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Chapter 13: England.—June, 1838, to March, 1839.—Age, 27-28.

Sumner arrived in London on the evening of May 31, and remained in England nearly ten months. He came by the way of the Thames, and was a guest temporarily at the Tavistock Inn,1 Covent Garden. He soon took permanent lodgings at 2 Vigo Street, near Charing Cross and the Strand, and within ten minutes walk of Westminster Hall and the Abbey. Leaving cards with Earl Fitzwilliam, John Stuart Wortley, and Mr. Justice Vaughan, he soon found himself embarrassed by conflicting invitations, and his time taken up by society. He was admitted as a foreign visitor,—a qualified membership,—to four clubs;2 the Garrick, Alfred, Travellers', and Athenaeum. He was present in court dress at the coronation of Queen Victoria in the Abbey, receiving the courtesy of two tickets,—one from Lord Lansdowne, and the other from Sir Charles Vaughan. He attended the sessions of the courts and the debates in Parliament, reserving till the London season was over the remarkable sights,—the Tower, Tunnel, British Museum, and Abbey. He sat on the bench at Westminster Hall, and dined with the judges at the Old Bailey, where he spoke at the call of the Lord Mayor. Following the plan of his journey, he observed with the keenest interest ‘men, society, courts, and parliament.’

Having been invited to many country-seats, he was well provided with facilities for visiting different parts of England, as also of Scotland and Ireland. He left London, July 24, to [299] attend, by invitation of the judges, the circuits, and to visit places of interest on the way. His route was from London to Guilford, where Lord Denman was holding the Home Circuit, Winchester, Salisbury, Exeter, and Bodmin in Cornwall, where the Western Circuit was then in session, and where, with Wilde and Follett, he was the guest of the bar; then to Plymouth in the carriage of Crowder, Queen's counsel, afterwards judge; to Combe Florey, where he was for two days the guest of Sydney Smith; to Wells, where he met the Western Circuit again, Bristol and Cheltenham; to Chester, where Mr. Justice Vaughan, then holding court, called him to his side upon the bench; and reaching Liverpool Aug. 11, during the session of the Northern Circuit, where he met with the same courtesy from Baron Alderson. He dined with the bar and the court, and responded to toasts at Bodmin, and more at length at Liverpool. To Judge Story he wrote, Aug. 18: ‘Never did I enjoy so much happiness as has been my lot within the last few weeks. I have had a constant succession of kindnesses and attentions of the most gratifying character.’ To Mr. Daveis he wrote, Sept. 2: ‘At times I was honored with a seat on the bench by the side of the judge, and at times I mingled with the barristers. I have made myself master of English practice and English circuit-life. I cannot sufficiently express my admiration of the heartiness and cordiality which pervade all the English bar. They are truly a band of brothers, and I have been received among them as one of them.’

Leaving Liverpool, he visited Robert Ingham, M. P. for South Shields, at his residence, Westoe Hall, near the mouth of the Tyne. Late in August, he was present at the annual session of the ‘British Association for the Advancement of Science,’ and was called up at the dinner by the Bishop of Durham, Dr. Maltby. Then followed visits to the bishop at Auckland Castle; to George H. Wilkinson, the Recorder of Newcastle, at Harperley Park, with a view of Brancepeth Castle on the way to Harperley, and of Raby Castle3 while at Harperley; to Christopher Blackett, M. P., at Oakwood; to Archdeacon Scott, with whom he played the sportsman for the first time since his college vacations; to Lord Brougham at Brougham Hall, and John Marshall at Hallsteads, on Ulleswater Lake. He enjoyed greatly some hours with Wordsworth, [300] at Rydal Mount; but missed Southey, then absent on the Continent. From Keswick he went to Penrith, where he was for a day with Sir George Back, the Arctic voyager. Passing into Scotland, he was at Melrose the guest of Sir David Brewster. Here he conversed with companions of Sir Walter Scott, and made an excursion to Abbotsford. He was in Edinburgh nine days, meeting some of its most famous men; dining with Sir William Hamilton and Sir John Robison, Secretary of the Royal Society, enjoying the society of Jeffrey, who was assiduous in attentions, and entertained by Sir James Gibson Craig at Riccarton House. Next he visited his friend Brown at Lanfire House, Kilmarnock, and joined in the rude festivities of a Highland wedding. While lodging at an inn at Dumbarton, he passed a day with Talfourd, then living in a cottage near by. He was the guest of John A. Murray, the Lord Advocate, at Strachur Park, near Inverary. He visited Stirling and Glasgow, and crossed to Dublin, where he was welcomed by Lord Morpeth, then Chief Secretary of Ireland, and received civilities from Thomas Lefroy, M. P. for the University.4 Returning to England, he passed the rest of October at Wortley Hall (Lord Wharncliffe's), Fairfield Lodge near York (Mr. Thompson's), Holkham Hall in Norfolk (Earl Leicester's), with visits to Hull, Boston, and Lynn on his route from York to Holkham. He arrived in London early in the morning of Nov. 4, after an absence of nearly three months and a half. Among many expressions of satisfaction with his journey is the following, written to Dr. Lieber, Nov. 16:—

