1769

Philadelphia calls a public meeting, condemns the duty on tea and taxation by Parliament, and requests the tea agents to resign, which they readily do......Oct. 2, 1773

Tea ship sent back to England before it reaches Philadelphia......Dec. 25, 1773

First Continental Congress assembles at Philadelphia......Sept. 5, 1774

Assembly of Pennsylvania approves the doings of Congress, and appoints delegates to the new one......Dec. 15, 1774

Franklin returns to Philadelphia from England, giving up hope of reconciliation, after an absence of ten years......April, 1775

Second Continental Congress meets at Philadelphia......May 10, 1775

Committee of safety appointed, Franklin president......June 30, 1775

Pennsylvania instructs her delegates to the Continental Congress to dissent from and reject any proposition looking to a separation from England......November, 1775

Common sense, a pamphlet by Thomas Paine, published in Philadelphia......January, 1776

Assembly of Pennsylvania, under pressure of public opinion, rescinds the instructions to delegates in Congress......June 24, 1776

Declaration of Independence adopted by Congress, and announced in Philadelphia......July 4, 1776

[At a grand demonstration in Philadelphia, on July 8, John Nixon, one of the signers, read the Declaration to a vast concourse.]

State convention assembles at Philadelphia and assumes the government of Pennsylvania......July 15, 1776

Franklin, one of the three commissioners sent to France, sails for that country......October, 1776

Cornwallis pursues Washington through New Jersey into Pennsylvania......December, 1776

Endangered by the approach of the British, Congress, at Philadelphia, adjourns to meet again at Baltimore......Dec. 12, 1776

The crisis, a patriotic pamphlet by Thomas Paine, appears in Philadelphia......Dec. 19, 1776

State government organized, with Thomas Wharton, Jr., as president......March 4, 1777

British fleet enters Delaware Bay......July, 1777

Washington and Lafayette first meet in Philadelphia......August, 1777

Battle of Brandywine......Sept. 11, 1777

Congress adjourns to Lancaster......Sept. 18, 1777

Massacre of Wayne's troops at Paoli......Sept. 21, 1777

State government removes to Lancaster......Sept. 24, 1777

Howe with the British army occupies Philadelphia......Sept. 27, 1777

Battle of Germantown......Oct. 4, 1777

Successful defence of Forts Mifflin and Mercer......Oct. 22-23, 1777

British in possession of the defences of the Delaware......Nov. 20, 1777

American army go into winter quarters at Valley Forge, on the Schuylkill......Dec. 19, 1777

“Battle of the kegs” ......Jan. 5, 1778 Affair at Barren Hill......May 20, 1778

British evacuate Philadelphia and retire across the Delaware through New Jersey towards New York......June 18, 1778

Washington crosses the Delaware pursuing the British, leaving Gen. Benedict Arnold in command at Philadelphia......June, 1778

Massacre in the Wyoming Valley......July 2-4, 1778

John Roberts and Abram Carlisle, [502] wealthy citizens of Philadelphia, executed as Tories......Nov. 22, 1778

[Twenty-three others tried, but acquitted.]

By act of Assembly the proprietary claims of the Penn family to ungranted lands or quit-rents were vested in the State, leaving the late proprietaries all private property, including manors, etc. The Assembly also granted to the Penns, in remembrance of the founder of Pennsylvania, the sum of £ 130,000=$524,000, payable in instalments, to commence one year after the peace......1779

[Besides this, which was faithfully paid, the British government settled £ 4,000 on the head of the Penn family.]

Act for the gradual emancipation of slaves passed......March 1, 1780

Bank of North America established at Philadelphia; capital, $400,000......Dec. 31, 1781

First manufacture of “fustians and jeans” in the United States begins at Philadelphia......1782

Dickinson College at Carlisle incorporated......1783

American daily Advertiser, afterwards the Aurora, the first daily newspaper in America, issued in Philadelphia......1784

[Published by Benjamin Franklin Bache.]

First city directory of Philadelphia, and first in the United States, published......1785

General convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church, the first in America, meets at Philadelphia......Sept. 27, 1785

Pittsburg Gazette, first paper published west of the Alleghanies, issued......July 29, 1786

Boundary-line between Pennsylvania and Virginia, continuation of Mason and Dixon's line, extended to a point five degrees west from the Delaware......1786

Convention of the States to frame a federal Constitution meets at Philadelphia......May 14, 1787

State convention ratifies the federal Constitution......Dec. 12, 1787

Thomas Mifflin, first governor under the federal Constitution......1788

Franklin dies at Philadelphia, aged eighty-four years......April 17, 1790

New State constitution goes into effect......Sept. 2, 1790

A stock company formed in Philadelphia to run a steamboat, invented by John Fitch, between Philadelphia and Trenton, making regular trips; company soon fails......1790

United States government removed from New York to Philadelphia......Dec. 6, 1790

First bank of the United States established at Philadelphia......February, 1791

Anthracite coal discovered in Carbon county. The Lehigh Coal Company organized in Philadelphia, but fail to find a market......1791

Purchase of the triangle bordering on Lake Erie, and containing Erie Harbor, completed......March, 1792

United States mint established in Philadelphia (the only one in the United States until 1835)......1792

Yellow fever rages in Philadelphia......July, 1793

Whiskey insurrection......1794

First turnpike-road in the United States completed from Philadelphia to Lancaster, 62 miles......1794

Four daily stages run between Philadelphia and New York, and one between Philadelphia and Baltimore......1796

Resistance to the federal “house tax,” known as the “hot-water war,” suppressed......1798

Capital of the State removed to Lancaster (Philadelphia had been the capital 117 years)......April 3, 1799

United States government removed from Philadelphia to Washington......July, 1800

Philadelphia first supplied with water from the Schuylkill through pipes laid in the streets......Jan. 1, 1801

Coach route established from Philadelphia to Pittsburg......August, 1804

Commission-house opened in Philadelphia for the sale of cotton-yarns and thread made at Providence, R. I., the first in the United States......1805

Steamboat Phoenix arrives at Philadelphia from New York, the first steamboat navigating the ocean......1808

Bible Society founded at Philadelphia, the first in the United States......1808

State resists with an armed force attempt of the United States to serve a writ in the Olmstead case at Philadelphia for twenty-six days......1809

Sunday-school organized in Philadelphia, the first in the United States, [503] marking the transfer from secular instruction to religious, from the control of individuals to the churches......1809

Famous “traditionary” elm-tree of the “Penn-Indian treaty” blown down......March 3, 1810

First steamboat, the New Orleans, on the Ohio, leaves Pittsburg for New Orleans......Oct. 29, 1811

Capital removed from Lancaster to Harrisburg......1812

In anticipation of the war with England, Governor Snyder calls for 14,000 troops......May 12, 1812

Another unsuccessful attempt to use anthracite coal as fuel......1812

British blockade the Delaware, which seriously interferes with the commerce of Philadelphia......March, 1813

Commodore Perry builds his fleet at Erie during the spring and early summer of......1813

First rolling-mill erected at Pittsburg......1813

Banks in Philadelphia suspend specie payment......1814

Fairmount water-works, Philadelphia, completed......Sept. 7, 1815

Schuylkill Navigation Company build a canal from Philadelphia to Mauch Chunk, 108 miles; cost $3,000,000; completed......1815

Second United States Bank established in Philadelphia, chartered by Congress; capital stock, $3,500,000, of which the United States takes one-fifth......April 10, 1816

Anthracite coal begins to come into use; 365 tons shipped to Philadelphia are disposed of with difficulty......1820

Number of tons of anthracite coal received in Philadelphia, 1,073 in 1821; 2,440 tons in......1822

Lafayette visits the United States; received at Philadelphia with distinguished honors......September, 1824

American Sunday-school Union founded at Philadelphia......1824

Monument erected on the site of the “treaty elm,” to commemorate Penn's treaty with the Indians......1827

Store for the sale of American hardware opened in Philadelphia by Amos Goodyear & Sons, the first in the United States......1827

Paper from straw first manufactured in the United States at Meadville......1828

First locomotive used in the United States run on the Carbondale and Honesdale road......August, 1829

Delaware and Hudson Canal from Honesdale to Rondout on the Hudson, 108 miles, completed.......1829

The Cent, Christopher C. Cornwell publisher, the first one-cent daily paper issued in the United States, starts in Philadelphia......1830

Internal improvements connecting Philadelphia with Pittsburg completed at a cost to the State of over $18,000,000......1831

[They consisted of 292 miles canal and 125 miles railroad.]