I arrived in town ten days ago, after a most delightful and thrilling journey through various parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland. I have been received with a kindness, hospitality, and distinction of which I truly felt my unworthiness. I have visited many—perhaps I may say most— of the distinguished men of these glorious countries at their seats, and have seen English country life, which is the height of refined luxury, in some of its most splendid phases. For all the opportunities I have had I feel grateful.

He remained in London till March 21,—four months and a half,—making three brief excursions; one in December to Oxford,5 where he lodged at All Souls as the guest of Sir Charles [301] Vaughan, then in residence at the college; another, later in the same month, to Cambridge, where the attentions of Professor Whewell awaited him, and to Milton Park, where he shared in the festivities of Christmas with Earl Fitzwilliam, and joined with his son, Lord Milton, the present earl, in a fox-hunt; and the third, in January, to Stratford-on-Avon, and Warwick and Kenilworth castles. He attended the Lord Mayor's dinner at Guildhall, and responded to a toast; was present at the opening of Parliament, and heard the young Queen's speech; and passed a day at Windsor Castle, by the invitation of one of the lords-in-waiting.

While in London, or journeying in other parts of the British Islands, he mingled with the best society. His associations were not confined to any one set, but embraced persons widely divergent in professional callings, politics, tone of thought, and rank, —judges, lawyers, and divines; scholars eminent in literature, metaphysics, and science; titled persons who combined good breeding and intelligence; statesmen, Whig, Tory, and Radical, some of whom were aged, and full of reminiscences of great orators; women, whose learning, cleverness, or grace enriched the thought and embellished the society of their day. He was received as a guest, sometimes with the familiarity of a kinsman, into the houses of Denman, Vaughan, Parke, Alderson, Langdale, and Coltman, among judges; of Follett, Rolfe (Lord Cranworth), Wilde, Crowder, Lushington, and D'Oyly, among lawyers; of Hayward, Adolphus, Clark, Bingham, Wills, Theobald, Starkie, and Professor Bell, among law-writers and reporters; of Hallam, Parkes, Senior, Grote, Jeffrey, Murray, Carlyle, Rogers, Talfourd, Whewell, and Babbage, among men of learning, culture, and science; of Maltby, Milman, and Sydney Smith, among divines; of Robert Ingham, John Kenyon, Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton), Basil Montagu, and Charles Vaughan, among genial friends who wrote or loved good books; of Brougham, Durham, Inglis, Cornewall Lewis, Campbell, Labouchere, Hume, and Roebuck, among statesmen and parliamentary chiefs;6 of Fitzwilliam, Lansdowne, Wharncliffe (and his son, John Stuart Wortley), Leicester, Holland, Carlisle (and his son, Lord Morpeth), among noblemen. He met on a familiar footing Charles [302] Austin, Macaulay, Landor, Leigh Hunt, Thomas Campbell, and Theodore Hook. He talked with Wordsworth at his home, and looked with him on the landscapes which had inspired his verse. Among women to whose society he was admitted were the Duchess of Sutherland, Mrs. Montagu, Joanna Baillie, Mrs. Jameson, Mrs. Sarah Austin, Miss Martineau, Mrs. Shelley, Mrs. Marcet, Mrs. Grote, Lady Morgan, Mrs. Norton, and Lady Blessington. With some of these persons the acquaintance was only temporary; with others there followed a correspondence more or less frequent, and a renewal of intercourse in later visits to Europe: and there were those, like Lord Morpeth, Robert Ingham, Joseph Parkes, and Mr. and Mrs. Montagu, with whom a lifelong friendship was established.