First cases of cholera in Philadelphia......July 5, 1832

State provides for educating all persons between six and twenty-one......1834

Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad completed......Nov. 1, 1834

Philadelphia first lighted by gas......Feb. 8, 1836

New charter obtained from the State under the name of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania......Feb. 18, 1837

Public Ledger of Philadelphia founded, price one cent......March 25, 1837

Charter of Second United States Bank expires (see United States record, 1832-34)......1837

United States Bank of Pennsylvania and all other banks of the State suspend specie payment during the commercial panic of......1837

State constitution amended......Feb. 20, 1838

Pennsylvania Hall in Philadelphia, dedicated as an abolition hall on the 14th, is burned by a mob......May 17, 1838

Buckshot war......November-December, 1838

[In a close election between Whigs and Democrats for control of the legislature, which was to choose a United States Senator, both parties charged fraud. The Whigs ultimately receded from their position, leaving the Democrats in power. A remark made that the mob would feel the effect of “ball and buckshot before night” gave this episode the name of “buckshot war.” ]

Iron successfully made with anthracite coal at Mauch Chunk......Jan. 12, 1839

United States Bank of Pennsylvania again suspends specie payment......1839 [504]

It finally closes its doors, its capital being lost......Sept. 4, 1841

Use of wire rope as cables introduced on the inclined planes of the Alleghany and Portage Railroad by John A. Roebling......1842

Philadelphia and Reading Railroad completed......1842

Riots between the native Americans and Irish in Philadelphia suppressed by the military......April-May, 1844

Petroleum is obtained while boring for salt on the Alleghany, a few miles above Pittsburg......1845

Pittsburg nearly destroyed by fire; loss, $10,000,000......April 10, 1845

Telegraphic communication between Philadelphia and Fort Lee, opposite New York, completed......Jan. 20, 1846

Philadelphia and Pittsburg connected by telegraph......Dec. 26, 1846

State forbids the use of jails to hold fugitive slaves......May 3, 1848

Resurvey of Mason and Dixon's line completed......Nov. 19, 1849

Judiciary made elective......1850

Manufacture of galvanized iron begun In Philadelphia......1852

Railroad track torn up at Harbor Creek, near Erie, by the opposition to the railroad......Dec. 9, 1853

Pennsylvania State Agricultural College organized in Centre county. April 13, 1854

Zinc works at Bethlehem go into operation......Oct. 12, 1854

Entire traffic-line of State improvements from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, completed by the State in 1831, sold to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company for $7,500,000......July 31, 1857

State divided into twelve (afterwards thirteen) normal school districts......1857

Banks suspend specie payment......1857

First normal school in the State opened at Millersville......1859

First oil-well drilled in the United States by E. L. Drake, near Titusville; depth, 71 feet; yield, 1,000 gallons per day......

Governor Curtin's inaugural pledges the State to the national cause against secession......Jan. 15, 1861

Five companies of State troops (530 men) reach Washington, D. C., the first troops to arrive there for its defence, on the evening of......April 18, 1861

Camp Curtin established near Harrisburg......April 18, 1861

Governor Curtin calls an extra session of the legislature for......April 30, 1861

In anticipation of invasion, General Lee having crossed the Potomac into Maryland, Governor Curtin calls 50,000 volunteer militia to Harrisburg......Sept. 11, 1862

Confederate General Stuart raids Chambersburg with about 2,000 cavalry......Oct. 12-14, 1862

Confederate advance enters Pennsylvania......June 22, 1863

Carlisle occupied by the advance of the Confederate forces under Ewell; Kingston, 13 miles from Harrisburg, entered on the 27th; and a skirmish takes place within 4 miles of the capital on......June 28, 1863

Confederate advance called back by General Lee to concentrate at Gettysburg......June 28, 1863

Battle of Gettysburg......July 1-3, 1863

National cemetery at Gettysburg consecrated......Nov. 19, 1863

[During the Civil War the State furnished 269,645 troops (three-years' standard) ; among them 8,612 were colored. Answering the first call of the President for troops, the State furnished 20,979 threemonths' troops.]