The persons already named are referred to more or less frequently in his letters. There were many others not mentioned in them with whom he had more or less association, and from whom he received hospitality or civilities.7

Sumner's acquaintance with English society was wider and more various than any previously enjoyed by an American, and even exceeded that of most Englishmen. The remarkable favor which he everywhere met was noted at the time, and is still remembered, by those who witnessed it. It was said of him, that ‘when an American gentleman, the gifted Charles Sumner, was in England, his popularity in society became justly so great and so general, that his friends began to devise what circle there was to show him which he had not yet seen, what great house that he had not yet visited.’8 A few months after his return home, Mr. Hayward referred to him in the ‘Quarterly Review,’9 as the reporter of Judge Story's decisions, ‘who recently paid a visit [303] of some duration to this country, and presents in his own person a decisive proof that an American gentleman, without official rank or widespread reputation, by mere dint of courtesy, candor, an entire absence of pretension, an appreciating spirit, and a cultivated mind, may be received on a perfect footing of equality in the best English circles, social, political, and intellectual; which, be it observed, are hopelessly inaccessible to the itinerant note-taker, who never gets beyond the outskirts or the show-houses.’

His letters of introduction opened to him his opportunity; but that was all. The greater number of those which he took with him he withheld. A letter of introduction, given with due authority, usually entitles the bearer to an invitation to dine, or to some similar courtesy; but its function is then exhausted. If he cannot contribute his part to the circle to which he has been admitted, his career will be short-lived. This is true of the best society everywhere; and it is most true of English society.

Sumner abstained from seeking introductions, and awaited the advances of others. The persons whom he first met were pleased with him, and their good words soon gave him currency in London society. In many instances he bore no American letters to those with whom he became most intimate. At a dinner or party he met other guests, who, attracted by his manners and character, invited him to visit at their houses. In this way, English society in different directions was opened to him. The Attorney-General, afterwards Lord Campbell, introduced him to Dr. Lushington. Through Joseph Parkes he was brought into relations with Lord Brougham, the Montagus, and Roebuck. Robert Ingham, who conceived a strong affection for him, met him at the Judges' dinner at Liverpool. Sydney Smith commended him to Baron Alderson; the baron introduced him to the Bishop of Durham; and at the bishop's he met Sir David Brewster, who invited him to Melrose.

To Hillard he wrote, Dec. 4, 1838:—

The acquaintance which I have made, various and extensive, has been volunteered to me. It has grown out of casual meetings in society, and has been extended in a spirit of kindness and hospitality which makes my heart overflow as I think of it. I now hardly call to mind a person in England that I cared to see whom I have not met under circumstances the most agreeable and flattering to myself.10


Sumner's success in English society was due to the same characteristics which had secured for him at home strongly attached friends, as well among his seniors as among persons of his own age. He had the genuineness and enthusiasm which always charm, alike in the oldest and the newest society. His rare intelligence on all topics most interesting to Englishmen,— their history, politics, law, and literature, and the personal life of their authors and public men,—was doubtless an advantage to him. If he was wanting in the wit and brilliancy which sparkled in the conversation of some of the eminent writers who then mingled in London society, he everywhere won favor by his thoughtful spirit, his fulness of knowledge, his amiable disposition, and the catholic temper with which he observed foreign customs and institutions. Of the large number of persons whom he then met in a familiar way, generally older than himself, most have died, —including his dearest friends Morpeth, Ingham, Parkes, and Mr. and Mrs. Montagu. The few who survive have, in most instances, contributed for this memoir their recollections of him, still vivid after an interval of nearly forty years. Their testimony accords with that of those who knew him as a student and in the early years of his manhood.

Hon. James Stuart Wortley writes:—--

I have great pleasure in responding to your appeal for information, for I have a lively recollection of the early visits of Mr. Sumner to my father and his family, both at Wortley Hall in Yorkshire and afterwards in London, where he was a frequent and much valued guest. I was then in the early years of my practice at the bar, and I well remember the pride I felt in introducing your amiable and cultivated countryman to the leaders of the Northern Circuit, and taking him to a seat among the barristers in court when he joined us at York, to observe the procedure and practice of our courts. He was also invited to the bar mess; and, in the several times that he dined with our body, he won golden opinions by his most amiable manners and abundant resources of conversation. Both there and in private society he was always genial, though modest; and all that fell from him was agreeable and intellectual, and often instructive.

Mr. Sumner was introduced to my father's house by my dear brother John, who was four years older than myself, and who, having succeeded my father in his title and estates, unhappily died some years ago, at a comparatively early age. You are right in supposing that my brother was one of a [305] small band who visited the States in 1824-25; consisting besides himself of the late Prime-Minister, Lord Derby (then Mr. Stanley), Mr. Labouchere, who was afterwards a member of Lord Melbourne's cabinet and died as Lord Taunton, as well as Mr. Evelyn Denison, who eventually became Speaker of the House of Commons, and died only two or three years ago in retirement as Lord Ossington. They were, in fact, the pioneers of the class to which they belonged; and, being all known as members of the British House of Commons of more or less distinction, were received by your countrymen with even more than their wonted courtesy and hospitality: and their example led to the more frequent and happy intercourse of our public men with those of the United States.

‘I wish I was able to give you more ample reminiscences of the interesting subject of your inquiries; but, in the mean time, I beg you to be assured that it is a most interesting pleasure to our family if we are able to contribute any thing of value to the record of a life so distinguished as that of Senator Sumner.’

Mr. Henry Reeve writes:—--

It will give me sincere pleasure to assist you in preserving any recollections of my old friend Charles Sumner, for whom I entertained the greatest regard. I cannot remember how our acquaintance began, but I presume that it was in 1838; very likely it was at the house of Baron Parke (afterwards Lord Wensleydale), with whom he was a great favorite. His legal attainments, his scholarship, his extensive knowledge of English literature, his genial and unaffected manners, but above all the enthusiasm and simplicity of his character, opened to him at once not only the doors but the hearts of a large circle of persons eminent in this country. I think I still hear him repeating a passage of Burke, or engaging in debate on some nice question of international law. English society was flattered and gratified by the strong regard he showed for the leading members of what was then one of the most intellectual and cultivated bodies of men in Europe; and he was not insensible to the attentions which were paid to him. . . .

At the bottom of his heart, I believe Charles Sumner loved the old country next best after his own.

But to be wroth with those we love,
Doth work like madness in the brain;

and I am sure that nobody would have hailed with greater satisfaction the restoration of feelings of cordial amity in the great Centenary of Independence. He ranks among us with those Americans whom we would most willingly recognize as our countrymen,—Everett, Ticknor, Adams, Longfellow, Motley, and Winthrop,—all, I think, citizens of Massachusetts, and all equally welcome to England. In some respects, Sumner was the most genial of them all. He came here young; he had no stiffness or reserve in his character; and he will always be remembered and regretted by us as one of the most agreeable companions we have known.


Dowager Lady Wharncliffe, who survives her late husband, John Stuart Wortley, second Lord Wharncliffe, writes:—

I never knew an American who had the degree of social success he had; owing, I think, to the real elevation and truth of his character, his genuine nobleness of thought and aspiration, his kindliness of heart, his absence of dogmatism and oratorical display, his general amiability, his cultivation of mind, and his appreciation of England without any thing approaching to flattery of ourselves or depreciation of his own country.