Chambersburg again raided and mostly burned by McCausland's Confederate cavalry......July 30, 1864

Citizens of the counties bordering on Maryland reimbursed by the State for damages sustained during the Civil War......April 9, 1868

All the miners in the Avondale coal mine (108) suffocated by the burning of the main and only shaft......Sept. 6, 1869

[Investigation results in effecting needed reform in working the coal mines of the State.]

Bureau of labor statistics established by the State......July 26, 1873

New State constitution goes into effect......Jan. 1, 1874

Centennial Exposition, at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, opens......May 10, 1876

Great strike of railroad employes, rapidly extending over most of the lines of the northern United States, inaugurated......July 19, 1877 [505]

[The strike was not entirely quieted until November.]

Natural gas used as fuel in western counties......1884

Johnstown flood......June 1, 1889

William D. Kelley, born in 1814, the oldest member of the House of Representatives, dies in Washington, D. C.......Jan. 9, 1890

Proposal of Mr. Carnegie to expend $1,000,000 for a public library in Pittsburg accepted......Feb. 10, 1890

Cyclone at Wilkesbarre and other towns, killing fourteen, injuring 180, and damaging property to $1,000,000......Aug. 19, 1890

Boundary between Pennsylvania and New York agreed upon by commissioners, March 26, 1886, and confirmed by both legislatures, is approved by Congress......Aug. 19, 1890

International Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers is organized at Pittsburg......Oct. 15, 1890

Over 100 miners killed by an explosion of fire-damp in the shaft of Frick & Co.'s coke works, near Mount Pleasant......Jan. 27, 1891

Strike in Connellsville coke regions begins; 10,000 miners involved......Feb. 9, 1891

Eleven strikers killed and forty wounded......April 2, 1891

Governor Pattison vetoes the compulsory education bill......June 18, 1891

Governor signs the Baker ballot reform bill......June 19, 1891

Governor Pattison calls an extra session of the Senate, to meet Oct. 13, to investigate charges against the State's financial officers......Sept. 26, 1891

Human Freedom League organized at Independence Hall, Philadelphia......Oct. 12, 1891

David Hayes Agnew, surgeon, born 1818, dies at Philadelphia......March 22, 1892

“High-water mark” monument, indicating the point reached by the Confederate advance in the assault of July 3, at Gettysburg, dedicated......June 2, 1892

Dam at Spartansburg bursts, and gasoline, from tanks broken by the rushing waters, ignites on the surface of Oil Creek, between Titusville and Oil City; over 100 lives lost......June 5, 1892

Rev. Father Mollinger, famous for reputed cures on St. Anthony's day, dies at Pittsburg, aged seventy years......June 15, 1892

Lockout of strikers at mills of the Carnegie Steel Company begins......July 1, 1892

Governor Pattison orders the entire division of National Guard to Homestead......July 10, 1892

Chairman Crawford, Hugh O'Donnell, John McLuckie, and thirty others, members of the advisory committee of the Amalgamated Association, are arrested on charge of treason against the commonwealth of Pennsylvania......Sept. 30, 1892

Strike at Carnegie Steel Mills, Homestead, declared off......Nov. 20, 1892

Ex-Gov. Henry M. Hoyt dies at Wilkesbarre......Dec. 1, 1892

Agitation regarding the desecration of the battle-field of Gettysburg by electric cars for carrying sight-seers......1893

Twenty-five thousand dollars appropriated to buy the land at Valley Forge, used by the Continental army......1893