Mr. Abraham Hayward writes:—--

My recollections of Charles Sumner are scanty, although in the highest degree favorable. When he first came to England, he was the editor of a law magazine published on the same plan as that of which I was the principal founder in 1828, and which I edited till 1844. We had, therefore, many common topics of interest from the commencement of our acquaintance. He also brought letters of introduction from Mr. Justice Story, with whom I was in constant correspondence till his death. Sumner's social success at this early period, before his reputation was established, was most remarkable. He was a welcome guest at most of the best houses both in town and country, and the impression he uniformly left was that of an amiable, sensible, high-minded, well-informed gentleman. But his powers of conversation were not striking; and when you ask me to recall the qualities which account for his success, I most frankly own that it was and is to me as much a puzzle as the eminent and widespread success of your countryman and townsman, George Ticknor.11 At the same time, I feel satisfied that, in each instance, the success was indisputable and well deserved.

Lady Monteagle, daughter of Mr. John Marshall, writes:—

I have a distinct recollection of the pleasant intercourse which I enjoyed with Mr. Charles Sumner in my father's house, both in London and at Hallsteads in the year 1838, when he visited the English lakes. His intelligent inquiries respecting any thing that differed from either habits or opinions to which he had been accustomed, and the candid and genial manner in which he was ready to consider such differences, made his society very attractive and interesting. In his later visits to this country,—when I know that my husband, Lord Monteagle, saw him frequently,—I had not so much personal intercourse with him, excepting in the large meetings of London general society. I am sorry that I cannot supply any more definite information respecting a distinguished man whose society was so much prized in this country.

Mrs. Grote writes:

My recollections of Charles Sumner when he first came amongst us are still fresh and lively. We first met him at the house of William Ord, M. P., [307] and after that at Mr. Senior's, and other places. His company was sought and valued by several families of the English nobility and gentry, with whom he became a favorite guest; and I may safely affirm that no visitor from the United States ever received more flattering attention than Mr. Sumner from both English and Scottish houses. His extensive knowledge, polished manners, and genial cast of character recommended him to all circles of society; and deep was the sympathy inspired amongst us when this philanthropic citizen was assailed in the savage manner so well recollected by all, in 1856. When the historian and myself received Mr. Sumner at St. Germain en Laye, in 1858, he was undergoing the severe treatment adopted by Dr. Brown-Sequard for the cure of his spinal injuries. Subjugated as he was by the pain and irritation of the injured organs, Mr. Sumner's conversation still preserved its charm and even animation, when topics interesting to his mind came up between us.

Mrs. Parkes wrote, in 1876:—

It was said, after Mr. Sumner's northern journey, that he made the acquaintance of all the principal Whig families going north, and of the Tories on his return. He was wondrously popular, almost like a meteor passing through the country. Young, agreeable, full of information and animation, he enchanted every one; and he bore the ovation well and modestly. I recollect him as he then was perfectly. I used to think he had the good fortune to dispel personally any lingering prejudices which might exist in the British mind respecting their transatlantic brethren. American-born myself,12 and having known much of the disfavor felt towards our unjustly maligned country, I was very proud of the young champion who could so well exhibit what well-educated, well-bred young Americans were, in contrast to the mercantile specimens whom business objects had more frequently brought over; and who, being wealthy without the previous advantages of education and social culture, excited unfavorable remarks. They had had time to get rich, but not time for the usual concomitants of wealth in an old country like England; and it made me very indignant that so much that had been done should be ignored, and no allowance made for the impossibilities of doing more. My excuse for imposing this episode upon you must be my grateful feeling to the object of your interest, for assisting to dispel the prejudices of those less enlightened days.