Free text-books authorized and $500,000 appropriated......1893

First summer meeting for university extension students opens at Philadelphia under the auspices of the American Society......July 5, 1893

One million dollars for the erection of an art gallery bequeathed by Mr. Drexel......July 20, 1893

Hon. Charles O'Neill, of Philadelphia, born in 1821, who had been a member of the United States House of Representatives for thirty years, styled “Father of the House,” dies......Nov. 25, 1893

George W. Childs dies at Philadelphia......Feb. 3, 1894

Coxey army, moving on Washington, reach Pittsburg, April 2, and leave on the 5th and enter Maryland from Pennsylvania near Cumberland......April 13, 1894

American liner St. Paul launched at Philadelphia......April 10, 1895

State capitol at Harrisburg burned......Feb. 2, 1897

Great fire at Pittsburg, loss $3,000,000......May 3, 1897

Washington statuary of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati unveiled by the President of the United States......May 15, 1897

International commercial conference opened at Philadelphia......June 2, 1897 [506]

Coal-miners went on strike July 2, 1897. Ended by compromise......Sept. 11, 1897

John E. Keely (Keely motor) dies at Philadelphia......Nov. 18, 1898

Ex-Senator Quay acquitted of a charge of conspiracy......April 18, 1899

National export exposition opened at Philadelphia......Sept. 14, 1899

United States Senate refuses to seat Matthew Quay......April 24, 1900

Republican National Convention at Philadelphia nominated McKinley and Roosevelt......June 21, 1900

Strike in the anthracite coal regions......Sept. 13–Oct. 13, 1900

[Ended by mutual concessions.]

Andrew Carnegie offers $1,000,000 to St. Louis for a public library......March 14, 1901

Mayor Ashbridge signs the Philadelphia street-railway ordinances......June 13, 1901

[John Wanamaker offered to give $2,500,000 for the franchises which were signed away without consideration.]

Iron, steel, and tin workers connected with the Amalgamated Association go on strike......July 15, 1901

Rhode Island

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Places (automatically extracted)

View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document.

Sort places alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a place to search for it in this document.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (39)
Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania, United States) (23)
United States (United States) (22)
England (United Kingdom) (10)
Maryland (Maryland, United States) (9)
America (Illinois, United States) (9)
Lancaster (Pennsylvania, United States) (7)
Harrisburg, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (6)
Cumberland (Maryland, United States) (5)
New Jersey (New Jersey, United States) (4)
New Castle (Delaware, United States) (4)
Gettysburg (Pennsylvania, United States) (4)
Delaware Bay (United States) (4)
Delaware (Delaware, United States) (4)
Sweden (Sweden) (3)
Lake Erie (United States) (3)
France (France) (3)
Dixon, Ill. (Illinois, United States) (3)
Chester, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (3)
Wilkes-Barre (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
West Virginia (West Virginia, United States) (2)
Washington (United States) (2)
Valley Forge (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Titusville (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
South river (United States) (2)
Presque Isle (Maine, United States) (2)
Mauch Chunk (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Kingston, N. Y. (New York, United States) (2)
Honesdale (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Germantown, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Fort Le Boeuf (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Fort Erie (Canada) (2)
Fort Bedford (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Erie (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Chambersburg, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Carlisle, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (2)
Baltimore, Md. (Maryland, United States) (2)
America (Indiana, United States) (2)
Alleghany Mountains (United States) (2)
York, Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Westminster (Maryland, United States) (1)
Venango (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Spartansburg (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Schuylkill (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Rhode Island (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
Providence, R. I. (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
Pottstown (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Philadelphia (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Paoli (Indiana, United States) (1)
Oil City (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Ohio Valley (California, United States) (1)
Ohio (Ohio, United States) (1)
Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland co., Pa. (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Meadville (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Louisburg (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Long Island City (New York, United States) (1)
London (United Kingdom) (1)
Lancaster County (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Kittanning (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Johnstown (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Hudson Canal (New Mexico, United States) (1)
Harbor Creek (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Fort Stanwix (New York, United States) (1)
Fort Lee (New Jersey, United States) (1)
Europe (1)
Erie Harbor (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Dutch (West Virginia, United States) (1)
Department de Ville de Paris (France) (1)
Connecticut (Connecticut, United States) (1)
Conestoga (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Christiana creek (United States) (1)
Chambersburg (New Jersey, United States) (1)
Centre County (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Carbondale (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Carbon County (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Cape Henlopen (Delaware, United States) (1)
Canada (Canada) (1)
Bushy Run (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Burlington (New Jersey, United States) (1)
Buckingham (United Kingdom) (1)
Bethlehem (Pennsylvania, United States) (1)
Barren Hill (Maine, United States) (1)
Alexandria (Virginia, United States) (1)
Albany (New York, United States) (1)

Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text.

hide People (automatically extracted)
Sort people alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a person to search for him/her in this document.
William Penn (24)
Benjamin Franklin (11)
Edward Braddock (6)
Richard Penn (5)
Charles Mason (5)
John Franklin (4)
Joseph Lemuel Chester (4)
Henry Bouquet (4)
Benjamin M. Thomas (3)
Robert E. Pattison (3)
Andrew G. Curtin (3)
John Armstrong (3)
Benjamin West (2)
Anthony Wayne (2)
George Washington (2)
Matthew Quay (2)
Thomas Paine (2)
William Markham (2)
Daniel Lee (2)
John E. Keely (2)
S. P. Hildreth (2)
David Dunbar (2)
Jeremiah Dixon (2)
Robert Dinwiddie (2)
Andrew Carnegie (2)
Abram Carlisle (2)
William Bradford (2)
Nathaniel P. Banks (2)
George Bancroft (2)
George Whitefield (1)
Thomas Wharton (1)
De La Warr (1)
John Wanamaker (1)
William H. Upham (1)
David Stuart (1)
Simon Snyder (1)
William Shirley (1)
William Shippen (1)
Horatio Sharpe (1)
Thomas Rutter (1)
Benjamin Rush (1)
Theodore Roosevelt (1)
John Augustus Roebling (1)
John Roberts (1)
William Rittenhouse (1)
John Randolph (1)
Johan Printz (1)
Oliver Hazard Perry (1)
William M. Paxton (1)
Francis Daniel Pastorius (1)
Fairmount Park (1)
Charles O'Neill (1)
Hugh O'Donnell (1)
John Nixon (1)
Robert Morris (1)
Nicholas Moore (1)
Father Mollinger (1)
Thomas Mifflin (1)
Cornelius Mey (1)
John McLuckie (1)
William McKinley (1)
McCausland (1)
Benson John Lossing (1)
Thomas Lloyd (1)
De Lancey (1)
Motier De Lafayette (1)
William Darrah Kelley (1)
Sioux Indians (1)
Henry Hudson (1)
Henry Martyn Hoyt (1)
William Howe (1)
Cornelius Hendricksen (1)
Willard P. Hall (1)
Amos Goodyear (1)
H. C. Frick (1)
John Forbes (1)
Benjamin Fletcher (1)
John Fitch (1)
Richard Stoddert Ewell (1)
Drexel (1)
E. L. Drake (1)
William Crawford (1)
J. S. Coxey (1)
Christopher C. Cornwell (1)
George W. Childs (1)
Andrew S. Bradford (1)
Benjamin Franklin Bache (1)
Ashbridge (1)
Benedict Arnold (1)
David Hayes Agnew (1)
hide Dates (automatically extracted)
Sort dates alphabetically, as they appear on the page, by frequency
Click on a date to search for it in this document.
December, 1682 AD (3)
August 19th, 1890 AD (2)
June 28th, 1863 AD (2)
April 18th, 1861 AD (2)
1821 AD (2)
July, 1763 AD (2)
June 18th, 1763 AD (2)
1763 AD (2)
1762 AD (2)
1760 AD (2)
November, 1755 AD (2)
October 28th, 1701 AD (2)
December 4th, 1682 AD (2)
November (2)
July 15th, 1901 AD (1)
June 13th, 1901 AD (1)
March 14th, 1901 AD (1)
October 13th, 1900 AD (1)
June 21st, 1900 AD (1)
April 24th, 1900 AD (1)
1900 AD (1)
September 14th, 1899 AD (1)
April 18th, 1899 AD (1)
November 18th, 1898 AD (1)
September 11th, 1897 AD (1)
July 2nd, 1897 AD (1)
June 2nd, 1897 AD (1)
May 15th, 1897 AD (1)
May 3rd, 1897 AD (1)
February 2nd, 1897 AD (1)
April 10th, 1895 AD (1)
April 13th, 1894 AD (1)
February 3rd, 1894 AD (1)
November 25th, 1893 AD (1)
July 20th, 1893 AD (1)
July 5th, 1893 AD (1)
December 1st, 1892 AD (1)
November 20th, 1892 AD (1)
September 30th, 1892 AD (1)
July 10th, 1892 AD (1)
July 1st, 1892 AD (1)
June 15th, 1892 AD (1)
June 5th, 1892 AD (1)
June 2nd, 1892 AD (1)
March 22nd, 1892 AD (1)
October 12th, 1891 AD (1)
September 26th, 1891 AD (1)
June 19th, 1891 AD (1)
June 18th, 1891 AD (1)
April 2nd, 1891 AD (1)
February 9th, 1891 AD (1)
January 27th, 1891 AD (1)
October 15th, 1890 AD (1)
February 10th, 1890 AD (1)
January 9th, 1890 AD (1)
1890 AD (1)
June 1st, 1889 AD (1)
March 26th, 1886 AD (1)
July 19th, 1877 AD (1)
May 10th, 1876 AD (1)
January 1st, 1874 AD (1)
July 26th, 1873 AD (1)
September 6th, 1869 AD (1)
April 9th, 1868 AD (1)
July 30th, 1864 AD (1)
November 19th, 1863 AD (1)
July 3rd, 1863 AD (1)
July 1st, 1863 AD (1)
June 22nd, 1863 AD (1)
October 14th, 1862 AD (1)
October 12th, 1862 AD (1)
September 11th, 1862 AD (1)
April 30th, 1861 AD (1)
January 15th, 1861 AD (1)
July 31st, 1857 AD (1)
October 12th, 1854 AD (1)
April 13th, 1854 AD (1)
December 9th, 1853 AD (1)
November 19th, 1849 AD (1)
1849 AD (1)
May 3rd, 1848 AD (1)
December 26th, 1846 AD (1)
January 20th, 1846 AD (1)
April 10th, 1845 AD (1)
May, 1844 AD (1)
September 4th, 1841 AD (1)
January 12th, 1839 AD (1)
1839 AD (1)
December, 1838 AD (1)
May 17th, 1838 AD (1)
February 20th, 1838 AD (1)
March 25th, 1837 AD (1)
February 18th, 1837 AD (1)
February 8th, 1836 AD (1)
1835 AD (1)
November 1st, 1834 AD (1)
1834 AD (1)
July 5th, 1832 AD (1)
1832 AD (1)
1831 AD (1)
August, 1829 AD (1)
1828 AD (1)
September, 1824 AD (1)
1820 AD (1)
1818 AD (1)
April 10th, 1816 AD (1)
September 7th, 1815 AD (1)
1814 AD (1)
March, 1813 AD (1)
May 12th, 1812 AD (1)
October 29th, 1811 AD (1)
March 3rd, 1810 AD (1)
August, 1804 AD (1)
January 1st, 1801 AD (1)
July, 1800 AD (1)
April 3rd, 1799 AD (1)
July, 1793 AD (1)
March, 1792 AD (1)
February, 1791 AD (1)
December 6th, 1790 AD (1)
September 2nd, 1790 AD (1)
April 17th, 1790 AD (1)
December 12th, 1787 AD (1)
May 14th, 1787 AD (1)
July 29th, 1786 AD (1)
September 27th, 1785 AD (1)
December 31st, 1781 AD (1)
March 1st, 1780 AD (1)
1779 AD (1)
November 22nd, 1778 AD (1)
July 4th, 1778 AD (1)
July 2nd, 1778 AD (1)
June 18th, 1778 AD (1)
June, 1778 AD (1)