Sumner became acquainted with the well-known publishers, Colburn, Maxwell, Bentley, Longman, William Smith, and Clark of Edinburgh; and, by means of his friendly relations with them, endeavored to promote the reading of American books in England. He obtained an English publisher for Lieber's ‘Political [308] Ethics,’ and sought to interest in the work the managers of the leading reviews. He also rendered a similar service for some of Judge Story's law treatises. He was assiduous in commending Prescott's first great work, the ‘Ferdinand and Isabella,’ then recently issued, and in obtaining for it fair criticism in the reviews,—a service which the author gratefully acknowledged.13 He sought the publication of Longfellow's poems,14 who was as yet known in England chiefly by his ‘Outre-Mer;’ and made similar efforts for Richard Hildreth's ‘Archy Moore,’ and Sparks's ‘Washington.’ He purchased books for the Harvard Law School, and for Judge Story, Professor Greenleaf, and Luther S. Cushing; and caused copies of original manuscripts of Lord Hale and Hargrave to be made for the judge. His interest in the peculiar toils and pursuits of his friends was constant, and he spared no pains to serve them.

While in England, he was much occupied with correspondence, writing often and at great length to Judge Story of lawyers, judges, law-writers, law-books, and courts; to Hillard of scholars, society, and personal experiences; and with less frequency and detail to Professor Greenleaf, Felton, Cleveland, Longfellow, Dr. Lieber, Mr. Daveis, and a few others. These letters were written with no view to publication or even preservation, but simply for the gratification of friends; and, having only this purpose in view, he sometimes mentioned in an artless way the kind things which were said to him, and the unusual courtesies he received. He reclaimed none of them on his return, and his only solicitude concerning them was lest by accident [309] they might reach the newspapers.15 Those received by Story and Hillard were passed round at the time among his friends in Boston and Cambridge.

William W. Story writes concerning Sumner's European journey:—

I was still in college when he first went to Europe. He longed to enlarge his horizon, and to meet face to face the men who ruled the world of letters, politics, law, and government. The Houses of Parliament, Westminster Hall, Doctors' Commons, the Temple and Inns of Court were magical words to him. He could not rest till he had seen them. Furnished with good introductions, he set forth to the Old World; and his lively letters show the enthusiasm with which he walked in this new region. I remember well the impression I received from them as they came back to us over the ocean, and how I longed to be with him. Every thing and every person interested him: he seemed to walk in enchanted air. The commonest things in the commonest habits of a foreign people delighted him: he was in a constant state of astonishment and delight. He was exceedingly well received everywhere, and he left on the minds of all whom he met a most agreeable impression. That visit opened to him a new life; and when he returned he poured forth a torrent of talk about all that he had seen, which was delightful to hear. The letters he then wrote to my father give an admirable picture of his mind at this time. They are fresh, lively, anecdotical, enthusiastic, —just as he was.

With the members of his family he kept up a correspondence: with his brother George, who, in the early part of 1838, sailed for Russia via Elsineur and Copenhagen, and at St. Petersburg met with remarkable favor from the court; with Albert, the captain of a merchantman, who was now at New York and then at New Orleans, Liverpool, and Marseilles; with Henry, who, to Charles's regret, accepted the appointment of deputy-sheriff in Boston; with Horace and Mary and his mother, at home.16 With much earnestness and repetition, he urged his younger brothers and sisters to zeal in their studies, insisting most on their learning to speak the French language; and pressed his sister Mary, whose complete education he had greatly at heart, beyond the limitations which, unknown to him, her physical weakness imposed. In the midst of scenes which filled his [310] whole soul with delight, there was no forgetting of home and kindred.

The few American tourists sojourning in London in those days were generally brought into personal relations with each other. Sumner welcomed heartily, as a fellow-lodger at 2 Vigo Street, Dr. Shattuck, his companion in Paris, who had in the mean time visited Italy and Germany. He met, in a friendly way, Rev. Ezra S. Gannett and Rev. George E. Ellis, Unitarian divines, Joseph Coolidge, Mr.Cabot and Mrs. Henry Cabot, and their daughter, afterwards Mrs. John E. Lodge,—all from Boston. The Cabots had chambers in Regent Street, near his own, and he found it pleasant to talk with them of social experiences in London.

Thoughts of his vacant law-office disturbed him at times in the fulness of his enjoyments; and he revealed to friends his anxiety as to his future success in his profession, recurring to the prediction of President Quincy in their parting interview, that Europe would only spoil him.17

To Mr. Daveis he wrote, Dec. 6:—

I begin to think of home and my profession. Tell me, as my friend, what are my chances at home. Will it be said that I have forgotten that law which some have given me the credit of knowing; that I am spoiled for practice and this work-a-day world? True, I should be glad to be able to hold constant communion with the various gifted minds that I nightly meet; to listen daily to the arguments of Talfourd and Follett: and so, indeed, should I rejoice in more ennobling society still,—to walk with Cicero over Elysian fields, and listen to the converse of Plato and Socrates. But I well know that I have duties to perform which will be any thing but this. Welcome, then, labor in its appointed time!

As he left for the Continent, uncertain whether he should return to England on his way home, many kind words were said to him. Lord Denman wrote from Guildhall, Feb. 27, 1839:—

Allow me to express the hope that you like England well enough to pay us another visit. No one ever conciliated more universal respect and goodwill. Far from deserving your acknowledgments to myself, I have regretted that my varied engagements have prevented me from paying you the attentions to which you are entitled.

[311] John Kenyon wrote, March 17:—

Your time has been well employed in the best society of every sort which we have to offer to a stranger; and you seem to me to have passed through the ordeal—for such it is—with balanced foot and mind.

Robert Ingham wrote, Jan. 19:—

Let us, I beg of you, continue friends. I will not multiply speeches, nor dilate on the many causes I have to look back with thankfulness on that casual cup of coffee at Baron Alderson's, at Liverpool, which introduced us to each other. Only be assured (without palaver) that it will be an abiding pleasure to me to hear of you, and above all to hear from you.

In another note, without date, he wrote:—

I have an irksome presentiment that we shall not meet in London again this year. “This year,” I repeat, for it would indeed grieve me that the grave was to close over us without another meeting; but friendship lasts where intercourse fails, and you must not forget me. God bless you, my friend, and do not neglect to write.

In a tribute to Judge Story, Sept. 16, 1845, Sumner referred to English judges and lawyers whom he met at that time:—

Busy fancy revives the past, and persons and scenes renew themselves in my memory. I call to mind the recent Chancellor of England, the model of a clear, grave, learned, and conscientious magistrate,—Lord Cottenham. I see again the ornaments of Westminster Hall, on the bench and at the bar; where sits Denman, in manner, conduct, and character ‘every inch’ the judge; where pleaded the consummate lawyer, Follett, whose voice is now hushed in the grave;--their judgments, their arguments, their conversation I cannot forget:. but thinking of these, I feel new pride in the great magistrate, the just judge, the consummate lawyer whom we lament. Works, Vol. I. p. 144.

During his stay in England, Sumner, as has been seen, enjoyed a rare opportunity of observing closely the men of that day who had been distinguished in Parliament or in the Cabinet. Their broad culture, their delight in classical studies, their large knowledge of history and international law, their high-bred courtesy and finished address in debate, impressed his imagination and shaped his ideal of a statesman. Near the end of his life, when set upon by public men who envied his fame but could not comprehend his elevation of spirit, he must have recalled, in contrast with them, these exemplars of his youth.

1 Recommended by his Scotch friend, Brown, and by John Wilks. The latter, an active writer in his day, seems to have been much attracted to Sumner; and at Paris they were often together. Wilks bade Sumner good-by, as he left for London, in a note closing thus: ‘So now a pleasant voyage to you; for you are a right good sample of a thoroughly good-hearted, hard-headed, able, well-informed American.’ Wilks soon after returned to London, where he became editor of the ‘Church and State Gazette,’ and died in 1844 or 1845. He was the grandson of a Methodist clergyman, and son of John Wilks, of Finsbury Square, M. P. for Boston.

2 To the Garrick through Brown, and the Travellers' through Sergeant D'Oyly.

3 Wytton and Ravensworth castles were visited about this time.

4 The record of this part of his journey is not complete, none of his letters between Oct. 7 and Oct. 24 being preserved, except a brief one to his sister Mary, written Oct. 14.

5 He was accompanied by Robert Ingham, Sir Gregory Lewin, and John Stuart Wortley

6 At Joseph Parkes's he met Richard Cobden, who was not as yet a member of Parliament.

7 Some of these are the following: George Peabody,American banker, 1795-1869. W. Empson, son-in-law of Lord Jeffrey (Hertford). Thomas Longman, Jr. (2 Hanover Terrace, Regent's Park). Arthur J. Johnes, of Lincoln's Inn (4 South Bank, Alpha Road). Petty Vaughan (1788-1854), son of Benjamin Vaughan, of Hallowell, Me. (70 Fenchurch Street). Sir George Rose (Hyde Park Gardens). Robert Alexander (13 Duke Street, Westminster). J. N. Simpkinson (21 Bedford Place, Russell Square). J. Guillemard (27 Gower Street). Graham Willsmore, of Plowden Buildings Temple (1 Endsleigh Street, Tavistock Square). John Washington, of the Royal Geographical Society. John P. Parker, Secretary of the Temperance Society (Aldine Chambers, Paternoster Row). Frederick Foster, whom Sumner met at Wortley Hall. Alexander Baillie Cochrane (4 Burlington Gardens). Lady Mary Shepherd.

8 Autobiography, Memoir, and Letters of Henry Fothergill Chorley, Vol. I. p. 180.

9 Dec., 1840, Vol. LXVII. pp 33, 34. Article on ‘American Orators and Statesmen.’ This reference to Sumner was copied by the ‘Law Reporter’ in a notice of the third volume of his Reports. Feb., 1841, Vol. III. p. 403.

10 Sumner's fancy for collecting autographs was developed at this period. He was supplied with many by Kenyon, Morpeth, Sir David Brewster, Hayward, Talfourd, Brown, Miss Martineau, and the Montagus. These, together with others, some rare and costly, which he purchased late in life, and notes written to himself by distinguished persons, he bequeathed to Harvard College. Kenyon gave him those of Southey, Faraday, Landor, Miss Mitford, Coleridge, Malthus, and Thomas Campbell.

11 Mr. Hayward contributed an article on Mr. Ticknor's Life to the ‘Quarterly Review’ for July, 1876; pp. 160-201.

12 Mrs. Parkes was the granddaughter of Dr. Priestley, and in early life lived in the United States. She died in October, 1877. The change in the character of American visitors to England is referred to in the ‘Personal Life of George Grote,’ pp. 123, 124.

13 Mr. Prescott, not then personally known to Sumner, wrote to him, April 18, 1839: ‘Our friend Hillard read to me yesterday some extracts from a recent letter of yours, in which you speak of your interviews with Mr. Ford, who is to wield the scalping-knife over my bantling in the “Quarterly.” I cannot refrain from thanking you for your very efficient kindness towards me in this instance, as well as for the very friendly manner in which you have enabled me to become acquainted with the state of opinion on the literary merits of my History in London. It is, indeed, a rare piece of good fortune to be thus put in possession of the critical judgments of the most cultivated society who speak our native language. Such information cannot be gathered from reviews and magazines, which put on a sort of show-dress for the public, and which are very often, too, executed by inferior hands. Through my friend Ticknor first, and subsequently through you, I have had all the light I could desire; and I can have no doubt that to the good-natured offices of both of you I am indebted for these prestiges in my favor, which go a good way towards ultimate success. . . . Thanks to your friendly interposition [referring to a forthcoming review of the “Ferdinand and Isabella” in the “Quarterly ” ], I have no doubt this will be better than they deserve; and, should it be otherwise, I shall feel equally indebted to you.’—Prescott's ‘Life,’ pp. 339, 340.

14 The ‘Voices of the Night’ was not published till 1839.

15 He never came into possession of any of the letters which he wrote from Europe, except a part of those written to Judge Story.

16 His father, while taking a paternal pride in his success abroad, expressed the fear that he was wearing himself out with social dissipation, and unfitting himself for work on his return.

17 Ante, p. 198. Such thoughts appear in letters to Judge Story, Aug. 18, 1838; Dr. Lieber, Nov. 16 and Dec. 13, 1838; Hillard, Dec. 11, 1838, March 13, 1839; and Professor Greenleaf, Jan. 21, 1839.

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