May 20th, 1778 AD (1)
January 5th, 1778 AD (1)
December 19th, 1777 AD (1)
November 20th, 1777 AD (1)
October 23rd, 1777 AD (1)
October 22nd, 1777 AD (1)
October 4th, 1777 AD (1)
September 27th, 1777 AD (1)
September 24th, 1777 AD (1)
September 21st, 1777 AD (1)
September 18th, 1777 AD (1)
September 11th, 1777 AD (1)
August, 1777 AD (1)
July, 1777 AD (1)
March 4th, 1777 AD (1)
December 19th, 1776 AD (1)
December 12th, 1776 AD (1)
December, 1776 AD (1)
October, 1776 AD (1)
July 15th, 1776 AD (1)
July 4th, 1776 AD (1)
June 24th, 1776 AD (1)
January, 1776 AD (1)
1776 AD (1)
November, 1775 AD (1)
June 30th, 1775 AD (1)
May 10th, 1775 AD (1)
April, 1775 AD (1)
December 15th, 1774 AD (1)
September 5th, 1774 AD (1)
December 25th, 1773 AD (1)
October 2nd, 1773 AD (1)
November 5th, 1768 AD (1)
1767 AD (1)
February 13th, 1766 AD (1)
November 7th, 1764 AD (1)
October 30th, 1764 AD (1)
January, 1764 AD (1)
December 27th, 1763 AD (1)
December 9th, 1763 AD (1)
October 15th, 1763 AD (1)
August 10th, 1763 AD (1)
August 5th, 1763 AD (1)
June 22nd, 1763 AD (1)
May, 1763 AD (1)
February 10th, 1763 AD (1)
1759 AD (1)
July, 1758 AD (1)
July 27th, 1757 AD (1)
September 7th, 1756 AD (1)
May 18th, 1756 AD (1)
January, 1756 AD (1)
July 13th, 1755 AD (1)
July 9th, 1755 AD (1)
June 19th, 1755 AD (1)
June 10th, 1755 AD (1)
May 10th, 1755 AD (1)
April 14th, 1755 AD (1)
April, 1755 AD (1)
February, 1755 AD (1)
June 19th, 1754 AD (1)
April 17th, 1754 AD (1)
April, 1754 AD (1)
November, 1753 AD (1)
1753 AD (1)
June 5th, 1752 AD (1)
1746 AD (1)
July, 1744 AD (1)
November, 1739 AD (1)
November 8th, 1731 AD (1)
September 28th, 1729 AD (1)
October, 1723 AD (1)
March, 1723 AD (1)
1722 AD (1)
December 22nd, 1719 AD (1)
July 30th, 1718 AD (1)
November 1st, 1701 AD (1)
September 16th, 1701 AD (1)
December 1st, 1699 AD (1)
August 30th, 1694 AD (1)
October 31st, 1692 AD (1)
April 11th, 1691 AD (1)
August 12th, 1684 AD (1)
February 27th, 1684 AD (1)
October 24th, 1683 AD (1)
July, 1683 AD (1)
June 23rd, 1683 AD (1)
March 10th, 1683 AD (1)
October 29th, 1682 AD (1)
October 27th, 1682 AD (1)
August 21st, 1682 AD (1)
April 25th, 1682 AD (1)
1682 AD (1)
October, 1681 AD (1)
September 13th, 1681 AD (1)
July 11th, 1681 AD (1)
June, 1681 AD (1)
April 8th, 1681 AD (1)
March 4th, 1681 AD (1)
February 19th, 1674 AD (1)
1673 AD (1)
September, 1664 AD (1)
September 25th, 1655 AD (1)
August, 1609 AD (1)
October 13th (1)
September 13th (1)
September 1st (1)
July 8th (1)
July 3rd (1)
May (1)
April 2nd (1)
27th (1)
14th (1)
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: